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Criminal Procedure On The American Frontier: A Study Of The Statutes And Court Records Of Michigan Territory 1805-1825, William Wirt Blume Dec 1958

Criminal Procedure On The American Frontier: A Study Of The Statutes And Court Records Of Michigan Territory 1805-1825, William Wirt Blume

Michigan Law Review

The area north and east of Lake Michigan, organized in 1805 as Michigan Territory, was first organized in 1796 as Wayne County of the Northwest Territory. In 1800 the western half of the county, and in 1803 the eastern half, became parts of Indiana Territory, and so remained until July 1805. In 1818 Michigan Territory was expanded westward so as to include all of the area north of Illinois to the Mississippi River.


Civil Procedure - Jurisdiction - Service Of Process On Foreign Television Corporation, Arnold Henson S.Ed. Dec 1958

Civil Procedure - Jurisdiction - Service Of Process On Foreign Television Corporation, Arnold Henson S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Defendant, a West Virginia corporation, operated a television station in Huntington, West Virginia. Its telecasts regularly reached into Boyd County, Kentucky, where part of its customary viewing audience was located. During a twelve-month period in 1954-1955 the corporation derived $71,310.30 in advertising revenue from Kentucky firms, although the contracts for this advertising were made outside Kentucky. In the course of a newscast defendant published an alleged libel against plaintiff, and suit was brought in Boyd County Court. Substituted service of process was made on the Secretary of State in accordance with the Kentucky "doing business" statute, and defendant ...


Labor Law - Hot Cargo Clauses No Defense To Secondary Boycotts, Joel D. Tauber S.Ed. Dec 1958

Labor Law - Hot Cargo Clauses No Defense To Secondary Boycotts, Joel D. Tauber S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

In August 1954 the Sand Door & Plywood Company sold a general contractor, through a millwork contractor, certain non-union-made Paine Lumber Company doors. The union notified its members at the construction site that the doors should not be hung because of the "hot cargo" · clause in their union contract. After negotiations between Sand Door and the union failed, Sand Door filed charges alleging secondary boycott action by the union in violation of section 8(b)(4)(A) of ·the amended National Labor Relations Act. A Board order was issued and enforced by the court of appeals. On certiorari to the United ...


Restitution - Availabilty As An Alternative Remedy Where Plaintiff Has Fully Performed A Contract To Provide Goods Or Services, Jerome K. Walsh Jr. Dec 1958

Restitution - Availabilty As An Alternative Remedy Where Plaintiff Has Fully Performed A Contract To Provide Goods Or Services, Jerome K. Walsh Jr.

Michigan Law Review

It is hornbook law that restitution is sometimes available as an alternative remedy to a party who has suffered a breach of contract after having conferred a benefit on the defaulting party. It is equally clear, however, that in many cases where a benefit has been conferred, the plaintiff may not elect to sue for the value of his performance but is left to his action for damages on the contract. The cases which are concerned with one or the other of the above rules constitute a large portion of the area of the law called Restitution, and no attempt ...


"Overruling" Opinions In The Supreme Court, Albert P. Blaustein, Andrew H. Field Dec 1958

"Overruling" Opinions In The Supreme Court, Albert P. Blaustein, Andrew H. Field

Michigan Law Review

Despite its vaunted reputation for rectitude, the United States Supreme Court has been the first to deny its own judicial infallibility. For in at least ninety decisions, dating as far back as 1810 and as recent as its 1956 Term, the Supreme Court has made public confession of error by overruling its previous determinations.

This is a study of those ninety decisions-a statistical accounting of overruling cases and cases overruled, and a listing of the judges who agreed and disagreed with what was said and done. And this is a study of the "right to be wrong" -an inquiry into ...


Corporations - Derivative Suits - Stockholder Demand As Condition Precedent, W. Stanley Walch S.Ed. Dec 1958

Corporations - Derivative Suits - Stockholder Demand As Condition Precedent, W. Stanley Walch S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

A derivative suit alleging directors' fraud was brought by a minority shareholder, but there was no allegation of a demand for relief having been made on the corporation's stockholders prior to bringing the suit. The plaintiff did allege, however, that it was useless and impossible for him to make demand on the stockholders because the complaint charged directors' fraud which was a void act beyond the power of the stockholders to ratify, and secondly because it would be highly unreasonable to require plaintiff to make a demand for relief on more than 100,000 stockholders of the corporation. Delaware ...


Clark & Sohn: World Peace Through World Law, Harding Bancroft Dec 1958

Clark & Sohn: World Peace Through World Law, Harding Bancroft

Michigan Law Review

A Review of World Peace Through World Law. By Grenville Clark and Louis B. Sohn.


Constitutional Law - Right To Jury Trial In Indirect Criminal Contempts In Federal Courts, Denis T. Rice S.Ed. Dec 1958

Constitutional Law - Right To Jury Trial In Indirect Criminal Contempts In Federal Courts, Denis T. Rice S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Should constitutional provisions for jury trial apply to contempts committed outside the physical presence of a federal court? The United States Supreme Court, in the recent case of Green v. United States, reviewed this long disputed question. The case involved two Communist Party leaders who had been convicted of Smith Act violations and then had "jumped bail" when they disappeared in violation of surrender orders requiring their presence in court for sentencing. After four and a half years as fugitives they surrendered in 1956 and were charged with criminal contempt of court. Following a so-called "summary" hearing (without the benefit ...


Federal Taxation - Transferee Liability Of Insurance Beneficiary, John Gelder S.Ed. Dec 1958

Federal Taxation - Transferee Liability Of Insurance Beneficiary, John Gelder S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Nearly six years after taxpayer died income tax deficiencies were determined against his estate. Since his estate was insolvent the Commissioner sought to impose transferee liability under section 311 of the 1939 code (now I.R.C. section 6901) on plaintiff, taxpayer's widow, as beneficiary of" her husband's life insurance. The Tax Court, applying federal law, held plaintiff liable for the entire deficiency since the proceeds received by her exceeded that amount. The court of appeals, applying state law, reversed and ruled that the beneficiary was not a "transferee" within the meaning of section 311 even to the ...


Insurance - Federal Regulation - Authority Of Federal Trade Commission To Regulate False Advertising By Insurance Companies As Affected By The Mccarran-Ferguson Act, Charles C. Moore S.Ed. Dec 1958

Insurance - Federal Regulation - Authority Of Federal Trade Commission To Regulate False Advertising By Insurance Companies As Affected By The Mccarran-Ferguson Act, Charles C. Moore S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Petitioner, the FTC, issued cease and desist orders prohibiting respondent health and accident insurance companies, doing business in interstate commerce, from disseminating allegedly false and deceptive advertising through the medium of local agents. These orders, issued pursuant to the FTC act, sought to proscribe such activity both in states that had statutes prohibiting unfair and deceptive practices and in states that did not. The Courts of Appeals for the Fifth and Sixth Circuits concluded that the FTC had no authority to regulate such advertising in states which had prohibitory legislation. On certiorari to the United States Supreme Court, held, affirmed ...


Personal Property - Gifts - Delivery To Third Party, Thomas A. Dieterich S.Ed. Dec 1958

Personal Property - Gifts - Delivery To Third Party, Thomas A. Dieterich S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

A husband changed the beneficiary of his life insurance policy from his wife to his mother during a temporary separation and failed to restore his wife as beneficiary after reconciliation. Subsequent to his death the mother, in the presence· of the wife, signed a memorandum "waiving" her policy rights "to" the wife and handed the writing to the insurer's district manager. Before payment of the proceeds the mother discovered that the wife was the beneficiary of another policy and attempted to revoke the memorandum. In insurer's interpleader action, a gift to the wife was recognized. On appeal, held ...


Sales - Credit Sales - Application Of Usury Statute, Jerome S. Traum S.Ed. Dec 1958

Sales - Credit Sales - Application Of Usury Statute, Jerome S. Traum S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Plaintiff bought a tractor from defendant's agent for $2950 and received a trade-in allowance of $1180, leaving an unpaid balance of $1770. Defendant's agent agreed to arrange for a loan from defendant for the balance of the purchase price, without stating a time price for the tractor different from the cash price previously discussed. The loan was made, and plaintiff signed a note and chattel mortgage in the amount of $2161.84, payable in two annual installments. The $391.84 excess over the balance due exceeded the maximum legal rate of interest allowed by Nebraska's Installment Loan ...


Unfair Competition - False Advertising - Scope Of Federal Jurisdiction Under Section 43(A) Of Lanham Act, John D. Kelly S.Ed. Dec 1958

Unfair Competition - False Advertising - Scope Of Federal Jurisdiction Under Section 43(A) Of Lanham Act, John D. Kelly S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Plaintiff brought suit in a state court seeking injunctive relief, alleging unfair competition by defendant in manufacturing and selling slavish copies of plaintiff's swimsuits. One of the six causes of action alleged in the complaint was based on a violation of section 43 (a) of the Lanham Act. Defendant had the suit removed to federal district court. On motion to remand, held, denied. The alleged violation of section 43 (a) created a federal right of action within the original jurisdiction of the federal courts. Catalina, Inc. v. Gem Swimwear, Inc., (S.D. N.Y. 1958) 162 F. Supp. 911.


Future Interests - Rule Against Perpetuities - Recent Statutory Amendment In New York, Paul K. Gaston S.Ed. Dec 1958

Future Interests - Rule Against Perpetuities - Recent Statutory Amendment In New York, Paul K. Gaston S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

After 128 years of criticism and confusion and enormous amounts of litigation, New York has amended its statutory rule against perpetuities. The old rule provided that the absolute power of alienation could not be suspended for longer, than "two lives in being" at the creation of the estate plus a minority exception in some cases. Under the new rule the absolute power of alienation can be suspended for a period measured by any number of "lives in being" at the creation of the estate so long as they are not "so designated or so numerous as to make proof of ...


Loss & Cowett: Blue Sky Law, Homer D. Crotty Dec 1958

Loss & Cowett: Blue Sky Law, Homer D. Crotty

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Blue Sky Law. By Louis Loss and Edward W. Cowett.


Wills - Testamentary Additions To The Corpus Of An Inter Vivos Trust-Recent Judicial And Legislative Developments, Richard I. Singer S.Ed. Nov 1958

Wills - Testamentary Additions To The Corpus Of An Inter Vivos Trust-Recent Judicial And Legislative Developments, Richard I. Singer S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

The shape of the law relating to testamentary additions to the corpus of an inter vivos trust was outlined in 1951 by Professor George E. Palmer in an article entitled "Testamentary Dispositions to the Trustee of an Inter Vivos Trust." It is the purpose of this comment to consider recent developments in this area. A generalized formulation of the problem to be dealt with is-may a valid bequest be made to the trustee of an inter vivos trust without setting out the terms of the trust in the will?


Military Law - Service Discharge - Judicial Review Of Discharge Classifications, Edward M. Heppenstall Nov 1958

Military Law - Service Discharge - Judicial Review Of Discharge Classifications, Edward M. Heppenstall

Michigan Law Review

In 1954 petitioners were discharged from the Army in form other than "honorable." Petitioner Harmon had previously been questioned by Army officials regarding alleged Communist affiliations. Since most of the charges against him were based on conduct antedating his induction into the Army and since his military record had been "excellent," petitioner Harmon was informed that he would not be discharged as disloyal or subversive pursuant to Army regulations, but would be retained in his then present grade, assigned nonsensitive duties, and given a discharge at the end of his career appropriate to the character of the service he had ...


The Legal Nature Of Collective Bargaining Agreements, Archibald Cox Nov 1958

The Legal Nature Of Collective Bargaining Agreements, Archibald Cox

Michigan Law Review

One reflecting upon the legal nature of a collective bargaining agreement can hardly avoid beginning with the thought that the institution has flourished outside of the courts and administrative agencies and often in the face of legal interference. The law had fallen into disrepute in the world of labor relations because it failed to meet the needs of men. Collective bargaining agreements were negotiated and administered without regard to conventional legal sanctions. Grievance procedures and arbitration evolved into an intricate and highly organized, private judicature. Many experienced and perceptive observers argued that the conventional sanctions for commercial contracts should not ...


Scientific Investigation And Defendants' Rights, B. J. George Jr. Nov 1958

Scientific Investigation And Defendants' Rights, B. J. George Jr.

Michigan Law Review

Advances in science, medicine and industry have made much of the world a more pleasant place in which to live. In general more men are living a physically more satisfying life in more comfortable surroundings than preceding generations. But with this has come a parallel increase in criminality to the point that the term "crime wave" is heard with increasing frequency. Many crimes are facilitated in their commission by adaption or application of new scientific discoveries by criminal elements. A natural consequence is that already overburdened police departments turn as quickly as is financially possible to new scientific techniques in ...


International Law - The United Nations Emergency Force - Legal Status, Dudley H. Chapman S.Ed. Nov 1958

International Law - The United Nations Emergency Force - Legal Status, Dudley H. Chapman S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

The purpose of this comment is to consider the legal status of UNEF and of a potential permanent force of the same type. Some of the incidental legal problems confronting the United Nations will also be considered.


Air Law - Imputed Negligence - Liability Of Airplane Owner For Negligence Of Pilot, George E. Lohr S.Ed. Nov 1958

Air Law - Imputed Negligence - Liability Of Airplane Owner For Negligence Of Pilot, George E. Lohr S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Plaintiff, passenger in an airplane owned by defendant as proprietor of the flight school and piloted by a flight trainee with defendant's permission, suffered injuries in a crash allegedly caused by the negligence of the pilot and brought this action against defendant owner to recover damages. The trial court sustained defendant's motion to dismiss the complaint. On appeal, held, reversed and remanded for new trial. If the allegations of negligence of the pilot are found to be true, defendant would be liable for plaintiff's injuries even though he was not in actual control of the airplane. The ...


Civil Procedure - Trial Practice - Consecutive Motions For Directed Verdict, John Gelder S.Ed. Nov 1958

Civil Procedure - Trial Practice - Consecutive Motions For Directed Verdict, John Gelder S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Plaintiff brought an action to recover arrearages in rent. At the conclusion of the evidence, plaintiff and then defendant made motions for a directed verdict. The trial court held that where both parties make a motion to direct a verdict, it is the duty of the court to decide the case on its merits and accordingly found in favor of the plaintiff. Defendant immediately moved to amend his motion to attach a reservation which would have the issues submitted to a jury, but the amendment was disallowed. The appellate court reversed the judgment, finding prejudice to defendant since the trial ...


Conflict Of Laws - Status Of Foreign Statute - Non-Recognition Of Support Obligation, David C. Berg S.Ed. Nov 1958

Conflict Of Laws - Status Of Foreign Statute - Non-Recognition Of Support Obligation, David C. Berg S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

The State of California, Department of Mental Hygiene, brought suit in Texas against defendant, a California resident until his removal to Texas in 1954, to recover money expended by the state in support of defendant's mother, an incompetent inmate of a California state institution since 1944. California law requires an adult son to contribute to his parents' support while a similar provision of the Texas law imposes such an obligation on a parent but not on a child. In accordance with the applicable California statute of limitations, the state sued for the monthly payments which had accrued during the ...


Constitutional Law - Right To Travel - Authority Of Secretary Of State To Deny Passports, Arnold Henson S.Ed. Nov 1958

Constitutional Law - Right To Travel - Authority Of Secretary Of State To Deny Passports, Arnold Henson S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Petitioner's application for a passport was denied under §51.135 of the Passport Regulations promulgated by the Secretary of State on the grounds that he was a Communist and that he had a record of consistent and prolonged adherence to the Communist Party line. The letter of denial stated that before a passport would be issued, a non-communist affidavit as provided for in the Regulations would be required. Following petitioner's refusal to file the affidavit the State Department informed him that until one was filed his application would receive no further consideration. Petitioner thereupon brought an action for ...


Constitutional Law - State Action - Imposing Criminal Penalties To Enforce Private Discrimination, Melvyn I. Mozinski S.Ed. Nov 1958

Constitutional Law - State Action - Imposing Criminal Penalties To Enforce Private Discrimination, Melvyn I. Mozinski S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Defendants, Negroes, entered a section of a private restaurant designated to be for "White" patrons only. Although they were denied service, they refused to comply with the proprietor's request to leave. Defendants were subsequently arrested by a police officer after declining his offer not to arrest if they would depart, and were tried for violation of the state's criminal trespass statutes. They were found guilty of a misdemeanor. On appeal, held, sustained. Defendants have no constitutionally protected right not to be discriminated against by an operator of a private enterprise. State v. Clyburn, 247 N.C. 455, 101 ...


Federal Procedure - Judgments - Finality Of Judgment Required To Begin Running Of Time For Appeal, Arnold Henson S.Ed. Nov 1958

Federal Procedure - Judgments - Finality Of Judgment Required To Begin Running Of Time For Appeal, Arnold Henson S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Plaintiff brought action in a federal district court to recover taxes alleged to have been illegally assessed, and for interest thereon. On April 14, 1955, after hearing plaintiff's motion for summary judgment, the district judge filed an opinion stating that the motion was granted, and finding the amount of the taxes paid, but not finding the date of payment or the amount of interest due. The clerk noted: "April 14, 1955 ... Decision rendered on motion for summary judgment. Motion granted. See opinion on file." On May 24, 1955, plaintiff submitted a formal judgment which was signed and filed by ...


Habeas Corpus - Jurisdiction - Exhaustion Of State Remedies As Prerequisite To Federal Relief, John D. Kelly S.Ed. Nov 1958

Habeas Corpus - Jurisdiction - Exhaustion Of State Remedies As Prerequisite To Federal Relief, John D. Kelly S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Petitioner, a prisoner of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania convicted of armed robbery in 1947, filed a petition for a writ of habeas corpus in federal district court after several efforts to secure the writ in a state court had been unsuccessful. Jurisdiction was based on exhaustion of available state remedies. The petition alleged that the Commonwealth had violated petitioner's rights under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by denying him the right to be represented by counsel at his trial. The Commonwealth moved to dismiss on the ground that the petition on its face showed that state ...


Workmen's Compensation - Recreation Injury, David Shute S.Ed. Nov 1958

Workmen's Compensation - Recreation Injury, David Shute S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Decedent was employed by an automobile dealer as assistant manager of the service department. The dealer's custom was to hold a monthly business meeting of the staff of major departments after working hours and without extra compensation. One such meeting was scheduled to be held at a city hotel. At the suggestion of an employee that it would be more pleasant to hold the meeting at a nearby lake, the employer changed the meeting place to a summer cottage owned by him. It was understood by those attending that there would be an opportunity for swimming and boating. Decedent ...


Cooper: The Lawyer And Administrative Agencies, Whitney R. Harris Nov 1958

Cooper: The Lawyer And Administrative Agencies, Whitney R. Harris

Michigan Law Review

A Review of The Lawyer and Administrative Agencies. By Frank E. Cooper.


Chamberlin, Bradley, Reilly And Pound: Labor Unions And Public Policy & Gregory: Labor And The Law, Paul R. Haerle Nov 1958

Chamberlin, Bradley, Reilly And Pound: Labor Unions And Public Policy & Gregory: Labor And The Law, Paul R. Haerle

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Labor Unions and Public Policy. By Edward H. Chamberlin, Philip D. Bradley, Gerard D. Reilly and Roscoe Pound.