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Full-Text Articles in Law

Systemic Risk Of Contract, Tal Kastner Jan 2022

Systemic Risk Of Contract, Tal Kastner

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Complexity and uncertainty define our world, now more than ever. Scholars and practitioners have celebrated modular contract design as an especially effective tool to manage these challenges. Modularity divides complex structures into relatively discrete, independent components with simple connections. The benefits of this fundamental drafting approach are intuitive. Lawyers divide contracts into sections and provisions to make them easier to understand and reduce uncertainty. Dealmakers constructing complex transactions use portable agreements as building blocks to reduce drafting costs and enable innovation. Little attention, however, has been paid to the risks introduced by modularity in contracts. This Article demonstrates how this …


Challenging Gender Discrimination In Closely Held Firms: The Hope And Hazards Of Corporate Oppression Doctrine, Meredith R. Miller Jan 2021

Challenging Gender Discrimination In Closely Held Firms: The Hope And Hazards Of Corporate Oppression Doctrine, Meredith R. Miller

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The #MeToo Movement has ushered sexual harassment out of the shadows and thrown a spotlight on the gender pay gap in the workplace. Harassment and unfair treatment have, however, been difficult to extinguish. This has been true for all workers, including partners – those women who are owners in their firms and claim that they have suffered harassment or unfair treatment based on gender. That is because a partner’s lawsuit for discrimination often will suffer an insurmountable hurdle: plaintiff’s status as a partner in the firm means that they may not be considered an “employee” under the relevant employment discrimination …


Advanced Artificial Intelligence And Contract, John Linarelli Jan 2019

Advanced Artificial Intelligence And Contract, John Linarelli

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The aim of this article is to inquire whether contract law can operate in a state of affairs in which artificial general intelligence (AGI) exists and has the cognitive abilities to interact with humans to exchange promises or otherwise engage in the sorts of exchanges typically governed by contract law. AGI is a long way off but its emergence may be sudden and come in the lifetimes of some people alive today. How might contract law adapt to a situation in which at least one of the contract parties could, from the standpoint of capacity to engage in promising and …


Municipal Attorneys Can Find Answers In The Newly Released Third Edition Of Commercial Litigation In New York State Courts, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 2014

Municipal Attorneys Can Find Answers In The Newly Released Third Edition Of Commercial Litigation In New York State Courts, Patricia E. Salkin

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This article contains a book review of the newest edition of Commercial Litigation in New York State Courts (West), edited by former New York County Lawyers President Robert Haig of Kelley Drye & Warren LLP. The author of this book review details why this treatise is an invaluable addition, not for the library shelf, but for prime desk space on the busy working lawyer’s desk. The author further notes that while the most recent edition of the treatise has been widely reviewed statewide, prior to this book review there has been little, if any, attention to the value of the …


Sale Of Goods Contract Not To Be Performed Within A Year: Is The Uniform Commercial Code Statute Of Frauds Provision Exclusive?, Sidney Kwestel Apr 2012

Sale Of Goods Contract Not To Be Performed Within A Year: Is The Uniform Commercial Code Statute Of Frauds Provision Exclusive?, Sidney Kwestel

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No abstract provided.


Penalty Clauses And The Cisg, Jack Graves Jan 2012

Penalty Clauses And The Cisg, Jack Graves

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Commercial agreements often provide for “fixed sums” payable upon a specified breach. Such agreements are generally enforced in civil law jurisdictions. In contrast, the common law distinguishes between “liquidated damages” and “penalty” clauses, enforcing the former, while invalidating the latter as a penalty. The UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) does not directly address the payment of “fixed sums” as damages, and the validity of “penalty” clauses has, traditionally, been relegated to otherwise applicable domestic national law under CISG Article 4. This traditional orthodoxy has recently been challenged—suggesting that the fate of a penalty clause …


Late Delivery--Measure Of Damages, Sidney Kwestel Jan 2011

Late Delivery--Measure Of Damages, Sidney Kwestel

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No abstract provided.


The Limited Case For Permitting Sme Procurement Preferences In The Wto Agreement On Government Procurement, John Linarelli Jan 2011

The Limited Case For Permitting Sme Procurement Preferences In The Wto Agreement On Government Procurement, John Linarelli

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This is a chapter in the book, Sue Arrowsmith & Robert D. Anderson, The WTO Regime on Government Procurement: Challenge and Reform (Cambridge University Press, 2011). The chapter puts under scrutiny public procurement policies designed to benefit SMEs per se, as small or medium sized enterprises, and to evaluate whether the GPA (and hence possibly other trade agreements liberalizing procurement markets) should be more accommodating to these policies, even though these policies might restrict international trade. The chapter also evaluates whether the GPA should be more accommodating to policies designed to benefit firms controlled by individuals who belong to historically …


Busting Blocks: Revisiting 47 U.S.C. §230 To Address The Lack Of Effective Legal Recourse For Wrongful Inclusion In Spam Filters, Jonathan I. Ezor Jan 2011

Busting Blocks: Revisiting 47 U.S.C. §230 To Address The Lack Of Effective Legal Recourse For Wrongful Inclusion In Spam Filters, Jonathan I. Ezor

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This paper discusses the growth and increasing significance of e-mail in the business and personal environment, and how unsolicited bulk commercial e-mail, also known as spam, has become a significant drain on technical and economic resources. It analyzes the statutory and self-help efforts to combat spam, with a specific focus on block lists and automated spam filters, and describes how alleged spammers have brought lawsuits in U.S. courts claiming they had been wrongfully included within block lists and filters. Finally, it describes some possible claims under U.S. law, then argues for a revision to current statutes to mandate a higher …


Redesigning Global Trade Institutions, John Linarelli Jan 2011

Redesigning Global Trade Institutions, John Linarelli

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This is a draft of an essay for the symposium, 2021: International Law Ten Years from Now, held by the Southwestern Journal of International Law in cooperation with the International Law Association (American Branch) Weekend West. The essay deals with two questions. First, what is to be of the WTO and world trade institutions generally? It examines the rise of regionalism in international trade agreements and possible roles for variable geometry for the WTO. The essay critiques proposals to move towards (or back to) plurilateralism for the WTO. Second, what should trade agreements do? This question goes to the core …


"Competence-Competence And Separability-American Style", Published As Chapter 8 In International Arbitration And International Commercial Law: Synergy, Convergence And Evolution, Jack M. Graves, Yelena Davydan Jan 2011

"Competence-Competence And Separability-American Style", Published As Chapter 8 In International Arbitration And International Commercial Law: Synergy, Convergence And Evolution, Jack M. Graves, Yelena Davydan

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No abstract provided.


Mediation Representation: Representing Clients Anywhere, Harold Abramson Jan 2011

Mediation Representation: Representing Clients Anywhere, Harold Abramson

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No abstract provided.


Express Warranty Of Fitness For A Particular Purpose: Extent Of Overlap In Same Factual Context With Implied Warranty Of Fitness For A Particular Purpose, Sidney Kwestel Jun 2010

Express Warranty Of Fitness For A Particular Purpose: Extent Of Overlap In Same Factual Context With Implied Warranty Of Fitness For A Particular Purpose, Sidney Kwestel

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No abstract provided.


Unrevised Section 2-207--Different Terms Revisited, Sidney Kwestel May 2009

Unrevised Section 2-207--Different Terms Revisited, Sidney Kwestel

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No abstract provided.


Analytical Jurisprudence And The Concept Of Commercial Law, John Linarelli Jan 2009

Analytical Jurisprudence And The Concept Of Commercial Law, John Linarelli

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Commercial lawyers working across borders know that globalization has changed commercial law. To think of commercial law as only the law of states is to have an inadequate understanding of the norms governing commercial transactions. Some have argued for a transnational conception of commercial law, but their grounds of justification have been unpersuasive, often grounded on claims about the common content among national legal systems. Legal positivism is a rich literature on the concept of a legal system and the validity conditions for rules in legal systems, but it has not been used to understand legal order outside or beyond …


Ica And The Writing Requirement: Following Modern Trends Towards Liberalization Or Are We Stuck In 1958?, Jack Graves Jan 2009

Ica And The Writing Requirement: Following Modern Trends Towards Liberalization Or Are We Stuck In 1958?, Jack Graves

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Article 7 of the Model Law was revised in 2006 to liberalize any requirements of form, consistent with modern commercial practices and modern legal trends reflected in national laws. To the extent adopted by national legislatures, either of the two available options under this revision will effectively eliminate any requirement of a “record of consent,” thus making arbitration agreements more easily enforceable in the adopting jurisdiction. However, any such revision of national laws on arbitration based on the revisions of Article 7 of the Model Law will not necessarily have any effect on enforcement of awards in other jurisdictions under …


"Arbitration As A Final Award: Challenges And Enforcement" Published As Chapter 10 In International Sales Law And Arbitration: Problems, Cases, And Commentary, Jack M. Graves, Joseph F. Morrissey Jan 2008

"Arbitration As A Final Award: Challenges And Enforcement" Published As Chapter 10 In International Sales Law And Arbitration: Problems, Cases, And Commentary, Jack M. Graves, Joseph F. Morrissey

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No abstract provided.


The Wto Agreement On Government Procurement And The Uncitral Model Procurement Law: A View From Outside The Region, John Linarelli Jan 2006

The Wto Agreement On Government Procurement And The Uncitral Model Procurement Law: A View From Outside The Region, John Linarelli

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Two of the most significant efforts to bring municipal procurement institutions up to international standards are the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) and the UNCITRAL Model Law on Procurement of Goods, Construction and Services. Though the Model Law has had limited adoptions, it enjoys global influence as a source of norms and practices for good public procurement. The GPA, also reflective of international standards, seems to be on the rise, as more WTO members elect to become GPA contracting parties. This article explores two aspects of these instruments. First, the article explores how the Model Law promotes efficient public …


Party Autonomy In Choice Of Commercial Law: The Failure Of Revised U.C.C. § 1-301 And A Proposal For Broader Reform, Jack M. Graves Jan 2005

Party Autonomy In Choice Of Commercial Law: The Failure Of Revised U.C.C. § 1-301 And A Proposal For Broader Reform, Jack M. Graves

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No abstract provided.


Course Of Performance As Evidence Of Intent Or Waiver: A Meaningful Preference For The Latter And Implications For Newly Broadened Use Under Revised U.C.C. Section 1-303, Jack M. Graves Jan 2004

Course Of Performance As Evidence Of Intent Or Waiver: A Meaningful Preference For The Latter And Implications For Newly Broadened Use Under Revised U.C.C. Section 1-303, Jack M. Graves

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No abstract provided.


The Economics Of Uniform Laws And Uniform Law Making, John Linarelli Jan 2003

The Economics Of Uniform Laws And Uniform Law Making, John Linarelli

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Uniform law making has a substantial history in the twentieth century. It seems to be continuing with some force into the twenty-first century. A significant American law and economics literature, however, questions its merit. By contrast, there have been limited rational choice oriented investigations of unification or centralization of law in Europe. Critics of the uniform law movement in the United States use methods of analysis influenced by public choice theory, political economics and positive political theory. The paper does not call into question the methods and assumptions of these approaches. The paper claims that economic analysis supports public policy …


Time To Try Mediation Of International Commercial Disputes, Harold Abramson Jan 1998

Time To Try Mediation Of International Commercial Disputes, Harold Abramson

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No abstract provided.


Predisposed With Integrity: The Elusive Quest For Justice In Tripartite Arbitrations, Deseriee A. Kennedy Jan 1995

Predisposed With Integrity: The Elusive Quest For Justice In Tripartite Arbitrations, Deseriee A. Kennedy

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No abstract provided.