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Uncommon Carriage, Blake Reid Jan 2024

Uncommon Carriage, Blake Reid

Publications

As states have begun regulating the carriage of speech by “Big Tech” internet platforms, scholars, advocates, and policymakers have increasingly focused their attention on the law of common carriage. Legislators have invoked common carriage to defend social media regulations against First Amendment challenges, making arguments set to take center stage in the Supreme Court’s impending consideration of the NetChoice saga.

This Article challenges the coherence of common carriage as a field and its utility for assessing the constitutionality and policy wisdom of internet regulation. Evaluating the post-Civil War history of common carriage regimes in telecommunications law, this Article illustrates that …


Second Amendment Immigration Exceptionalism, Pratheepan Gulasekaram Jan 2024

Second Amendment Immigration Exceptionalism, Pratheepan Gulasekaram

Publications

This Essay critiques the decision to uphold federal gun restrictions on unlawfully present noncitizens on the basis of "immigration exceptionalism." It argues that courts should avoid applying bespoke constitutionalism to criminal laws, including gun laws, simply because the law regulates noncitizens. This Essay shows why such exceptional modes misapprehend long-decided Supreme Court cases and well-established legal doctrine. Further, it warns that an exceptional approach to Second Amendment claims by unlawfully present noncitizens cannot be cabined to either firearms or the unlawfully present. Rather, it portends a wider gulf in constitutional protections for all noncitizens across a variety of fundamental criminal …


Reconsidering The Public Square, Helen L. Norton Jan 2023

Reconsidering The Public Square, Helen L. Norton

Publications

No abstract provided.


Redistricting’S Ultimate Antidote, Douglas M. Spencer Jan 2023

Redistricting’S Ultimate Antidote, Douglas M. Spencer

Publications

No abstract provided.


Getting To Trustworthiness (But Not Necessarily To Trust), Helen L. Norton Jan 2023

Getting To Trustworthiness (But Not Necessarily To Trust), Helen L. Norton

Publications

As ethicist and political scientist Russell Hardin observed, our willingness to trust an actor generally turns on our own experience with, and thus our own perceptions of, that actor’s motives and that actor’s competence. Changes over time and technology can alter our experience with a particular actor and thus our willingness to trust or distrust that actor.

This symposium essay focuses not on how to encourage the public to trust the media, but instead on how the media’ can behave in trustworthy ways--in other words, how its choices can demonstrate its trustworthy motives and competence. Examples include refusing to amplify …


Immigration Enforcement Preemption, Pratheepan Gulasekaram Jan 2023

Immigration Enforcement Preemption, Pratheepan Gulasekaram

Publications

The Supreme Court's 2012 decision, Arizona v. United States, turned back the most robust and brazen state regulation of immigration in recent memory, striking down several provisions of Arizona's omnibus enforcement law. Notably, the Court did not limit preemption inquiries to conflicts between the state law and congressional statutes. The Court also based its decision on the tension between the state law and Executive Branch enforcement policies. The landmark decision seemed to have settled the Court's approach to immigration enforcement federalism. Yet, a scant eight years after Arizona, in Kansas v. Garcia, the Court upheld Kansas's prosecutions of noncitizens who …


The Second Amendment's "People" Problem, Pratheepan Gulasekaram Jan 2023

The Second Amendment's "People" Problem, Pratheepan Gulasekaram

Publications

The Second Amendment has a “people” problem. In 2008, District of Columbia v. Heller expanded the scope of the Second Amendment, grounding it in an individualized right of self-protection. At the same time, Heller’s rhetoric limited “the people” of the Second Amendment to “law-abiding citizens.” In 2022, New York State Rifle & Pistol Ass’n v. Bruen doubled down on the Amendment’s self-defense rationales but, once again, framed the right as one possessed by “citizens.” In between and after the two Supreme Court cases, several lower federal courts, including eight federal courts of appeals, wrestled with the question whether the right …


Electoral Maintenance, Douglas M. Spencer Jan 2023

Electoral Maintenance, Douglas M. Spencer

Publications

According to the U.S. Supreme Court, the right to vote is fundamental because it is preservative of all rights, and yet in many cases legal protections for the right to vote fall short of protections for the other rights that voting is meant to preserve. Redefining the right to vote cannot solve this problem alone. Election administration has at least as much consequence on the right to vote as any particular definition or legal theory. In Democracy’s Bureaucracy, Michael Morse draws our attention to one of the most important yet understudied issues of election administration: voter list maintenance. In addition …


The Press’S Responsibilities As A First Amendment Institution, Helen Norton Jan 2022

The Press’S Responsibilities As A First Amendment Institution, Helen Norton

Publications

No abstract provided.


Manipulation And The First Amendment, Helen Norton Jan 2022

Manipulation And The First Amendment, Helen Norton

Publications

No abstract provided.


Distrust, Negative First Amendment Theory, And The Regulation Of Lies, Helen Norton Jan 2022

Distrust, Negative First Amendment Theory, And The Regulation Of Lies, Helen Norton

Publications

This symposium essay explores the relationship between “negative” First Amendment theory—rooted in distrust of the government’s potential for regulatory abuse—and the government’s regulation of lies. Negative First Amendment theory explains why many lies are protected from governmental regulation—even when the regulation neither punishes nor chills valuable speech (as was the case, for example, of the statute at issue in United States v. Alvarez). But negative theory, like any theory, also needs limiting principles that explain when the government’s regulation is constitutionally justifiable.

In my view, we engage in the principled application of negative theory when we invoke it in (the …


A Framework For Thinking About The Government’S Speech And The Constitution, Helen Norton Jan 2022

A Framework For Thinking About The Government’S Speech And The Constitution, Helen Norton

Publications

This Essay sketches a framework for mapping and navigating the constitutional implications of the government’s speech—and then illustrates this framework’s application to some contemporary constitutional disputes. My hope is that this framework will help us sort through the constitutional puzzles triggered by the government’s expressive choices—puzzles that confront courts and policymakers with increasing frequency. What I call “first-stage government speech questions” require us to determine when the government is speaking itself and when it is instead (or also) regulating others’ speech. This determination matters because the rules that apply to the government as speaker are very different from those that …


Agonistic Privacy & Equitable Democracy, Scott Skinner-Thompson Jan 2021

Agonistic Privacy & Equitable Democracy, Scott Skinner-Thompson

Publications

This Essay argues that legal privacy protections—which enable individuals to control their visibility within public space—play a vital role in disrupting the subordinating, antidemocratic impacts of surveillance and should be at the forefront of efforts to reform the operation of both digital and physical public space. Robust privacy protections are a touchstone for empowering members of different marginalized groups with the ability to safely participate in both the physical and digital public squares, while also preserving space for vibrant subaltern counterpublics. By increasing heterogeneity within the public sphere, privacy can also help decrease polarization by breaking down echo chambers and …


Structural Deregulation, Jody Freeman, Sharon Jacobs Jan 2021

Structural Deregulation, Jody Freeman, Sharon Jacobs

Publications

Modern critics of the administrative state portray agencies as omnipotent behemoths, invested with vast delegated powers and largely unaccountable to the political branches of government. This picture, we argue, understates agency vulnerability to an increasingly powerful presidency. One source of presidential control over agencies in particular has been overlooked: the systematic undermining of an agency’s ability to execute its statutory mandate. This strategy, which we call “structural deregulation,” is a dangerous and underappreciated aspect of what then-Professor, now-Justice Elena Kagan termed “presidential administration.”

Structural deregulation attacks the core capacities of the bureaucracy. The phenomenon encompasses such practices as leaving agencies …


How The Supreme Court Talks About The Press (And Why We Should Care), Helen Norton Jan 2021

How The Supreme Court Talks About The Press (And Why We Should Care), Helen Norton

Publications

No abstract provided.


Free Speech And Democracy: A Primer For Twenty-First Century Reformers, Toni M. Massaro, Helen Norton Jan 2021

Free Speech And Democracy: A Primer For Twenty-First Century Reformers, Toni M. Massaro, Helen Norton

Publications

Left unfettered, the twenty-first-century speech environment threatens to undermine critical pieces of the democratic project. Speech operates today in ways unimaginable not only to the First Amendment’s eighteenth-century writers but also to its twentieth-century champions. Key among these changes is that speech is cheaper and more abundant than ever before, and can be exploited — by both government and powerful private actors alike — as a tool for controlling others’ speech and frustrating meaningful public discourse and democratic outcomes.

The Court’s longstanding First Amendment doctrine rests on a model of how speech works that is no longer accurate. This invites …


Government Falsehoods, Democratic Harm, And The Constitution, Helen Norton Jan 2021

Government Falsehoods, Democratic Harm, And The Constitution, Helen Norton

Publications

No abstract provided.


Catalyzing Privacy Law, Anupam Chander, Margot E. Kaminski, William Mcgeveran Jan 2021

Catalyzing Privacy Law, Anupam Chander, Margot E. Kaminski, William Mcgeveran

Publications

The United States famously lacks a comprehensive federal data privacy law. In the past year, however, over half the states have proposed broad privacy bills or have established task forces to propose possible privacy legislation. Meanwhile, congressional committees are holding hearings on multiple privacy bills. What is catalyzing this legislative momentum? Some believe that Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which came into force in 2018, is the driving factor. But with the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) which took effect in January 2020, California has emerged as an alternate contender in the race to set the new standard for …


Sanctuary Cities And The Power Of The Purse: An Executive Dole Test, Douglas M. Spencer Jan 2021

Sanctuary Cities And The Power Of The Purse: An Executive Dole Test, Douglas M. Spencer

Publications

A constitutional clash is brewing. Cities and counties are flexing their muscles to frustrate national immigration policy while the federal Executive is threatening to interfere with local law enforcement decision making and funding. Although the federal government generally has plenary authority over immigration law, the Constitution forbids the commandeering of state and local officials to enforce federal law against their will. One exception to this anti-commandeering principle is the Spending Clause of Article I that permits Congress to condition the receipt of federal funds on compliance with federal law. These conditions, according to more than 30 years of Supreme Court …


American Common Market Redux, Richard Collins Jan 2021

American Common Market Redux, Richard Collins

Publications

The Tennessee Wine case, decided in June of 2019, had a major effect on the path of the law for an issue not argued in it. The Supreme Court affirmed invalidity of a protectionist state liquor regulation that discriminated against interstate commerce in violation of the dormant commerce clause doctrine. Its holding rejected a vigorous defense based on the special terms of the Twenty-first Amendment that ended Prohibition—an issue of interest only to those involved in markets for alcoholic drinks. However, the Court’s opinion removed serious doubts about validity of the Doctrine itself, even though the petitioner and supporting amici …


Abortion Rights In The Supreme Court: A Tale Of Three Wedges, Jennifer S. Hendricks Jan 2021

Abortion Rights In The Supreme Court: A Tale Of Three Wedges, Jennifer S. Hendricks

Publications

No abstract provided.


The Fourth Amendment’S Forgotten Free-Speech Dimensions, Aya Gruber Jan 2021

The Fourth Amendment’S Forgotten Free-Speech Dimensions, Aya Gruber

Publications

No abstract provided.


The Right To Contest Ai, Margot E. Kaminski, Jennifer M. Urban Jan 2021

The Right To Contest Ai, Margot E. Kaminski, Jennifer M. Urban

Publications

Artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly used to make important decisions, from university admissions selections to loan determinations to the distribution of COVID-19 vaccines. These uses of AI raise a host of concerns about discrimination, accuracy, fairness, and accountability.

In the United States, recent proposals for regulating AI focus largely on ex ante and systemic governance. This Article argues instead—or really, in addition—for an individual right to contest AI decisions, modeled on due process but adapted for the digital age. The European Union, in fact, recognizes such a right, and a growing number of institutions around the world now call for …


Living The Sacred: Indigenous Peoples And Religious Freedom, Kristen A. Carpenter Jan 2021

Living The Sacred: Indigenous Peoples And Religious Freedom, Kristen A. Carpenter

Publications

No abstract provided.


I Call Rigamarole (Or Taradiddle) On 'Originalist' Justices, Rachel A. Van Cleave Oct 2020

I Call Rigamarole (Or Taradiddle) On 'Originalist' Justices, Rachel A. Van Cleave

Publications

Last week, while Supreme Court nominee Amy Coney Barrett was holding forth about how she applies originalism, invoking her mentor and former boss Justice Antonin Scalia, current Supreme Court justices were undermining an originalist opinion authored by Scalia. Nominee Barrett explained originalism: “I understand [the Constitution] to have the meaning that it had at the time people ratified it. So that meaning doesn’t change over time, and it’s not up to me to update it or infuse my own policy views into it.”

Oral arguments in Torres v. Madrid make clear that, for some justices, originalism is appropriate, except when …


The 2020 Supreme Court Term In The Shadow Of Blm, Metoo, And The Notorious Rbg, Rachel A. Van Cleave Oct 2020

The 2020 Supreme Court Term In The Shadow Of Blm, Metoo, And The Notorious Rbg, Rachel A. Van Cleave

Publications

The upcoming Supreme Court term comes in the context of widespread protests about police violence, the criminal (in)justice system, continuing fallout from the #MeToo movement, and the death of iconic Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. The court has agreed to hear cases that involve the enduring white supremist legacy of a Louisiana law that allowed for non-unanimous jury criminal convictions, standards for evaluating excessive use of force by police, what is required to sentence a juvenile to life without parole, and military sexual violence.

It is imperative that the Court acknowledge the difficult truths that Black Lives Matter protesters, …


The Failure Of The Criminal Procedure Revolution, William T. Pizzi Jan 2020

The Failure Of The Criminal Procedure Revolution, William T. Pizzi

Publications

No abstract provided.


Reproductive Health Care Exceptionalism And The Pandemic, Helen Norton Jan 2020

Reproductive Health Care Exceptionalism And The Pandemic, Helen Norton

Publications

No abstract provided.


Narrowly Tailoring The Covid-19 Response, Craig Konnoth Jan 2020

Narrowly Tailoring The Covid-19 Response, Craig Konnoth

Publications

No abstract provided.


Do Abolitionism And Constitutionalism Mix?, Aya Gruber Jan 2020

Do Abolitionism And Constitutionalism Mix?, Aya Gruber

Publications

No abstract provided.