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2023

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Full-Text Articles in Law

“Any”, James J. Brudney, Ethan J. Leib Dec 2023

“Any”, James J. Brudney, Ethan J. Leib

BYU Law Review

Our statute books use the word “any” ubiquitously in coverage and exclusion provisions. As any reader of the Supreme Court’s statutory interpretation docket would know, a large number of cases turn on the contested application of this so-called universal quantifier. It is hard to make sense of the jurisprudence of “any.” And any effort to offer a unified approach—knowing precisely when its scope is expansive (along the “literal-meaning” lines of “every” and “all”) or confining (having a contained domain related to properties provided by contextual cues)—is likely to fail. This Article examines legislative drafting manuals, surveys centuries of Court decisions, …


Presidential Power And What The First Congress Did Not Do, Michael D. Ramsey Dec 2023

Presidential Power And What The First Congress Did Not Do, Michael D. Ramsey

Notre Dame Law Review Reflection

Scholars, advocates, and judges have long debated the scope of the President’s “executive Power” under Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution. New articles by, among others, Professors Jean Galbraith, Julian Mortenson, Jed Shugerman, and Ilan Wurman have sharply rekindled those contentions, particularly with regard to the President’s power to remove executive officers and to conduct the foreign affairs of the United States. This Essay takes a close look at one piece of the executive power puzzle: what the First Congress did and did not do in 1789 regarding the powers of the President. Unlike prior accounts, which have devoted …


Disfavoring Statutory Parentheses (Except In Certain Circumstanaces), Zachary A. Damir Nov 2023

Disfavoring Statutory Parentheses (Except In Certain Circumstanaces), Zachary A. Damir

Notre Dame Law Review

Parentheses in statutes have been at issue in an increasing number of court cases, even at the Supreme Court. Parentheses have a slightly different story from other punctuation marks and they have been used consistently throughout legal history. The Federal Constitution, early statutes, and a large part of our modern state and federal law separate words from their sentences using parentheses. But if a parenthetical conflicts with the material outside of the parentheses, it is the current practice to discard the interior text as surplus-age, even though the legislature may have had a reason to include that text in a …


To Write Or Not To Write: The Ethics Of Judicial Writings And Publishing, Nick Badgerow, Michael Hoeflich, Sarah Schmitz Nov 2023

To Write Or Not To Write: The Ethics Of Judicial Writings And Publishing, Nick Badgerow, Michael Hoeflich, Sarah Schmitz

St. Mary's Journal on Legal Malpractice & Ethics

Judges are bound by the Model Code of Judicial Conduct promulgated by the American Bar Association and adopted most states, including the federal judiciary. Within these rules governing judicial conduct, Judges owe duties to the public and to their calling, to be (and appear to be) objective, fair, judicious, and independent. When judges venture into the realm of extrajudicial writing—in the form of fiction novels, short stories, legal books, children’s books, and the like—they must consider the ethical bounds of that expression. The Model Code of Judicial Conduct imposes five main constraints upon extrajudicial writings: (a) a judge may not …


Congressional Briefing: Increasing Access To Medicare-Funded Physician Residency Slots, Julia Mattingly, Sarah Youngman, Ariel Ringo, Sarah Belcher Nov 2023

Congressional Briefing: Increasing Access To Medicare-Funded Physician Residency Slots, Julia Mattingly, Sarah Youngman, Ariel Ringo, Sarah Belcher

Commonwealth Policy Papers

The Fiscal Year (FY) 2022 Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS) final rule designated the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid to implement 1,000 new Medicare-funded physician residency slots to qualifying hospitals authorized by the Consolidated Appropriations Act (CAA) of 2021, phasing in 200 slots per year over five years.However, in its first round of allocation of 200 slots in 2023, only 5 rural hospitals in the country received slots, despite Section 126 of the CAA.

In this brief, we discuss potential solutions to address this allocation shortfall.


A Critical Access Pharmacy Program, Julia Mattingly, Jack Reynolds Nov 2023

A Critical Access Pharmacy Program, Julia Mattingly, Jack Reynolds

Commonwealth Policy Papers

With much light on rural hospital closures and healthcare workforce shortages, a sect of rural healthcare rarely discussed is the availability and accessibility of rural independent pharmacies. Pharmacies are a vital part of healthcare delivery in rural communities, with many not only supplying medications but also offering clinical services such as immunizations, blood pressure and glucose monitoring, medication counseling, and more. As funds are available, Congress should designate the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to establish a Critical Access Pharmacy Care Program to ensure the sustainability of critical access pharmacies throughout the United States. Specifics of the proposed program …


Congressional Briefing: Support America’S Circular Economy By Upcycling Bourbon & Brewing Wastes In Reauthorizing The Farm Bill, Samuel Kessler Nov 2023

Congressional Briefing: Support America’S Circular Economy By Upcycling Bourbon & Brewing Wastes In Reauthorizing The Farm Bill, Samuel Kessler

Commonwealth Policy Papers

Following state level development of a new spent grain incentive system, leading to KY House Bill 627 in 2022, CPC’s Congressional Summit dialogue considered initial components and possibilities for designing an incentive to upcycle “keystone” organic wastes in regional economies across the US. For member offices, a set of general recommendations are provided for a national spent-grain upcycling incentive pilot program. It is suggested that staff of the Bourbon caucus consult with the references in this briefing and USDA Rural Development to consider further development of an incentive program in the reauthorization of the Farm Bill.

It is further urged …


Congressional Briefing: A Geographically Targeted Approach For A Preceptor Tax Incentive Using Primary Care Health Professional Shortage Areas, Julia Mattingly, Sarah Belcher Nov 2023

Congressional Briefing: A Geographically Targeted Approach For A Preceptor Tax Incentive Using Primary Care Health Professional Shortage Areas, Julia Mattingly, Sarah Belcher

Commonwealth Policy Papers

This congressional briefing outlines federal policy implications, following state level use of HPSAs in targeted incentives for healthcare workforce development also published by the Commonwealth Policy Institute.


Draft State Legislation: "Cycle-Based Adoption Of The International Code Council’S Model Building And Energy Conservation Codes", Hailey M. Mattingly Nov 2023

Draft State Legislation: "Cycle-Based Adoption Of The International Code Council’S Model Building And Energy Conservation Codes", Hailey M. Mattingly

Commonwealth Policy Papers

This draft state legislation crafted with nonprofit partners is created in order to update building codes across the Commonwealth of Kentucky with uniform professional standards also adopted by surrounding states which are provided by the ICC, in order to improve resilience to natural disasters. This bill draft is accompanied with a short brief published in the same volume.


Maximize “West End Opportunity” In America: Alternative Policy Options To Address Perceived Drawbacks Of Tax Increment Financing (Tif) & Opportunity Zones, Justin Avert, Samuel C Kessler Nov 2023

Maximize “West End Opportunity” In America: Alternative Policy Options To Address Perceived Drawbacks Of Tax Increment Financing (Tif) & Opportunity Zones, Justin Avert, Samuel C Kessler

Commonwealth Policy Papers

In March 2021, the Kentucky General Assembly passed House Bill 321 (Acts Chapter 203) authorizing the creation of a tax increment finance (TIF) district within the West End of Louisville. Designed to spur community-wide economic development, it set up a public-private nonprofit partnership. Known as the West End Opportunity Partnership (WEOP), this 21-seat board include community representatives and has sole control over any fund disbursement. Funds can be used towards a broad array of investments including small business loans, financing affordable housing units, home improvements, etc.

Residents within the district have expressed opposition to the TIF, skepticism towards the board …


Libertarianism And The Common Law, Allen Mendenhall Nov 2023

Libertarianism And The Common Law, Allen Mendenhall

Belmont Law Review

What are the qualities and characteristics of the common law that feature or reflect libertarianism? The common law is both a historical phenomenon and an active process or a juridical mode of settling disputes. Therefore, a precise answer to questions about the compatibility between libertarianism and the common law is difficult to articulate. This Essay describes elements of the common law - both its manifestation in history and its theoretical approaches to judging - that illuminate its libertarian attributes and tendencies. It suggests that the common law has epistemological importance as a kind of bottom-up ordering based on traceable patterns …


Tiktok Is Not Your Doctor: Reprioritizing Consumer Protection In Pharmaceutical Advertisement Regulation, Nora Klein Nov 2023

Tiktok Is Not Your Doctor: Reprioritizing Consumer Protection In Pharmaceutical Advertisement Regulation, Nora Klein

Belmont Law Review

This Note will examine DTCA in the context of DTC telemedicine companies, with a focus on the proliferation of such advertisements on social media platforms. Part I discusses the intertwining forces that have led to the prevalence of DTC telehealth advertising on social media. Part II introduces the current regulatory scheme applicable to DTCA, and explains the First Amendment protections afforded to commercial speakers. Part III explores why DTC telemedicine companies are not subject to the regulations applicable to DTCA generally, as well as the implications stemming from the current lack of oversight. Finally, Part IV proposes a solution to …


The Digital Person: Law Enforcement & The Purchase Of Data In A Post Carpenter Age, Jay E. Town Nov 2023

The Digital Person: Law Enforcement & The Purchase Of Data In A Post Carpenter Age, Jay E. Town

Belmont Law Review

It once was reasonable to expect courts to rule that there is no reasonable expectation of privacy, even in the digital era, because nearly all of the information streamed from mobile devices, applications, and browsers is voluntarily shared per the terms of the platforms', websites', and applications' agreements. But then the United States Supreme Court issued its opinion in Carpenter v. United States. Scholars and jurists alike opined, to some degree of hyperbole, on the enormity of the impact this holding would have on the Fourth Amendment going forward. Defense counsel and privacy advocates regaled the case as a …


Securing Patent Law, Charles Duan Nov 2023

Securing Patent Law, Charles Duan

Belmont Law Review

A vigorous conversation about intellectual property rights and national security has largely focused on the defense role of those rights, as tools for responding to acts of foreign infringement. But intellectual property, and patents in particular, also play an arguably more important offense role. Foreign competitor nations can obtain and assert U.S. patents against U.S. firms and creators. Use of patents as an offense strategy can be strategically coordinated to stymie domestic innovation and technological progress. This Essay considers current and possible future practices of patent exploitation in this offense setting, with a particular focus on China given the nature …


Recalibrating Bruen: The Merits Of Historical Burden-Shifting In Second Amendment Cases, Kevin G. Schascheck Ii Nov 2023

Recalibrating Bruen: The Merits Of Historical Burden-Shifting In Second Amendment Cases, Kevin G. Schascheck Ii

Belmont Law Review

After Bruen, the prevailing assumption was that the Second Amendment framework shifted radically for all gun laws. Courts throughout the country have already invalidated key gun safety statutes while applying the new test. However, such holdings fail to grapple with the full weight of Second Amendment doctrines. A proper application of the doctrine in toto will result in no significant changes to the constitutionality of the vast majority of gun laws after Bruen.

This Article explains the underdeveloped interaction between two principal Second Amendment doctrines - presumptions of legal validity and historical analyses. That interaction, framed in its simplest terms, …


Taming The Wild West: The Time Is Near For Congress To Intervene In Name, Image, And Likeness Deals For Collegiate Athletes, Bradley Kilborn Kilborn Nov 2023

Taming The Wild West: The Time Is Near For Congress To Intervene In Name, Image, And Likeness Deals For Collegiate Athletes, Bradley Kilborn Kilborn

Belmont Law Review

This note proposes a multifaceted approach for congressional intervention in the NIL market. While there are many areas needing NIL regulation in the collegiate athletic market, the most critical area of need for NIL regulation involves the collectives and directives. These entities have formed and operated without any meaningful guardrails since the NCAA permitted student-athletes to be compensated for their NIL. Additionally, they have been able to influence recruiting both at the high school recruit level and in the collegiate athlete transfer portal.


Market Access Obligations And Foreign Investments In Renewable Energy: An Analysis Of International Trade And Investment Law Instruments, Mohammad Akefi Ghaziani, Mostafa Fazaeli, Moosa Akefi Ghaziani, Dr. Huma Amin Oct 2023

Market Access Obligations And Foreign Investments In Renewable Energy: An Analysis Of International Trade And Investment Law Instruments, Mohammad Akefi Ghaziani, Mostafa Fazaeli, Moosa Akefi Ghaziani, Dr. Huma Amin

Indonesian Journal of International Law

Today's development of renewable energy technologies is perceived as an essential ingredient of the world’s response to emerging challenges of energy security, global warming, and climate change. However, the global deployment of renewables needs huge financial and technological contributions that many States cannot afford. Therefore the promotion of foreign investments in this sector is at the stake. However, the global flow of investment and technology in this sector is not free from the regulations of international trade and investment law instruments. Among the prominent provisions common to these instruments are Market Access obligations. WTO agreements and IIAs provide for different …


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review Oct 2023

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

Table of Contents


Industrial Jurisdiction, Daniel Z. Epstein Oct 2023

Industrial Jurisdiction, Daniel Z. Epstein

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

William Novak’s New Democracy: The Creation of the Modern American State reveals how the current administrative state evolved to control economic activity through an incremental rejection of state-based common law and police powers in favor of centralized public regulation. This review identifies the business case for the administrative state and presents the first academic treatment of pro-regulation testimony from business interests during congressional consideration of the Interstate Commerce Act. In so doing, this review shows how the concept of industry is as much a legal concept as it is an economic one. This review argues that the nature of regulatory …


The Israel-Lebanon Maritime Border Agreement: Does Lebanon Implicitly Recognize The State Of Israel?, Mireille Rebeiz Oct 2023

The Israel-Lebanon Maritime Border Agreement: Does Lebanon Implicitly Recognize The State Of Israel?, Mireille Rebeiz

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

In October 2022, Lebanon and Israel signed a Maritime Border Agreement brokered by the United States of America. Lebanon does not recognize Israeli statehood, and the two States have been at war since 1948. This Article seeks to examine the following legal question: Does the signing of the Maritime Border Agreement imply Lebanese recognition of Israeli statehood? In response, this Article begins with a brief examination of the history of the territorial and border disputes between Lebanon and Israel (discussed in Section I), then proceeds to analyze the definition of statehood and the two theories of statehood recognition. International law …


A Theory Of Federalization Doctrine, Gerald S. Dickinson Oct 2023

A Theory Of Federalization Doctrine, Gerald S. Dickinson

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

The doctrine of federalization—the practice of the U.S. Supreme Court consulting state laws or adopting state court doctrines to guide and inform federal constitutional law—is an underappreciated field of study within American constitutional law. Compared to the vast collection of scholarly literature and judicial rulings addressing the outsized influence Supreme Court doctrine and federal constitutional law exert over state court doctrines and state legislative enactments, the opposite phenomenon of the states shaping Supreme Court doctrine and federal constitutional law has been under-addressed. This lack of attention to such a singular feature of American federalism is striking and has resulted in …


The Presumption Of Constitutionality And The Demise Of Economic Liberties, James Huffman Oct 2023

The Presumption Of Constitutionality And The Demise Of Economic Liberties, James Huffman

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

For over two centuries the United States Supreme Court has embraced a presumption of constitutionality that places the burden of proof on those challenging the constitutionality of governmental actions. Usually, the presumption is stated as a given, but when explained it is most often said to be founded in republicanism and due respect for the co-equal branches of government. Thus, the presumption constitutes a deference to the constitutional interpretations of the elected branches of government. This majoritarian view of the Constitution’s foundational principle is counter to the dominant view of the Constitution’s founders. They designed a government constituted of numerous …


Using The Common Law Of Contracts To Police Abusive Terms In Hospital Admissions Agreements: Balancing Freedom Of Contract With Fairness, George A. Nation Iii Oct 2023

Using The Common Law Of Contracts To Police Abusive Terms In Hospital Admissions Agreements: Balancing Freedom Of Contract With Fairness, George A. Nation Iii

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

Standard hospital admissions contracts (“HACs”) often contain provisions that are shockingly unfair, but are easily overlooked or misunderstood by patients. Hospitals rely on the common law of contracts, especially the doctrine of freedom of contract, to claim that these provisions should be enforced. Many courts have accepted the freedom of contract argument and enforced some or all of these provisions.

This Article suggests that courts are in error to enforce these harsh provisions against patients. This Article focuses on four harsh provisions commonly found in HACs. First is the payment provision which is opaque, misleading, and designed to allow hospitals …


Training Is Everything: Artificial Intelligence, Copyright, And “Fair Training”, Andrew W. Torrance, Bill Tomlinson Oct 2023

Training Is Everything: Artificial Intelligence, Copyright, And “Fair Training”, Andrew W. Torrance, Bill Tomlinson

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

In this Essay, we analyze the arguments in favor of, and against, viewing the use of copyrighted works in training sets for AI as fair use. We call this form of fair use “fair training.” We identify both strong and spurious arguments on both sides of this debate. In addition, we attempt to take a broader perspective, weighing the societal costs (e.g., replacement of certain forms of human employment) and benefits (e.g., the possibility of novel AI-based approaches to global issues such as environmental disruption) of allowing AI to make easy use of copyrighted works as training sets to facilitate …


The Paradox Of The Paradox Of Democracy, Raymond H. Brescia Oct 2023

The Paradox Of The Paradox Of Democracy, Raymond H. Brescia

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

In The Paradox of Democracy: Free Speech, Open Media, and Perilous Persuasion, authors Zac Gershberg and Sean Illing argue that democracies contain the capacity for their own destruction because they promote open communication but such communication can be manipulated by authoritarian forces. They argue further that with contemporary communications technologies the descent into fascism is even more likely. The authors argue that in order to confront these threats, democratic nations must increase media literacy within the citizenry and strengthen local journalism. Given the grave nature of the threats the authors have exposed, these solutions do not appear up to …


Emergency Room To The Courtroom: Providing Abortion Care Under Emtala And State Abortion Bans, Natasha Rappazzo Oct 2023

Emergency Room To The Courtroom: Providing Abortion Care Under Emtala And State Abortion Bans, Natasha Rappazzo

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

After the Supreme Court eliminated the constitutional right to abortion in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, states began to broadly criminalize abortion. Abortion is criminalized and restricted even in situations that constitute an emergency medical condition under the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (“EMTALA”). State abortion bans with limited medical exceptions conflict with EMTALA’s protections for emergency screening and stabilization. Legal challenges to the scope of EMTALA show a growing divide and uncertainty on emergency abortion care in the United States. This Comment will discuss why physicians cannot confidently provide quality and competent abortion care without the …


Expungement In Pennsylvania After Pardon: Excluded By Clean Slate Limited Access, Joseph H. O’Donnell Oct 2023

Expungement In Pennsylvania After Pardon: Excluded By Clean Slate Limited Access, Joseph H. O’Donnell

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

Pennsylvania law provides several methods to protect or dispose of a criminal record. Methods to protect a criminal record from public view include expungement, limited access, clean slate limited access, and pardon. Expungement is a relatively limited right in Pennsylvania, but individuals do have a right to expungement upon receipt of a governor’s pardon. This right was created by case law. However, not every state follows this model. The recently enacted Clean Slate Limited Access Act created automated sealing for certain offenses, including cases where the Governor issued a pardon. This created a system of double protection for criminal records …


“What’S Brewin’ With Bruen?” Why, And How, We Must Permit Certain Felons To Possess Firearms, Samuel Roos Oct 2023

“What’S Brewin’ With Bruen?” Why, And How, We Must Permit Certain Felons To Possess Firearms, Samuel Roos

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

In the summer of 2022, the U.S. Supreme Court decided New York Rifle & Pistol Association v. Bruen, outlining a new test for the constitutionality of statutes regulating firearm possession. The result has been chaos. In less than a year, U.S.C. § 922(n) and § 922(g)(8), which criminalize possession by specific people involved in the criminal justice system, have been held unconstitutional. Challenges to other federal firearm regulations are flooding the courts.

Notably, § 922(g)(1), which criminalizes possession of a firearm by any person with a felony in their criminal history, has been vigorously challenged. Few courts have yet …


Wisconsin's Citation Rule: Unpublished Should Not Mean Uncitable, Jacob Lloyd Sep 2023

Wisconsin's Citation Rule: Unpublished Should Not Mean Uncitable, Jacob Lloyd

Marquette Law Review

Wisconsin’s citation rule stands tall, yet unsupported. It injures Wisconsin practitioners, their clients, and judges in all three levels of Wisconsin’s judicial branch. With little tolerance, Wisconsin Statutes section 809.23(3) precludes the citation of (1) unpublished opinions issued before July 1, 2009, and (2) unauthored, unpublished opinions thereafter. You may be surprised to learn that that means approximately half of Wisconsin Court of Appeals opinions issued each year are uncitable—so, too, are significantly more than half of the opinions it issued before July 1, 2009. Without change, the Wisconsin Court of Appeals will continue to miscategorize its opinions; Wisconsin’s case …


Table Of Contents, Curtis Crawford Jul 2023

Table Of Contents, Curtis Crawford

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

No abstract provided.