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Peter K. Yu

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Data Exclusivities In The Age Of Big Data, Biologics, And Plurilaterals, Peter K. Yu Mar 2019

Data Exclusivities In The Age Of Big Data, Biologics, And Plurilaterals, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

The past decade has seen many new developments impacting the intellectual property system. The introduction of big data analytics has transformed the fields of biotechnology and bioinformatics while ushering in major advances in drug development, clinical practices, and medical financing. The arrival of biologics and personalized medicines has also revolutionized the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries. In addition, the emergence of bilateral, regional, and plurilateral trade agreements have raised serious, and at times difficult, questions concerning the evolution of domestic and international intellectual property standards.

One topic linking all three developments together concerns the establishment of international standards to protect clinical …


Three Questions That Will Make You Rethink The U.S.-China Intellectual Property Debate, 7 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 412 (2008), Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Three Questions That Will Make You Rethink The U.S.-China Intellectual Property Debate, 7 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 412 (2008), Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

Commentators have attributed China’s piracy and counterfeiting problems to the lack of political will on the part of Chinese authorities. They have also cited the many political, social, economic, cultural, judicial, and technological problems that have arisen as a result of the country’s rapid economic transformation and accession to the WTO. This provocative essay advances a third explanation. It argues that the failure to resolve piracy and counterfeiting problems in China can be partly attributed to the lack of political will on the part of U.S. policymakers and the American public to put intellectual property protection at the very top …


The International Enclosure Movement, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

The International Enclosure Movement, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

Most of the recent intellectual property literature concerns the enclosure of the public domain or the one-way ratchet of intellectual property protection. While these concerns are significant and rightly placed, a different, and perhaps more important, enclosure movement is currently taking place at the international level. Instead of the public domain, this concurrent movement encloses the policy space of individual countries and requires them to adopt one-size-fits-all legal standards that ignore their local needs, national interests, technological capabilities, institutional capacities, and public health conditions. As a result of this enclosure, countries are forced to adopt inappropriate intellectual property systems, and …


The Political Economy Of Data Protection, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

The Political Economy Of Data Protection, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

Information is the lifeblood of a knowledge-based economy. The control of data and the ability to translate them into meaningful information is indispensable to businesspeople, policymakers, scientists, engineers, researchers, students, and consumers. Having useful, and at times exclusive, information improves productivity, advances education and training, and helps create a more informed citizenry. In the past two decades, those who collected or obtained access to a large amount of data began to explore ways to use the collected data as an income stream. Because the then-existing laws did not offer adequate protection for that particular purpose, they actively lobbied for stronger …


The Trips Enforcement Dispute, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

The Trips Enforcement Dispute, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

2010 marks the fifteenth anniversary of the entering into force of the WTO TRIPS Agreement. When the Agreement was adopted, commentators quickly extolled the unprecedented benefits of having a set of multilateral enforcement norms built into the international intellectual property regime. Although intellectual property rights holders continue to rely on protection offered by the TRIPS Agreement, many of them have now become frustrated with the inadequacy of such protection. The agreement’s enforcement provisions, in particular, have been criticized as weak, primitive, and obsolete.

After more than a decade of implementation, these provisions finally became the subject of a dispute before …


The Harmonization Game: What Basketball Can Teach About Intellectual Property And International Trade, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

The Harmonization Game: What Basketball Can Teach About Intellectual Property And International Trade, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

In the recent World Men's Basketball Championships in Indianapolis, Team USA found out painfully that the international game is very different from what they play at home and that the gap between USA Basketball and the rest of the world has been closing. While the United States' losses might have a significant impact on how the country will prepare for the 2004 Olympics in Athens and on how Americans train youngsters to play basketball, their teachings go beyond basketball. The international harmonization process is a game with different rules, different officials, and players with different visions and mindsets. By watching …


The Rise And Decline Of The Intellectual Property Powers, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

The Rise And Decline Of The Intellectual Property Powers, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

Since its reopening to foreign trade in the late 1990s, China has been the poster child of intellectual property piracy and counterfeiting. Virtually every year, the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) lists China on its watch list or priority watch list. The country’s piracy and counterfeiting problems have also been frequently mentioned in connection with international intellectual property enforcement initiatives, such as the highly controversial Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) and the equally problematic domestic legislative proposals for heightened copyright enforcement. In a recent report, the International Trade Commission estimated that “firms in the U.S. [intellectual property]–intensive economy …


The Global Intellectual Property Order And Its Undetermined Future, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

The Global Intellectual Property Order And Its Undetermined Future, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

As an introduction to the inaugural issue of the new WIPO Journal, this essay highlights some of the key recent developments in the intellectual property field. The essay begins by discussing the increasingly complex, and at times incoherent, international legal order governing the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. It shows how much the system has been transformed since the launch of the Paris and Berne Conventions in the 1880s.

The essay then examines the increasingly polarized debate on intellectual property law and policy. Although the debate’s growing divisiveness is understandable, given the rapid expansion of intellectual property rights …


The Confucian Challenge To Intellectual Property Reforms, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

The Confucian Challenge To Intellectual Property Reforms, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

Written for a special issue on intellectual property and culture, this essay examines the longstanding claim that culture presents a major barrier to intellectual property reforms. In the context of Asia -- China, in particular -- that claim invokes Confucianism, a non-Western culture, to account for the region's -- or the country's -- continued struggle with massive piracy and counterfeiting problems. The claim draws on a century-old tradition of condemning Confucianism for being antithetical to Western modernity.

The first half of this essay focuses on the Confucian challenge to intellectual property reforms in China. Drawing on the important distinction between …


The Escalating Copyright Wars, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

The Escalating Copyright Wars, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

Piracy is one of the biggest threats confronting the entertainment industry today. Every year, the industry is estimated to lose billions of dollars in revenue and faces the potential loss of hundreds of thousands of jobs. To protect itself against Internet pirates, the entertainment industry has launched the latest copyright war. So far, the industry has been winning. Among its trophies are the enactment of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Vivendi Universal's defeat and purchase of MP3.com, the movie studios' victory in the DeCSS litigation, the bankruptcy and subsequent sale of Napster and its recent relaunch as a legitimate subscription-based …


The Competing Objectives Underlying The Protection Of Intangible Cultural Heritage, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

The Competing Objectives Underlying The Protection Of Intangible Cultural Heritage, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

One topic that has received considerable academic and policy attention concerns the key objectives underlying the establishment of this new framework. To help us develop a better and deeper understanding, this article outlines eight most widely documented objectives. While some of these objectives overlap or conflict with each other, others touch on issues that are of only marginal concern to some constituencies. By focusing on each objective in turn, this article aims to underscore the divergent, and at times competing, interests among the many stakeholders involved in the framework.

Although some readers may find the description of all eight underlying …


Trips Enforcement And Developing Countries, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Trips Enforcement And Developing Countries, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

No abstract provided.


Ten Common Questions About Intellectual Property And Human Rights, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Ten Common Questions About Intellectual Property And Human Rights, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

No abstract provided.


Trips And Its Achilles' Heel, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Trips And Its Achilles' Heel, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

No abstract provided.


Taking Atrip Down Memory Lane, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Taking Atrip Down Memory Lane, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

The International Association for the Advancement of Teaching and Research in Intellectual Property (ATRIP) was founded in Geneva in July 1981, with the support and assistance of the World Intellectual Property Organization. This professional academic association now includes hundreds of intellectual property professors and researchers from around the world. As the final contribution to the "ATRIP Passes 30" Symposium, which collects the reminiscences of the past and current ATRIP presidents, this short essay provides, in chronological order, some key information about all the pre-ATRIP Round Tables and ATRIP Congresses. This short history not only documents the historical origins, rapid growth …


Trips And Its Discontents, Peter K. Yu, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Trips And Its Discontents, Peter K. Yu, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

This Article traces the development of the TRIPs Agreement and explores why less developed countries were dissatisfied with the international intellectual property system. It also looks at the future challenges confronting these countries and what they need to do to preserve the goals and intentions behind the TRIPs negotiations. The Article begins by describing the four different narratives used to explain the origins of the TRIPs Agreement. It contends that, while none of these narratives is complete, each of them provides valuable insight into understanding the context in which the Agreement was created. The Article then explores why less developed …


Succession By Estoppel: Hong Kong's Succession To The Iccpr, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Succession By Estoppel: Hong Kong's Succession To The Iccpr, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

This Article argues that Hong Kong succeeded to the ICCPR and the reporting obligations under the Covenant. Part I of the Article traces the development of the ICCPR in Hong Kong before 1997. This development is important because the Joint Declaration provides only for the continuation of the ICCPR as applied to Hong Kong before the transition. Parts II and III examine whether Hong Kong succeeded to the ICCPR. Since the Covenant is ambiguous as to whether the contracting parties are limited to sovereign states, Part II evaluates whether Hong Kong satisfies the membership requirement as stipulated in Article 48(1) …


Moral Rights 2.0, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Moral Rights 2.0, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

When the protection of moral rights is brought up in the United States, commentators have always emphasized the differences between continental Europe and the United States.2 Cases that have been widely used as textbook illustrations include Soc. Le Chant de Monde v. Soc. Fox Europe3 and Turner Entertainment Co. v. Huston.4 While the Anglo-American copyright regime and the French author’s right (droit d’auteur) regime were quite similar in the eighteenth century, 5 the protection of moral rights did not attain formal international recognition until 1928.6 The gap between the U.S. and French systems has also grown considerably since the enactment …


Still Dissatisfied After All These Years: Intellectual Property, Post-Wto China, And The Avoidable Cycle Of Futility, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Still Dissatisfied After All These Years: Intellectual Property, Post-Wto China, And The Avoidable Cycle Of Futility, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

No abstract provided.


Tpp And Trans-Pacific Perplexities, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Tpp And Trans-Pacific Perplexities, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

In the past few years, the United States has been busy negotiating the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement with countries in the Asia-Pacific region. These countries include Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam. Although it remains unclear which chapters or provisions will be included in the final text of the TPP Agreement, the negotiations have been quite controversial. In addition to the usual concerns about having high standards that are heavily lobbied by industries and arguably inappropriate for many participating countries, the TPP negotiations have been heavily criticized for their secrecy and lack …


Intellectual Property And Human Rights In The Nonmultilateral Era, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Intellectual Property And Human Rights In The Nonmultilateral Era, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

In the past decade, countries have actively established bilateral, plurilateral and regional trade and investment agreements, such as the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement. Although commentators have examined the conflict and tension between intellectual property and human rights in the past, the arrival of these agreements has ushered in a new era of nonmultilateralism that warrants a reexamination of the complex interrelationship between intellectual property and human rights.

This article closely examines the human rights impact of the intellectual property provisions in TRIPS-plus nonmultilateral agreements. It begins by outlining the challenges inherent in any analysis of the …


Introduction—Intellectual Property At A Crossroads: Why History Matters, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Introduction—Intellectual Property At A Crossroads: Why History Matters, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

No abstract provided.


International Intellectual Property Scholars Series: Intellectual Property And Asian Values, Peter K. Yu, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

International Intellectual Property Scholars Series: Intellectual Property And Asian Values, Peter K. Yu, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

From Niall Ferguson to Fareed Zakaria, commentators have paid growing attention to the rise of Asia and its implications for the West. Recent years have also seen the emergence of a growing volume of literature on intellectual property developments in Asia, in particular China and India. Few commentators, however, have explored whether Asian countries will take unified positions on international intellectual property law and policy.

Commissioned for the Inaugural International Intellectual Property Scholars Series, this article fills the void by examining intellectual property developments in relation to the decades-old 'Asian values' debate. Drawing on the region's diversity in economic and …


Intellectual Property Geographies, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Intellectual Property Geographies, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

Written for a special issue on intellectual property and geography, this article outlines three sets of mismatches that demonstrate the vitality, utility and richness of analyzing intellectual property developments through a geographical lens. The article begins by examining economic geography, focusing on the tensions and conflicts between territorial borders and sub-national innovation (including those relating to obligations under the WTO TRIPS Agreement). This article then examines the oft-found mismatch between political geography and cultural geography. Illustrating this mismatch is the challenge of protecting traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions. The article concludes by exploring the growing mismatch between legal geography …


Four Common Misconceptions About Copyright Piracy, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Four Common Misconceptions About Copyright Piracy, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

Copyright piracy is one of the most difficult, yet important, transnational problems in the twenty-first century. Although legal literature has discussed copyright piracy extensively, commentators rarely offer a "grand unified theory" on this global problem. Rather, they give nuanced analyses, discussing the many aspects of the problem-political, social, economic, cultural, and historical.

This nuanced discussion, however, is missing in the current public debate. To capture the readers' emotion and to generate support for proposed legislative and executive actions, the debate often oversimplifies the complicated picture by overexagerrating a particular aspect of the piracy problem or by offering an abbreviated, easy-to-understand, …


Intellectual Property Training And Education For Development, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Intellectual Property Training And Education For Development, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

No abstract provided.


From Pirates To Partners (Episode Ii): Protecting Intellectual Property In Post-Wto China, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

From Pirates To Partners (Episode Ii): Protecting Intellectual Property In Post-Wto China, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

In "From Pirates to Partners: Protecting Intellectual Property in China in the Twenty-First Century," I criticized the ineffectiveness and short-sightedness of the American foreign intellectual property policy toward China. As I argued, the coercive approach taken by the U.S. administrations created a "cycle of futility" in which China and the United States repeatedly threatened each other with trade wars, only to back down in the eleventh hour with a compromise that did not provide sustained improvements in intellectual property protection.

Since I wrote that article five years ago, China has joined the WTO and undertook a complete overhaul of its …


From Pirates To Partners: Protecting Intellectual Property In China In The Twenty-First Century, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

From Pirates To Partners: Protecting Intellectual Property In China In The Twenty-First Century, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the United States repeatedly threatened China with a series of economic sanctions, trade wars, non-renewal of most-favored-nation status, and opposition to entry into the World Trade Organization. Such threats eventually led to compromises by the Chinese government and the signing of intellectual property agreements in 1992, 1995, and 1996. Despite these agreements, intellectual property piracy remains rampant in China.

Although China initially had serious concerns about the United States's threats of trade sanctions, the constant use of such threats by the U.S. government has led China to change its reaction and approach. By …


Five Oft-Repeated Questions About China's Recent Rise As A Patent Power, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Five Oft-Repeated Questions About China's Recent Rise As A Patent Power, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

Policymakers, industries, commentators and the media have widely criticized China for its failure to adequately protect intellectual property rights. In recent years, however, the discourse on intellectual property developments in China has slowly begun to change. Such a change is the most notable in the patent area. Today, China is already among the top five countries filing patent applications through the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). In 2011, the number of PCT applications increased by 33.4% to 16,406, earning China the fourth spot, behind only the United States, Japan and Germany. Among all the applicants, ZTE Corp. and Huawei Technologies had …


Enforcement, Economics And Estimates, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Enforcement, Economics And Estimates, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

This article focuses on intellectual property enforcement, a topic that is of great importance to both developed and less developed countries. It begins by refuting the simple, and often politically motivated, claim that many countries fail to provide effective intellectual property enforcement by virtue of their lack of political will. Drawing on the latest economic literature, this article shows that high enforcement standards come with a hefty price tag and difficult trade-offs.

The article then outlines the challenges in measuring the cross-border economic impact of piracy and counterfeiting. As an illustration, the article discusses the ongoing effort by the US …