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Full-Text Articles in Law

A Philosophical Basis For Judicial Restraint, Michael Evan Gold Jun 2019

A Philosophical Basis For Judicial Restraint, Michael Evan Gold

Michael Evan Gold

The purpose of this article is to establish a principled basis for restraint of judicial lawmaking. The principle is that all findings of fact, whether of legislative or adjudicative facts, must be based on evidence in the record of a case. This principle is grounded in moral philosophy. I will begin with a discussion of the relevant aspect of moral philosophy, then state and defend the principle, and finally apply it to a line of cases.


Employment Discrimination And The Assumption Of Equality, Michael Evan Gold May 2013

Employment Discrimination And The Assumption Of Equality, Michael Evan Gold

Michael Evan Gold

The assumption of equality undergirds the American law of employment discrimination. The assumption is that racial and sexual classes are equally qualified for jobs. Although it has sometimes been ignored, and can be rebutted in a specific case, the assumption of equality is fundamental to the law of nondiscrimination. Proof of discrimination in a class action, whether based on disparate treatment or disparate impact, requires the assumption. The assumption is so strong in this context that when the Supreme Court weakened it recently, Congress promptly reinforced it. The assumption of equality is also a crucial element of the law of ...


Disparate Impact Is Not Unconstitutional, Michael Evan Gold Nov 2011

Disparate Impact Is Not Unconstitutional, Michael Evan Gold

Michael Evan Gold

[Excerpt] In Ricci v. DeStefano, the "New Haven Firefighters" case, whitefirefighters and one Hispanic firefighter sued the city of New Haven, Connecticut and city officials under Title VII. The plaintiffs claimed the city had committed intentional discrimination or disparate treatment against them when the city disregarded the results of promotion examinations that had an adverse effect on black and Hispanic applicants. The Supreme Court sustained the claim. In his concurring opinion, Justice Scalia invited attorneys in subsequent cases to consider arguing that the disparate impact theory of employment discrimination is unconstitutional. He reasoned as follows: • The Constitution prohibits the government ...


Disparate Impact Under The Age Discrimination In Employment Act Of 1967, Michael Evan Gold Aug 2008

Disparate Impact Under The Age Discrimination In Employment Act Of 1967, Michael Evan Gold

Michael Evan Gold

No abstract provided.


A Tale Of Two Amendments: The Reasons Congress Added Sex To Title Vii And Their Implication For The Issue Of Comparable Worth, Michael Evan Gold Aug 2008

A Tale Of Two Amendments: The Reasons Congress Added Sex To Title Vii And Their Implication For The Issue Of Comparable Worth, Michael Evan Gold

Michael Evan Gold

No abstract provided.