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Getting To Green: International Financing For Green Energy Infrastructure In Developing Countries, Zach Fechter, Meagan Corser Jun 2024

Getting To Green: International Financing For Green Energy Infrastructure In Developing Countries, Zach Fechter, Meagan Corser

Texas A&M Law Review

One of the symposium panels discussed financing clean energy projects. One panelist in particular expressed concern about how to build developing countries’ institutional capacity to utilize international financing for green energy. Global institutions like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) provide loans to developing countries conditioned on the countries privatizing and deregulating their energy sectors—otherwise known as austerity. While austerity measures may make sense in developed countries, this Comment argues that developing countries often lack the infrastructure needed to effectively utilize international financing precisely because the loans are conditioned on austerity. The World Bank and the IMF …


Plunging Children Into An Unconstitutional Purgatory: Why Texas Should Raise Its Standard Of Proof For Placing Children In Foster Care, Meagan Corser Jun 2024

Plunging Children Into An Unconstitutional Purgatory: Why Texas Should Raise Its Standard Of Proof For Placing Children In Foster Care, Meagan Corser

Texas A&M Law Review

Texas currently allows Child Protective Services to remove children and place them in foster care for up to two years based only on probable cause of abuse or neglect. Removal itself is traumatic for children and foster care puts children at an unconstitutional risk of harm. Allowing courts to put children through the trauma of removal and foster care for years based only on probable cause departs substantially from the national norm for standards of proof, enables Texas to terminate parental rights at a high rate, and subjects children to a risk of harm for which the child welfare system …


In Defense Of 2.0°C: The Value Of Aspirational Environmental Goals, Albert C. Lin May 2024

In Defense Of 2.0°C: The Value Of Aspirational Environmental Goals, Albert C. Lin

Texas A&M Law Review

Aspirational goals, such as the Paris Agreement’s goals of avoiding a global temperature increase of 1.5°C or 2.0°C, can be found throughout environmental law. Such goals, though sometimes unrealistic, perform important functions. They may serve as asymptotic directives that guide implementing entities; yardsticks to measure and evaluate progress; expressions of social values; and expanders of policy space. As asymptotic directives, aspirational goals may push actors to achieve more than they otherwise might accomplish. Incorporated into treaties or statutes, they can serve as guideposts for implementing concrete substantive and procedural requirements. With the passage of time, aspirational goals function as yardsticks …


Adequate, But Not Ideal: The U.S. Navy’S Need To Refine Its Administrative Separation Board Procedures, Sierra Ross May 2024

Adequate, But Not Ideal: The U.S. Navy’S Need To Refine Its Administrative Separation Board Procedures, Sierra Ross

Texas A&M Law Review

While the Navy is likely not mandated by the Constitution to edit its procedures for Administrative Separation Boards, it should do so. Service members can be subject to a variety of serious consequences through Administrative Separation Boards, so the processes should be as effective as possible to ensure that they are adequately protected.

To improve the Administrative Separation Board Procedures for the United States Navy, this Comment suggests two policy changes. First, this Comment suggests that the Navy provide more training to Senior Members to ensure they are implementing the existing evidence rule correctly. Second, this Comment suggests that the …


Left Behind: Funding Climate Action In The Global South, Chinonso Anozie May 2024

Left Behind: Funding Climate Action In The Global South, Chinonso Anozie

Texas A&M Law Review

Global clean energy transition envisions zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, as set by the United Nations. Consequentially, developed economies have made giant strides in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and achieving full decarbonization. However, the opposite remains true in the Global South, lagging in financing its climate action. Despite being disproportionately impacted by climate change, financial efforts by developed economies and the Global South have failed in placing the latter’s countries at par with clean energy investments of developed countries. Absent adequate financing of climate action in the Global South, the net zero goal will be nothing but a mirage. …


Successive But Not Successful: Does The Aedpa Allow Federal Prisoners To Reassert Previously Presented Claims For Habeas Relief?, Michael P. Bitgood May 2024

Successive But Not Successful: Does The Aedpa Allow Federal Prisoners To Reassert Previously Presented Claims For Habeas Relief?, Michael P. Bitgood

Texas A&M Law Review

The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (AEDPA) unequivocally bars state prisoners from reasserting previously presented claims for habeas relief. Currently, the circuits are embroiled in a disagreement regarding whether the AEDPA also bars federal prisoners in the same way, and federal prisoners’ potentially viable claims for habeas relief hang in the balance. Prior to the Ninth Circuit’s decision in Jones v. United States, six circuits agreed that the AEDPA does bar federal prisoners’ previously asserted habeas claims, but the Sixth Circuit alone disagreed. Now, the Jones decision aligns the Ninth Circuit with the Sixth Circuit’s position. …


The Climate Moratorium, Keith H. Hirokawa, Cinnamon P. Carlarne May 2024

The Climate Moratorium, Keith H. Hirokawa, Cinnamon P. Carlarne

Texas A&M Law Review

Climate change is our new reality. The impacts of climatic changes, including massive forest fires, floods, drought, severe storms, saltwater intrusion, and the resulting migration of people displaced by such impacts, will continue to ravage communities across the nation into the foreseeable future. In the meantime, communities continue to expand and growth continues unabated in many of the most climate-impacted areas. Given that most communities are unprepared for the onslaught of climate disasters and many continue to increase existing community vulnerabilities through unsustainable growth and development practices, we need legal tools that will provide space to engage in effective adaptation …


Oops! The Unfortunate (But Basic) Error In The New Ucc Article 12, David Frisch, Nicole Dalrymple May 2024

Oops! The Unfortunate (But Basic) Error In The New Ucc Article 12, David Frisch, Nicole Dalrymple

Texas A&M Law Review

The Uniform Law Commission and American Law Institute have recognized the need for commercial law to govern digital transactions and responded with the proposed addition of a new article to the Uniform Commercial Code (the “Code” or “UCC”), Article 12. Article 12 will govern the transfer of property rights in a particular category of digital assets (controllable electronic records), which would include commonly known digital assets, such as bitcoin and non-fungible tokens (“NFTs”). Although the addition of Article 12 should provide more certainty in transactions involving current and emerging technologies, there is a fundamental problem with the article as it …


Turning Point: Green Industrial Policy And The Future Of U.S. Climate Action, Daniel A. Farber May 2024

Turning Point: Green Industrial Policy And The Future Of U.S. Climate Action, Daniel A. Farber

Texas A&M Law Review

In the first two years of the Biden presidency, Congress passed three massive funding bills, which poured hundreds of billions of dollars into clean energy infrastructure, research and development, and deployment of clean energy. Although these bills are not what lawyers are accustomed to thinking of as “environmental law,” they have the potential to launch a transformation of the energy sector. This development could not have come at a better time, given the Supreme Court’s increasingly skeptical attitude toward federal regulation.

Although the direct effect of these laws will be dramatic, this Article focuses on positive feedback loops that will …


The Evolving International Climate Change Regime: Mitigation, Adaptation, Reflection, Jonathan B. Wiener, Tyler Felgenhauer May 2024

The Evolving International Climate Change Regime: Mitigation, Adaptation, Reflection, Jonathan B. Wiener, Tyler Felgenhauer

Texas A&M Law Review

The complex international regime for climate change has evolved over the past three decades, from the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol through the Paris Agreement and beyond. We assess this evolution from the 1990s to the 2020s, and its potential future evolution from the 2020s to the 2050s, across three main policy strategies: mitigation, adaptation, and reflection. In its first three decades, the regime has focused predominantly on the mitigation of net emissions and on engaging all major emitting countries in that effort. More recently, as progress on mitigation has been slow and as the impacts …


Self-Defense And Political Rage, Erin Sheley May 2024

Self-Defense And Political Rage, Erin Sheley

Texas A&M Law Review

This Article considers how American political polarization and the substantive issues driving it raise unique challenges for adjudicating self-defense claims in contexts of political protest. We live in an age where roughly a quarter of the population believes it is at least sometimes justifiable to use violence in defense of political positions, making political partisans somewhat more likely to pose a genuine threat of bodily harm to opponents. Furthermore, the psychological literature shows that people are more likely to perceive threats from people with whom they politically disagree and that juries tend to evaluate reasonableness claims according to their own …


The Unintended Consequences Of Torture's Ineffectiveness, Russell L. Christopher May 2024

The Unintended Consequences Of Torture's Ineffectiveness, Russell L. Christopher

Texas A&M Law Review

Whether torture to extract true information—for example, military secrets or the location of a terrorist-planted bomb—is morally permissible and empirically effective is widely disputed. But many agree that such torture’s effectiveness is a necessary condition for its permissibility; if ineffective, then it is impermissible. Thus, the empirical issue has become crucial in deciding the moral issue. This Article addresses the empirical issue with a novel, non-empirical argument. Torture’s ineffectiveness not only ensures torture’s impermissibility but also exposes torture victims to criminal liability for any offenses they are tortured into committing. With torture as the most extreme and horrific form of …


Equity's System Of Open-Ended Wrongs And Limited Remedies, Mark P. Gergen May 2024

Equity's System Of Open-Ended Wrongs And Limited Remedies, Mark P. Gergen

Texas A&M Law Review

It is well-known that equity gives courts considerable discretion to override the normal operation of legal rules to prevent an injustice in a particular case. This Article shows equity combined this discretion with limited remedies (rescission, restitution, reformation, and estoppel), and that these limited remedies strike a balance between the value of doing justice in a particular case and the cost of destabilizing the law in a way that places a heavy thumb on the scale favoring stability over justice. Henry Smith has described equity as a “second-order safety valve.” Equity’s limited remedies make it a weak “second-order safety valve.” …


(The Act Of) God’S Not Dead: Reforming The Act Of God Defense In The Face Of Anthropogenic Climate Change, Zachary David Fechter May 2024

(The Act Of) God’S Not Dead: Reforming The Act Of God Defense In The Face Of Anthropogenic Climate Change, Zachary David Fechter

Texas A&M Law Review

Natural phenomena like floods, droughts, and blizzards have a long history of causing damage. But these natural phenomena are now more frequent, intense, and therefore, foreseeable because of anthropogenic, or human-caused, climate change. Owing in part to the greater foreseeability of natural phenomena like weather, scholars believe the act of God defense—which excepts actors from liability when an unforeseeable and irresistible natural phenomenon is the proximate cause of damage—may be dead. Other scholars go further and argue the act of God defense should be dead, as corporate defendants can use it to evade liability even when their acts causally contribute …


Carrots, Sticks, And The Evolution Of U.S. Climate Policy, Brian Murray, Jonas Monast May 2024

Carrots, Sticks, And The Evolution Of U.S. Climate Policy, Brian Murray, Jonas Monast

Texas A&M Law Review

The Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), enacted by Congress in 2022, is the most significant federal investment in decarbonization in U.S. history. The law makes hundreds of billions of dollars available for clean energy tax credits, grants to state and local governments, and other financial incentives for public and private investments. The IRA’s focus on incentives, or “carrots,” marks a significant departure from the emphasis on prescriptive regulations and penalties, or “sticks,” that are prominent in federal and state climate policies that predate the IRA. This Article situates the IRA within the existing climate policy framework and explores the long-term impacts …


A Federal Inmate’S Right To Stay Home, Jordan Thorn May 2024

A Federal Inmate’S Right To Stay Home, Jordan Thorn

Texas A&M Law Review

Since the start of the COVID–19 pandemic, the Federal Bureau of Prisons (“BOP”) has, for the first time in history, placed tens of thousands of inmates onto home confinement. Likely due to the unprecedented nature and rapid release of inmates to contain the virus, the BOP failed to timely update their policies and procedures surrounding the disciplinary system of inmates on home confinement. This failure to update resulted in the BOP removing inmates from home confinement and placing them back in prison for minor violations. Furthermore, when the BOP chose to remove an inmate from home confinement, it did so …


In Support Of Industry-Conscious Disclosure Standards For Pharmaceutical And Biotechnology Patents, Mark T. Roundtree Apr 2024

In Support Of Industry-Conscious Disclosure Standards For Pharmaceutical And Biotechnology Patents, Mark T. Roundtree

Texas A&M Law Review

One of the fundamental requirements for a patent application is a disclosure of the invention via an accurate written description with sufficient detail to enable the recreation of the invention. The U.S. patent system has historically reviewed patent applications from various industries with a uniform set of requirements and standards. However, the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries operate on notably extended product development timelines and face unique administrative pressures related to their products when compared with other industries. In response to these pressures, biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies have traditionally applied for patent protections through liberal use of genus claims and other …


Manufactured State Immigration Emergencies As State Vigilantism, Kate Huddleston Mar 2024

Manufactured State Immigration Emergencies As State Vigilantism, Kate Huddleston

Texas A&M Law Review

President Trump shattered norms when he declared a national emergency at the U.S.–Mexico border to build a border wall. State governors have now followed that lead in taking up what Justice Jackson, dissenting in Korematsu v. United States (1944), called the “loaded weapon” of emergency—doing so, like Trump, in the context of the border. Governors of Texas, Arizona, and Florida have all issued state declarations of emergency based on (1) migration, and (2) the Biden administration’s purported failure to engage in immigration enforcement. These state emergency declarations have not been studied or even identified in legal literature as a state …


Lopez V. Cintas Corporation: Another Interstate Headache, Kyle Chrisman Mar 2024

Lopez V. Cintas Corporation: Another Interstate Headache, Kyle Chrisman

Texas A&M Law Review

This Note analyzes a 2022 Fifth Circuit opinion concerning two issues: first, whether local delivery drivers are engaged in interstate commerce, and second, who decides challenges to arbitrability. In Lopez v. Cintas Corporation, the Fifth Circuit first held that local delivery drivers are not engaged in interstate commerce because they do not play a direct and necessary role in interstate commerce. Second, the court held that the arbitrator decides challenges to the validity of arbitrability when the challenge could also, if successful, attack the validity of the entire contract. The Fifth Circuit used incorrect reasoning, overemphasizing the crossing of …


Texas's "Operation Lone Star": The Supremacy Clause And Dual Federalism In Light Of Arizona V. United States, Reynaldo Ramirez, Jr Sep 2023

Texas's "Operation Lone Star": The Supremacy Clause And Dual Federalism In Light Of Arizona V. United States, Reynaldo Ramirez, Jr

Texas A&M Law Review

The Supremacy Clause of Article Six of the United States Constitution was enacted to remedy the failures of the Articles of Confederation. Initially, the states enjoyed near-boundless state sovereignty in nearly all aspects of the first federalist government. However, in practice, the necessity of federal supremacy for conducting the business of governing obligated the states to prioritize national interests above the states’ sovereignty. To do so required revision of the Articles of Confederation. This drafting culminated in the contentious ratification of the Constitution in 1788, including the Supremacy Clause and the Tenth Amendment. That said, ratifying the Supremacy Clause and …


A Modern Defense Of Simple Rules For A Complex World, Richard A. Epstein Mar 2023

A Modern Defense Of Simple Rules For A Complex World, Richard A. Epstein

Texas A&M Law Review

My 1995 book Simple Rules for a Complex World articulated a general proposition that, in most situations, simple legal rules perform better in two key dimensions: (1) they are simpler to interpret and enforce, and (2) they generate efficient incentives on the parties to whom they apply. I then applied that view to matters of general legal theory, to matters of environmental law, and to disputes over labor. These principles apply to all forms of legal regulation, but in this Article, I shall limit my analysis to the five articles in this Collection. These are by Richard Revesz on global …


The "Independent" State Legislature In Republican Theory, Franita Tolson Mar 2023

The "Independent" State Legislature In Republican Theory, Franita Tolson

Texas A&M Law Review

The independent state legislature theory provides that state legislatures are not constrained by their respective state constitutions in exercising the authority that the U.S. Constitution delegates to states over federal elections. In its most extreme form, the doctrine permits state legislatures, in overseeing the mechanics of federal elections, to disregard state court interpretations of state constitutions. Scholars have offered a number of criticisms of this doctrine, noting that it runs counter to the Founding Generation’s concerns about the lawlessness of state legislatures; is contrary to historical practice at the Founding; and undermines the constitutional structure in which the more democratically …


Optional Price Discrimination, Lee Anne Fennell Mar 2023

Optional Price Discrimination, Lee Anne Fennell

Texas A&M Law Review

Price discrimination generates considerable angst. As merchants develop ever-more-powerful mechanisms for gathering and compiling information about consumers, the specter of fully personalized pricing seems to loom as an ominous threat. Yet a parallel phenomenon quietly coexists with all this distress over tailored prices: models that encourage people to voluntarily contribute, typically in varying amounts, the sums necessary to cover the fixed costs of producing particular goods and services. This Article proposes enabling customers to opt into price discrimination in a more structured way across a broader range of markets. Optional price differentiation can make markets fairer and more inclusive by …


Toward Principled Background Principles In Takings Law, Rebecca Hansen, Lior Jacob Strahilevitz Mar 2023

Toward Principled Background Principles In Takings Law, Rebecca Hansen, Lior Jacob Strahilevitz

Texas A&M Law Review

Oversights by lawyers, judges, and legal scholars have caused the Supreme Court’s opinion in Cedar Point Nursery v. Hassid to be deeply misunderstood. In Cedar Point, the Court rewrote much of takings law by treating temporary and part-time entries by the government or third parties onto private property as per se takings. Prior to Cedar Point, these sorts of government-authorized physical entries would have been evaluated under a balancing framework that almost invariably enabled the government to prevail. As it happens, there was a well-established rule of black letter law that California’s lawyers and amici failed to invoke …


Breaking The Ncaa's Two-Tiered System: Attaining Full Scholarships For Equivalency Sport Athletes, Mason Corbett Feb 2023

Breaking The Ncaa's Two-Tiered System: Attaining Full Scholarships For Equivalency Sport Athletes, Mason Corbett

Texas A&M Law Review

In June of 2021, the Supreme Court released the Alston decision, invalidating NCAA restrictions on educational-related benefits for Division I football, men’s basketball, and women’s basketball student-athletes. Alston laid the groundwork for future challenges to NCAA rules, with Justice Kavanaugh explicitly encouraging further challenges to NCAA rules in his concurring opinion. This Comment reviews NCAA rules limiting the number of scholarships below the number of scholarship roster spots for certain sports. If these rules were challenged under the Alston framework, they likely would not stand up under the antitrust review for NCAA rules established by Alston.

Furthermore, this Comment …


“In These Times Of Compassion When Conformity’S In Fashion”: How Therapeutic Jurisprudence Can Root Out Bias, Limit Polarization, And Support Vulnerable Persons In The Legal Process, Michael L. Perlin Feb 2023

“In These Times Of Compassion When Conformity’S In Fashion”: How Therapeutic Jurisprudence Can Root Out Bias, Limit Polarization, And Support Vulnerable Persons In The Legal Process, Michael L. Perlin

Texas A&M Law Review

This Article considers the extent to which caselaw has—either explicitly or implicitly—incorporated the precepts of therapeutic jurisprudence (“TJ”), a school of legal thought that focuses on the law’s influence on emotional life and psychological well-being, and that asks us to assess the actual impact of the law on people’s lives. Two of the core tenets of TJ in practice are commitments to dignity and to compassion. I conclude ultimately that with these principles as touchstones, TJ can be an effective tool—perhaps the most effective tool—in rooting out bias, limiting polarization, and supporting vulnerable persons in the legal process. But this …


Discretionary Disfunction And Shivers V. United States: Consequences Of Assuming The Intent Of Congress, Emily B. Garza Feb 2023

Discretionary Disfunction And Shivers V. United States: Consequences Of Assuming The Intent Of Congress, Emily B. Garza

Texas A&M Law Review

The discretionary function exception is a powerful departure from the Federal Tort Claims Act’s general waiver of sovereign immunity. This exception applies where government employees commit a tort while acting within the discretion of their position. While there has been a lengthy and varying jurisprudential history surrounding the application of the discretionary function exception, neither the Supreme Court nor Congress has addressed whether violations of constitutional rights fall within the scope of a discretionary act.

This lack of clarity proved harmful for individuals like Mackie Shivers in Shivers v. United States because the discretionary function exception swallowed his claim for …


Extinction Or Bust: Improving Species Recovery Under The Endangered Species Act By Amending The Funding Allocation And Recovery Planning Processes, Max Hayashi Feb 2023

Extinction Or Bust: Improving Species Recovery Under The Endangered Species Act By Amending The Funding Allocation And Recovery Planning Processes, Max Hayashi

Texas A&M Law Review

The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (“ESA”) is among the most powerful environmental statutes passed in U.S. history and serves as a blueprint for government-sanctioned conservation efforts globally. At its core, the ESA seeks to protect listed plant and animal species by prohibiting actions that harm their chances of survival. While the ESA has generally succeeded in pursuing this goal as implemented, it has also led to a host of problems that undermine its effectiveness and generated widespread discontent among conflicting, disparate stakeholders, including environmentalists, industry groups, government agencies, and private landowners. Criticisms of the ESA generally focus on several …


The Matryoshka Model: Understanding The Relationship Between Delegation Provisions And The Broader Arbitration Agreements That Contain Them, Michael P. Bitgood Feb 2023

The Matryoshka Model: Understanding The Relationship Between Delegation Provisions And The Broader Arbitration Agreements That Contain Them, Michael P. Bitgood

Texas A&M Law Review

This Note analyzes a 2021 decision in which a Ninth Circuit panel diverged from its sister circuits on whether an arbitrator may decide the enforceability of an arbitration agreement that excludes the application of federal law in the arbitration proceedings. In Brice v. Plain Green, LLC (Brice I), the Ninth Circuit panel considered several arbitration agreements that contained delegation provisions. A delegation provision is an additional agreement to arbitrate the validity, enforceability, or scope (collectively, “arbitrability issues”) of a broader arbitration agreement.

Analyzing the enforceability of the delegation provisions apart from that of the arbitration agreements, the panel …


Should Prosecutors Be Expected To Rectify Wrongful Convictions?, Bruce A. Green Feb 2023

Should Prosecutors Be Expected To Rectify Wrongful Convictions?, Bruce A. Green

Texas A&M Law Review

In 2008, the American Bar Association amended the Model Rules of Professional Conduct to address prosecutors’ post-conviction conduct. Model Rules 3.8(g) and (h) establish the remedial steps a prosecutor must take after achieving a criminal conviction when confronted with significant new evidence of an injustice. They require prosecutors to disclose the new exculpatory evidence and to take reasonable steps to initiate an investigation, and if clear and convincing evidence then establishes the convicted defendant’s innocence, the prosecutors’ office must take reasonable steps to rectify the injustice. Since then, 24 state judiciaries have adopted versions of one or both rules. Although …