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Adequate, But Not Ideal: The U.S. Navy’S Need To Refine Its Administrative Separation Board Procedures, Sierra Ross May 2024

Adequate, But Not Ideal: The U.S. Navy’S Need To Refine Its Administrative Separation Board Procedures, Sierra Ross

Texas A&M Law Review

While the Navy is likely not mandated by the Constitution to edit its procedures for Administrative Separation Boards, it should do so. Service members can be subject to a variety of serious consequences through Administrative Separation Boards, so the processes should be as effective as possible to ensure that they are adequately protected.

To improve the Administrative Separation Board Procedures for the United States Navy, this Comment suggests two policy changes. First, this Comment suggests that the Navy provide more training to Senior Members to ensure they are implementing the existing evidence rule correctly. Second, this Comment suggests that the …


Carrots, Sticks, And The Evolution Of U.S. Climate Policy, Brian Murray, Jonas Monast May 2024

Carrots, Sticks, And The Evolution Of U.S. Climate Policy, Brian Murray, Jonas Monast

Texas A&M Law Review

The Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), enacted by Congress in 2022, is the most significant federal investment in decarbonization in U.S. history. The law makes hundreds of billions of dollars available for clean energy tax credits, grants to state and local governments, and other financial incentives for public and private investments. The IRA’s focus on incentives, or “carrots,” marks a significant departure from the emphasis on prescriptive regulations and penalties, or “sticks,” that are prominent in federal and state climate policies that predate the IRA. This Article situates the IRA within the existing climate policy framework and explores the long-term impacts …


A Federal Inmate’S Right To Stay Home, Jordan Thorn May 2024

A Federal Inmate’S Right To Stay Home, Jordan Thorn

Texas A&M Law Review

Since the start of the COVID–19 pandemic, the Federal Bureau of Prisons (“BOP”) has, for the first time in history, placed tens of thousands of inmates onto home confinement. Likely due to the unprecedented nature and rapid release of inmates to contain the virus, the BOP failed to timely update their policies and procedures surrounding the disciplinary system of inmates on home confinement. This failure to update resulted in the BOP removing inmates from home confinement and placing them back in prison for minor violations. Furthermore, when the BOP chose to remove an inmate from home confinement, it did so …


Left Behind: Funding Climate Action In The Global South, Chinonso Anozie May 2024

Left Behind: Funding Climate Action In The Global South, Chinonso Anozie

Texas A&M Law Review

Global clean energy transition envisions zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, as set by the United Nations. Consequentially, developed economies have made giant strides in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and achieving full decarbonization. However, the opposite remains true in the Global South, lagging in financing its climate action. Despite being disproportionately impacted by climate change, financial efforts by developed economies and the Global South have failed in placing the latter’s countries at par with clean energy investments of developed countries. Absent adequate financing of climate action in the Global South, the net zero goal will be nothing but a mirage. …


Successive But Not Successful: Does The Aedpa Allow Federal Prisoners To Reassert Previously Presented Claims For Habeas Relief?, Michael P. Bitgood May 2024

Successive But Not Successful: Does The Aedpa Allow Federal Prisoners To Reassert Previously Presented Claims For Habeas Relief?, Michael P. Bitgood

Texas A&M Law Review

The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (AEDPA) unequivocally bars state prisoners from reasserting previously presented claims for habeas relief. Currently, the circuits are embroiled in a disagreement regarding whether the AEDPA also bars federal prisoners in the same way, and federal prisoners’ potentially viable claims for habeas relief hang in the balance. Prior to the Ninth Circuit’s decision in Jones v. United States, six circuits agreed that the AEDPA does bar federal prisoners’ previously asserted habeas claims, but the Sixth Circuit alone disagreed. Now, the Jones decision aligns the Ninth Circuit with the Sixth Circuit’s position. …


The Climate Moratorium, Keith H. Hirokawa, Cinnamon P. Carlarne May 2024

The Climate Moratorium, Keith H. Hirokawa, Cinnamon P. Carlarne

Texas A&M Law Review

Climate change is our new reality. The impacts of climatic changes, including massive forest fires, floods, drought, severe storms, saltwater intrusion, and the resulting migration of people displaced by such impacts, will continue to ravage communities across the nation into the foreseeable future. In the meantime, communities continue to expand and growth continues unabated in many of the most climate-impacted areas. Given that most communities are unprepared for the onslaught of climate disasters and many continue to increase existing community vulnerabilities through unsustainable growth and development practices, we need legal tools that will provide space to engage in effective adaptation …


Oops! The Unfortunate (But Basic) Error In The New Ucc Article 12, David Frisch, Nicole Dalrymple May 2024

Oops! The Unfortunate (But Basic) Error In The New Ucc Article 12, David Frisch, Nicole Dalrymple

Texas A&M Law Review

The Uniform Law Commission and American Law Institute have recognized the need for commercial law to govern digital transactions and responded with the proposed addition of a new article to the Uniform Commercial Code (the “Code” or “UCC”), Article 12. Article 12 will govern the transfer of property rights in a particular category of digital assets (controllable electronic records), which would include commonly known digital assets, such as bitcoin and non-fungible tokens (“NFTs”). Although the addition of Article 12 should provide more certainty in transactions involving current and emerging technologies, there is a fundamental problem with the article as it …


Turning Point: Green Industrial Policy And The Future Of U.S. Climate Action, Daniel A. Farber May 2024

Turning Point: Green Industrial Policy And The Future Of U.S. Climate Action, Daniel A. Farber

Texas A&M Law Review

In the first two years of the Biden presidency, Congress passed three massive funding bills, which poured hundreds of billions of dollars into clean energy infrastructure, research and development, and deployment of clean energy. Although these bills are not what lawyers are accustomed to thinking of as “environmental law,” they have the potential to launch a transformation of the energy sector. This development could not have come at a better time, given the Supreme Court’s increasingly skeptical attitude toward federal regulation.

Although the direct effect of these laws will be dramatic, this Article focuses on positive feedback loops that will …


The Evolving International Climate Change Regime: Mitigation, Adaptation, Reflection, Jonathan B. Wiener, Tyler Felgenhauer May 2024

The Evolving International Climate Change Regime: Mitigation, Adaptation, Reflection, Jonathan B. Wiener, Tyler Felgenhauer

Texas A&M Law Review

The complex international regime for climate change has evolved over the past three decades, from the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol through the Paris Agreement and beyond. We assess this evolution from the 1990s to the 2020s, and its potential future evolution from the 2020s to the 2050s, across three main policy strategies: mitigation, adaptation, and reflection. In its first three decades, the regime has focused predominantly on the mitigation of net emissions and on engaging all major emitting countries in that effort. More recently, as progress on mitigation has been slow and as the impacts …


Self-Defense And Political Rage, Erin Sheley May 2024

Self-Defense And Political Rage, Erin Sheley

Texas A&M Law Review

This Article considers how American political polarization and the substantive issues driving it raise unique challenges for adjudicating self-defense claims in contexts of political protest. We live in an age where roughly a quarter of the population believes it is at least sometimes justifiable to use violence in defense of political positions, making political partisans somewhat more likely to pose a genuine threat of bodily harm to opponents. Furthermore, the psychological literature shows that people are more likely to perceive threats from people with whom they politically disagree and that juries tend to evaluate reasonableness claims according to their own …


The Unintended Consequences Of Torture's Ineffectiveness, Russell L. Christopher May 2024

The Unintended Consequences Of Torture's Ineffectiveness, Russell L. Christopher

Texas A&M Law Review

Whether torture to extract true information—for example, military secrets or the location of a terrorist-planted bomb—is morally permissible and empirically effective is widely disputed. But many agree that such torture’s effectiveness is a necessary condition for its permissibility; if ineffective, then it is impermissible. Thus, the empirical issue has become crucial in deciding the moral issue. This Article addresses the empirical issue with a novel, non-empirical argument. Torture’s ineffectiveness not only ensures torture’s impermissibility but also exposes torture victims to criminal liability for any offenses they are tortured into committing. With torture as the most extreme and horrific form of …


Equity's System Of Open-Ended Wrongs And Limited Remedies, Mark P. Gergen May 2024

Equity's System Of Open-Ended Wrongs And Limited Remedies, Mark P. Gergen

Texas A&M Law Review

It is well-known that equity gives courts considerable discretion to override the normal operation of legal rules to prevent an injustice in a particular case. This Article shows equity combined this discretion with limited remedies (rescission, restitution, reformation, and estoppel), and that these limited remedies strike a balance between the value of doing justice in a particular case and the cost of destabilizing the law in a way that places a heavy thumb on the scale favoring stability over justice. Henry Smith has described equity as a “second-order safety valve.” Equity’s limited remedies make it a weak “second-order safety valve.” …


(The Act Of) God’S Not Dead: Reforming The Act Of God Defense In The Face Of Anthropogenic Climate Change, Zachary David Fechter May 2024

(The Act Of) God’S Not Dead: Reforming The Act Of God Defense In The Face Of Anthropogenic Climate Change, Zachary David Fechter

Texas A&M Law Review

Natural phenomena like floods, droughts, and blizzards have a long history of causing damage. But these natural phenomena are now more frequent, intense, and therefore, foreseeable because of anthropogenic, or human-caused, climate change. Owing in part to the greater foreseeability of natural phenomena like weather, scholars believe the act of God defense—which excepts actors from liability when an unforeseeable and irresistible natural phenomenon is the proximate cause of damage—may be dead. Other scholars go further and argue the act of God defense should be dead, as corporate defendants can use it to evade liability even when their acts causally contribute …


In Defense Of 2.0°C: The Value Of Aspirational Environmental Goals, Albert C. Lin May 2024

In Defense Of 2.0°C: The Value Of Aspirational Environmental Goals, Albert C. Lin

Texas A&M Law Review

Aspirational goals, such as the Paris Agreement’s goals of avoiding a global temperature increase of 1.5°C or 2.0°C, can be found throughout environmental law. Such goals, though sometimes unrealistic, perform important functions. They may serve as asymptotic directives that guide implementing entities; yardsticks to measure and evaluate progress; expressions of social values; and expanders of policy space. As asymptotic directives, aspirational goals may push actors to achieve more than they otherwise might accomplish. Incorporated into treaties or statutes, they can serve as guideposts for implementing concrete substantive and procedural requirements. With the passage of time, aspirational goals function as yardsticks …


Gambling On Housing: Is Adverse Possession A Valid Tool For The Reallocation Of Vacant Property?, Kelsey Dunn Apr 2024

Gambling On Housing: Is Adverse Possession A Valid Tool For The Reallocation Of Vacant Property?, Kelsey Dunn

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Adverse possession, a staple of first-year law school property classes, never fails to shock the conscience of unsuspecting law students. Some are surprised to learn that a squatter can acquire legal title to another person’s property by moving in and using it for a period of years. In recent years, housing activists have begun to view the doctrine as an outside-the-box solution to our nation’s housing crisis. There are dozens of vacant homes for every person experiencing homelessness in America. Why not give those properties to people who actually use them?

However, this well-intended impulse does not square with reality. …


Royalty Wars: The Dark Side To Raising The Minimum Royalty Rate For Oil And Gas Leasing On Federal Land, Audrey A. Helm Apr 2024

Royalty Wars: The Dark Side To Raising The Minimum Royalty Rate For Oil And Gas Leasing On Federal Land, Audrey A. Helm

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

In 2022, the Inflation Reduction Act took marked steps toward changing the course of the oil and gas industry for the first time in over 100 years, requiring that all federal oil and gas leases issued for the following decade have a minimum royalty rate of 16.67%. This paved the way for a major adjustment in the oil and gas industry, which has seen a 12.5% minimum royalty for the past century. In 2023, the Department of the Interior proposed to permanently codify these changes, citing purposes of ensuring a fair return to taxpayers and protecting the environment.

This Article …


Climate Change And Implications For National Security And International Law In The Arctic, Choteau X. Kammel Apr 2024

Climate Change And Implications For National Security And International Law In The Arctic, Choteau X. Kammel

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Climate change threatens national security due to the potential it carries to destabilize fragile regions, damage military installations, and exacerbate existing tensions between countries. While these effects will be global, the Arctic region represents a microcosm of a future where climate change affects the strategic priorities of states and renders existing governing institutions inadequate. Moreover, climate change will challenge the collage of “soft” international law that governs the Arctic, administered primarily through the Arctic Council’s collaborative forum. While this system has been effective, the opening of the Far North to increased sea passage, commercial exploitation, and great powers’ interests necessitates …


Beyond The Binary: Ai, Ethics, And Liability In The Legal Landscape, Cathina L. Gunn-Rosas Apr 2024

Beyond The Binary: Ai, Ethics, And Liability In The Legal Landscape, Cathina L. Gunn-Rosas

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

As the legal landscape evolves with the integration of artificial intelligence (AI), attorneys will face ever more complex ethical challenges and practical dilemmas. This article delves into the intricacies of AI utilization in legal practice, emphasizing the need for proactive strategies to uphold ethical standards while harnessing the benefits of AI tools. Through real-world examples and hypothetical scenarios, it examines the importance of AI training and education for attorneys, highlighting the necessity of understanding AI tool functions, limitations, and potential pitfalls. Moreover, the article advocates for the implementation of rigorous AI oversight and review processes within law firms to ensure …


The Motivation Paradox: Exploring Copyright’S Assumptions About Creativity And The Allocation Of Creative Resources, Alina Ng Apr 2024

The Motivation Paradox: Exploring Copyright’S Assumptions About Creativity And The Allocation Of Creative Resources, Alina Ng

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Copyright is instrumental in promoting the progress of science by encouraging authors and other creators to produce and disseminate creative works by granting them an exclusive property right over the creative resources they produce. However, only some copyrighted works correlate with this goal. Some works do not promote a better society, while others harm society’s well-being. The existence of these works demonstrates that the legal structures in copyright law are somehow encouraging the production of works that do not correlate with the goals of progress. One reason might be that the law has not adequately defined the word “progress.” The …


Like, Comment, And Follow: How To Amend Copyright Law To Protect Black Tiktokers, Ny'esha Young Apr 2024

Like, Comment, And Follow: How To Amend Copyright Law To Protect Black Tiktokers, Ny'esha Young

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

The Black community has long suffered through a cycle of trauma and pain, with history repeating itself throughout generations. From the civil rights movement to the Black Lives Matter movement, this cycle persists, showing up again in the experiences of Black TikTokers. Despite looking race-neutral on its face, copyright law’s lack of understanding of how Black art can manifest itself has become more obvious in the world of digital creativity. Stuck in a cycle of appropriation, Black TikTokers find themselves facing a familiar dilemma as their work is replicated without compensation or credit, echoing the historical struggles of Black musicians. …


In Support Of Industry-Conscious Disclosure Standards For Pharmaceutical And Biotechnology Patents, Mark T. Roundtree Apr 2024

In Support Of Industry-Conscious Disclosure Standards For Pharmaceutical And Biotechnology Patents, Mark T. Roundtree

Texas A&M Law Review

One of the fundamental requirements for a patent application is a disclosure of the invention via an accurate written description with sufficient detail to enable the recreation of the invention. The U.S. patent system has historically reviewed patent applications from various industries with a uniform set of requirements and standards. However, the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries operate on notably extended product development timelines and face unique administrative pressures related to their products when compared with other industries. In response to these pressures, biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies have traditionally applied for patent protections through liberal use of genus claims and other …


Full Speed Ahead? Reexamining Texas's Approach To Eminent Domain, Emma Blackmon Apr 2024

Full Speed Ahead? Reexamining Texas's Approach To Eminent Domain, Emma Blackmon

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Property rights are traditionally held sacred in Texas. But through eminent domain, landowners lose their property rights, purportedly in service of the broader public. Sometimes, the legislature confers eminent domain power on for-profit companies. Landowners are then forced to surrender their property while the companies benefit economically. The result is that landowners are stripped of the right to fully use and enjoy their property.

The recent Texas Supreme Court case, Miles v. Texas Central Railroad & Infrastructure, Inc., demonstrates the tension between property rights and economic development created by eminent domain. Facially, Miles concerns whether a for-profit company’s high-speed …


A Tall Summit: Securing Lasting, Reliable Public Access For Recreational Use On Colorado’S Privately Owned Fourteeners, Michael Betrus Apr 2024

A Tall Summit: Securing Lasting, Reliable Public Access For Recreational Use On Colorado’S Privately Owned Fourteeners, Michael Betrus

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

From the National Scenic Trails to mountains to other destinations in nature drawing the public’s interest and time for recreational activities, privately owned land can cause difficulties in ensuring reliable and consistent public access. A specific example is the Decalibron Loop, a trail in Colorado linking together a few mountains; public access has wavered over the years, and a recent Tenth Circuit case, Nelson v. United States, greatly affected landowner dispositions—particularly with regard to liability—toward the privately owned property. Similar situations across the country provide a variety of potential approaches to helping provide public access and reducing landowner concerns.

With …


All Aboard: Understanding Property Rights In Texas After Texas Central, Asher K. Gregg Apr 2024

All Aboard: Understanding Property Rights In Texas After Texas Central, Asher K. Gregg

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Our forefathers intended the United States Bill of Rights to protect individuals from government overreach. Specifically, the Fifth Amendment, as applied to the States via the Fourteenth Amendment, in part protects individuals from unnecessary takings. Eminent domain authority—its more common name—has long been recognized as a power to be used cautiously and only when necessary. Although most often associated with government exercise, states are permitted to grant this unyielding authority to private entities via their state constitutions and statutes. Despite Texas serving as a beacon for individual property rights, the Texas Supreme Court’s recent decision in Miles v. Texas Central …


Far Out: The Extended Denial Of Public Access To Psychedelic Therapeutics, Andrew R. Waldeck Apr 2024

Far Out: The Extended Denial Of Public Access To Psychedelic Therapeutics, Andrew R. Waldeck

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

The United States patent regime is designed to promote dissemination of information that undergirds a particular innovation. To incentivize disclosure, inventors are granted a time-limited right to exclude others from practicing the invention, thereby affording the inventor a period in which to commercialize and financially benefit from their inventive contribution. The disclosure provides information sufficient for one of skill in the relevant art to make and use the invention, and the public may freely do so upon the patent’s expiry. Global advancement of human medicine is fundamentally intertwined with the United States patent system; medical progress largely depends upon the …


Unequal Land: Towards Full Recognition Of Indigenous People’S Religious Rights, Emily Campbell Apr 2024

Unequal Land: Towards Full Recognition Of Indigenous People’S Religious Rights, Emily Campbell

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Indigenous people face disparate treatment regarding religious free-exercise claims in the United States court system. Specifically, courts misconstrue native religious practices and hold native religious practitioners to a higher standard of proof than practitioners of mainstream religions in their free-exercise claims. This Article analyzes the history of oppression of indigenous people in the United States and the congressional intent to remedy such oppression through legislation. Further, this Article argues that despite Congress’s efforts to remedy the oppression of indigenous peoples, courts still utilize a problematic analysis of indigenous free-exercise claims. To resolve the inconsistent treatment between native and mainstream religious …


The Lack Of Victim Protection In The Enforcement Of The Trafficking Victims Protection Act, Kelly R. Fitzgerald Valiev Apr 2024

The Lack Of Victim Protection In The Enforcement Of The Trafficking Victims Protection Act, Kelly R. Fitzgerald Valiev

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Over the past twenty-two years, United States federal courts have seen many cases regarding forced labor and the importation of goods produced by victims of forced labor trafficking. To resolve these cases, the court must interpret § 307 of the Tariff Act to determine whether victims can recover against their traffickers. Recently, an issue in the interpretation of forced labor has arisen in courts: whether an attempt at importing goods is sufficient to establish a cause of action as a violation of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act’s prohibition on forced labor imports. Courts that interpret forced labor narrowly to …


Keeping Up With The Joneses: Texas’ Nil Battle For Student-Athletes, Stephanie Garner Apr 2024

Keeping Up With The Joneses: Texas’ Nil Battle For Student-Athletes, Stephanie Garner

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Starting in 2021, college athletes could earn financial compensation from their name, image, and likeness (“NIL”). With the change in laws, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (“NCAA”) created an interim regulation for states to follow. After the Supreme Court decision, some states’ trigger laws went into effect, some states made new NIL regulations, and some states continued to follow the regulation set out by the NCAA. With all these laws and no federal regulation, each state stands on different footing. In Texas, a restrictive NIL statute will affect its recruiting for years unless adjusted. This Comment suggests improvements to the …


Can They Fix It? Yes, They Can: Rebalancing The Scale Of Financial Security On Construction Projects, Allie Grubb Apr 2024

Can They Fix It? Yes, They Can: Rebalancing The Scale Of Financial Security On Construction Projects, Allie Grubb

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

The construction industry is one of the most dominant industries worldwide. The United States is no stranger to development and growth, and as so, it possesses one of the largest construction industries in the world. Given the magnitude of the industry, it is no secret that every party involved in a construction project feels the loom of financial risks and that such risks continue to plague the industry. The government, particularly the legislature, has a special influence in that the laws it passes can either encourage continued development and make the industry flourish or bring it to a complete stop, …


Cultural Property: “Progressive Property In Action”, J. Peter Byrne Mar 2024

Cultural Property: “Progressive Property In Action”, J. Peter Byrne

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Cultural property law fulfills many of the normative and jurisprudential goals of progressive property theory. Cultural property limits the normal prerogatives of owners in order to give legal substance to the interests of the public or of specially protected non-owners. It recognizes that preservation of and access to heritage resources advance public values such as cultural enrichment and community identity. The proliferation of cultural property laws and their acceptance by courts has occurred despite a resurgent property fundamentalism embraced by the Supreme Court. Thus, this Article seeks to explicate the category of cultural property, its fulfillment of progressive theory, and …