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Full-Text Articles in Law

One Rule Of Law Project In Post-Soviet Russia, Albert E. Scherr Jan 2019

One Rule Of Law Project In Post-Soviet Russia, Albert E. Scherr

Law Faculty Scholarship

"One Rule of Law Project in Post-Soviet Russia" is published as Chapter 9 of the book At Home Abroad: Friendship First - A Look at Rule of Law Projects and Other International Insights, (ed. Joseph Nadeau, New York: Austin Macauley Publishers LLC, 2019). This book provides personal insights into an international cooperative effort to promote the rule of law in emerging democracies around the world. Professor Scherr's chapter examines the cultural context within a study of the rule-of-law project that was conducted between 1999 and 2004 in Vologda, Russia.


The Tension Between Equal Protection And Religious Freedom, John M. Greabe Apr 2017

The Tension Between Equal Protection And Religious Freedom, John M. Greabe

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] "The Constitution did not become our basic law at a single point in time. We ratified its first seven articles in 1788 but have since amended it 27 times. Many of these amendments memorialize fundamental shifts in values. Thus, it should come as no surprise to learn that the Constitution is not an internally consistent document."

"Other constitutional provisions -- even provisions that were simultaneously enacted -- protect freedoms that can come into conflict with one another. The First Amendment, for example, promises both freedom from governmental endorsement of religion and freedom from governmental interference with religious practice. But how do ...


Patent Law, Copyright Law, And The Girl Germs Effect, Ann Bartow Oct 2016

Patent Law, Copyright Law, And The Girl Germs Effect, Ann Bartow

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] "Inventors pursue patents and authors receive copyrights.

No special education is required for either endeavor, and nothing

precludes a person from being both an author and an inventor.

Inventors working on patentable industrial projects geared

toward commercial exploitation tend to be scientists or engineers.

Authors, with the exception of those writing computer code, tend

to be educated or trained in the creative arts, such as visual art,

performance art, music, dance, acting, creative writing, film

making, and architectural drawing. There is a well-warranted

societal supposition that most of the inventors of patentable

inventions are male. Assumptions about the genders ...


My Turn: 'We The People' And The Garland Nomination, John M. Greabe Sep 2016

My Turn: 'We The People' And The Garland Nomination, John M. Greabe

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] "Because I teach constitutional law, a friend recently asked me whether Judge Merrick Garland or President Obama might successfully sue to compel the Senate to take action on the nomination of Judge Garland to fill the vacancy on the United States Supreme Court.

Almost certainly not, I told him. Under settled precedent, a judge would dismiss such a case as raising a non-legal ''political" question. It would be very difficult to develop acceptable decisional standards for such a claim. Moreover, courts are reluctant to entertain lawsuits challenging mechanisms that the Senate uses to oversee the judiciary."


If It’S Broke, Fix It: Fixing Fixation, Megan M. Carpenter Jan 2016

If It’S Broke, Fix It: Fixing Fixation, Megan M. Carpenter

Law Faculty Scholarship

The fixation requirement, once an intended instrument for added flexibility in copyrightability, has become an unworkable standard under modern copyright law. The last twenty-five years have witnessed a dramatic expansion in creative media. Developments in both digital media and contemporary art have challenged what it means to be fixed, and cases dealing with these works reveal how inapposite current interpretations of fixation are for these forms of expression. Yet, getting fixation “right” is important, for it is often the juridical threshold over which idea becomes expression. Thus, we must enable fixation to help define the parameters of creative expression while ...


Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca Jan 2015

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Law Faculty Scholarship

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further ...


Ip Basics: Copyright For Digital Authors, Thomas G. Field Jr. Jan 2015

Ip Basics: Copyright For Digital Authors, Thomas G. Field Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarship

Written for computer artists and programmers, this paper addresses the basics, as well as the registration of multiple works, difference between works that are and are not prepared "for hire," and other matters of interest to entrepreneurs as well as to free-lance programmers and artists.


Ip Basics: Copyright In Visual Arts, Thomas G. Field Jr. Jan 2015

Ip Basics: Copyright In Visual Arts, Thomas G. Field Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarship

This discussion focuses on the needs of free-lance artists, craftspeople, photographers, sculptors and the like.


Ip Basics: Copyright In Written Work, Thomas G. Field Jr. Jan 2015

Ip Basics: Copyright In Written Work, Thomas G. Field Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarship

Written primarily for free-lance writers, this discussion addresses ownership and duration of copyrights, deposit and registration, notice, and remedies that are closely tied to prompt registration. It also discusses licensing and other matters of interest, as well as the need for counsel.


Function Over Form: Bringing The Fixation Requirement Into The Modern Era, Megan M. Carpenter, Steven Hetcher Jan 2014

Function Over Form: Bringing The Fixation Requirement Into The Modern Era, Megan M. Carpenter, Steven Hetcher

Law Faculty Scholarship

This Article examines the ways that contemporary creativity challenges copyright’s fixation requirement. In this Article, we identify concrete problems with the fixation requirement, both practically and in light of the fundamental purpose and policy behind copyright law, and argue for a change that would amend the fixation requirement to better function in the modern era.

Specifically, we conclude that a fair appraisal of the justifications for the fixation requirement provides little, if any, rationale for fixation except to the extent that fixation helps to separate idea from expression in determining the “metes and bounds” of creative expression. Recent case ...


Counterfeits, Copying And Class, Ann Bartow Jan 2012

Counterfeits, Copying And Class, Ann Bartow

Law Faculty Scholarship

Consumers who want to express themselves by wearing contemporary clothing styles should not have to choose between expensive brands and counterfeit products. There should be a clear distinction in trademark law between illegal, counterfeit goods and perfectly legal (at least with respect to trademark law) "knockoffs," in which aesthetically functional design attributes have been copied but trademarks have not. Toward that end, as a normative matter, the aesthetic features of products should not be registrable or protectable as trademarks or trade dress, regardless of whether they have secondary meaning, just as functional attributes of a utilitarian nature are not eligible ...


Drawing A Line In The Sand: Copyright Law And New Museums, Megan M. Carpenter Mar 2011

Drawing A Line In The Sand: Copyright Law And New Museums, Megan M. Carpenter

Law Faculty Scholarship

Over the last twenty years, audience attendance at museums, galleries, and performing arts institutions in the United States has decreased dramatically. Major museums and galleries are considering ways to add engaging and meaningful value to the user experience with technology, from incorporating user-generated content to creating multimedia installations billed as “collaborative” works.

In 2010, the Dallas Museum of Art’s Coastlines: Images of Land and Sea exhibition featured landscapes from 1850 to the present, as well as a sound installation composed by students and faculty in the Arts and Technology program at the University of Texas at Dallas, which played ...


An Equal Rights Amendment To Make Women Human, Ann Bartow Jan 2011

An Equal Rights Amendment To Make Women Human, Ann Bartow

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] “I can state with some authority that two times fourteen is twenty-eight, flouting the stereotype that women are inept at mathematics and simultaneously framing my argument in favor of an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). Though the Fourteenth Amendment' provides women with partial legal armament (a dull sword, a small shield), equal protection requires something twice as powerful in the form of a Twenty-Eighth Amendment that would expressly vest women with equal rights under the law. The Fourteenth Amendment has completed only half of the job.”


The Moral Of The Story: The Power Of Narrative To Inspire And Sustain Scholarship, Amy Vorenberg Jan 2011

The Moral Of The Story: The Power Of Narrative To Inspire And Sustain Scholarship, Amy Vorenberg

Law Faculty Scholarship

This article describes how I discovered the power of story as a tool to inspire scholarship. We think of stories as a means to bring life to legal cases in a way that grounds them and makes them visceral and comprehensible. We use storytelling to teach our students - showing how the emotive power of a story can persuade. However, stories can also serve a different function. In my search for a way to inspire and sustain my own writing, I found out that a good story can be the source of a writer’s motivation to both create and sustain ...


Space Age Love Song: The Mix Tape In A Digital Universe, Megan M. Carpenter Jan 2010

Space Age Love Song: The Mix Tape In A Digital Universe, Megan M. Carpenter

Law Faculty Scholarship

Music sharing is one of the most controversial topics in copyright law. And mix tapes have been the classic, iconic form of music sharing for the last 30 years. Even in the face of technological development so rapid and far-reaching as to remove the literal “tape” from “mix tape,” there are nonetheless modern incarnations that crop up on a regular basis, from mix CDs to mix-sharing websites. Social norms permit and even encourage the creation of these modern mix tapes for such diverse reasons as wedding favors and birthday gifts.

If copyright law is meant to promote creativity and proscribe ...


State Constitutional Limits On New Hampshire‘S Taxing Power: Historical Development And Modern State, Marcus Hurn Jun 2009

State Constitutional Limits On New Hampshire‘S Taxing Power: Historical Development And Modern State, Marcus Hurn

Law Faculty Scholarship

The New Hampshire Constitution is, in most of its fundamental parts, very old. It is long (nearly 200 articles) and wordy, even by the standards of the eighteenth century. It expresses essential principles in more than one place, in more than one way, and in language that to modem eyes is more suited to political philosophy than to positive law. Most of it was copied from the original Massachusetts Constitution, itself based on a draft by John Adams. However, there is no other state in the union with a structure of taxing powers and limits comparable to New Hampshire's.


Internet Defamation As Profit Center: The Monetization Of Online Harassment, Ann Bartow Jan 2009

Internet Defamation As Profit Center: The Monetization Of Online Harassment, Ann Bartow

Law Faculty Scholarship

Efforts to decrease the sexist aspects of online fora have been largely ineffective, and in some instances seemingly counterproductive, in the sense that they have provoked even greater amounts of abuse and harassment with a gendered aspect. And so, in the wake of a series of high profile episodes of cyber sexual harassment, and a grotesque abundance of low profile ones, a new business model was launched. Promising to clean up and monitor online information to defuse the visible impact of coordinated harassment campaigns, a number of entities began to market themselves as knights in cyber shining armor, ready to ...


River Rats, Megan M. Carpenter Jan 2008

River Rats, Megan M. Carpenter

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] "At their essence, river rats are aquatic rodents. They live in, on, and near the water and depend upon it for their livelihood. My family is, and have always been, river rats.

My mother's family grew up on the west bank of the Tygart River in north central West Virginia. My great grandparents used this land as a summer camp: a place to ride horses named Honey and Chief; a place to host parties; a place to plant flower bulbs from Holland. My grandfather spent most of his childhood working the land for his parents. While his older ...


Review Essay: Janet Halley, Split Decisions: How And Why To Take A Break From Feminism, Ann Bartow Jan 2008

Review Essay: Janet Halley, Split Decisions: How And Why To Take A Break From Feminism, Ann Bartow

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] “My overarching reaction to Janet Halley's recent book, Split Decisions: How and Why to Take a Break from Feminism, can be summarized with a one sentence cliché: The perfect is the enemy of the good.' She holds feminism to a standard of perfection no human endeavor could possibly meet, and then heartily criticizes it for falling short. Though Halley's myriad observations about feminism occasionally resonated with my own views and experiences, ultimately I remain unconvinced that taking a break from feminism would, for me, be either justified or productive. But I did (mostly) enjoy reading it. Halley ...


The True Colors Of Trademark Law: Green-Lighting A Red Tide Of Anti Competition Blues, Ann Bartow Jan 2008

The True Colors Of Trademark Law: Green-Lighting A Red Tide Of Anti Competition Blues, Ann Bartow

Law Faculty Scholarship

The elevation of color to stand-alone trademark status illustrates the unbounded nature of trademarks within the judicial consciousness. The availability of color-alone marks also facilitates the commoditization of color in ways that complicate the development and distribution of products and services that use color for multiple purposes conterminously. The economic case for color-alone trademarks is severely undermined by careful observation of the ways that colors are actually deployed in commerce, which makes it clear that the trademarks of multiple goods and services can utilize the same color to telegraph the same message without confusing anyone or diluting the commercial power ...


Bare Justice: A Feminist Theory Of Justice And Its Application To Post-Genocide Rwanda, Megan M. Carpenter Jan 2008

Bare Justice: A Feminist Theory Of Justice And Its Application To Post-Genocide Rwanda, Megan M. Carpenter

Law Faculty Scholarship

Within this Article I seek to develop a feminist legal theory of justice, by questioning the ability of traditional legal strategies to facilitate justice and identifying underlying principles that contribute to a more inclusive and holistic form of justice. Secondly, I apply this theory to the situation of women victims of sexual violence in post-genocide Rwanda, in an effort to explore how these principles can contribute to a realization of justice that empowers women.

In Part II of this Article, I seek to develop a set of principles underlying a feminist reconceptualization of justice. This endeavour is a three-step process ...


The Lexical Heart: A Dictionary, Megan M. Carpenter Jan 2008

The Lexical Heart: A Dictionary, Megan M. Carpenter

Law Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Who Knew? Admissibility Of Subsequent Remedial Measures When Defendants Are Without Knowledge Of The Injuries, Mark G. Boyko, Ryan G. Vacca Jan 2007

Who Knew? Admissibility Of Subsequent Remedial Measures When Defendants Are Without Knowledge Of The Injuries, Mark G. Boyko, Ryan G. Vacca

Law Faculty Scholarship

Federal Rule of Evidence 407 prohibits the introduction of subsequent remedial measures for the purposes of demonstrating negligence, culpable conduct, or product defect. But the rule breaks down, in application and purpose, when a defendant undertakes the new safety measure after the plaintiff's injury, but before the defendant had knowledge of the loss. Such a situation is not uncommon. Would-be defendants frequently improve their products and product safety for a variety of reasons. Toxic exposure cases, where exposure often predates diagnosis of the injury by a decade or more, represent a prime example of cases where defendants are likely ...


Cross Purposes: Remedying The Endorsement Of Symbolic Religious Speech, Jordan C. Budd Jan 2005

Cross Purposes: Remedying The Endorsement Of Symbolic Religious Speech, Jordan C. Budd

Law Faculty Scholarship

Justice O’Connor’s “perception of endorsement” standard governs the analysis of religious displays on public property for purposes of the Establishment Clause. The test rests on the perceptions of an “objective observer,” endowed with essentially perfect factual information, who assesses whether the display of religious imagery reasonably implies official endorsement of its message. Applying this standard, a well-developed jurisprudence unambiguously proscribes the permanent placement of religious symbols on public land. The remediation of these violations, however, is an ad hoc and often superficial exercise. This Article proposes a framework to realign the remedial inquiry with the rigorous assessment of ...


Some Dumb Girl Syndrome: Challenging And Subverting Destructive Stereotypes Of Female Attorneys, Ann Bartow Jan 2005

Some Dumb Girl Syndrome: Challenging And Subverting Destructive Stereotypes Of Female Attorneys, Ann Bartow

Law Faculty Scholarship

This Essay considers ways in which female attorneys confront sexism and stereotyping in the legal profession and in life, and strongly endorses embracing feminism, and wearing comfortable shoes.


Women In The Web Of Secondary Copyright Liability And Internet Filtering, Ann Bartow Jan 2005

Women In The Web Of Secondary Copyright Liability And Internet Filtering, Ann Bartow

Law Faculty Scholarship

This Essay suggests possible explanations for why there is not very much legal scholarship devoted to gender issues on the Internet; and it asserts that there is a powerful need for Internet legal theorists and activists to pay substantially more attention to the gender-based differences in communicative style and substance that have been imported from real space to cyberspace. Information portals, such as libraries and web logs, are "gendered" in ways that may not be facially apparent. Women are creating and experiencing social solidarity online in ways that male scholars and commentators do not seem to either recognize or deem ...


Reading/Teaching Lawyer Films, James R. Elkins Jul 2004

Reading/Teaching Lawyer Films, James R. Elkins

Law Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Intellectual Property And Indigenous Peoples: Adapting Copyright Law To The Needs Of A Global Community, Megan M. Carpenter Jan 2004

Intellectual Property And Indigenous Peoples: Adapting Copyright Law To The Needs Of A Global Community, Megan M. Carpenter

Law Faculty Scholarship

The definition and scope of intellectual property and associated laws are under intense debate in the emerging discourse surrounding intellectual property and human rights. These debates primarily arise within the context of indigenous peoples' rights to protection and ownership of culturally specific properties. It is true that intellectual property laws are based on Western, developed markets, Western concepts of creation and invention, and Western concepts of ownership. But whatever their origins, those laws have been, and currently are, the primary vehicle for the protection of artistic, literary, and scientific works worldwide. To segregate indigenous interests from this international legal regime ...


Using A Civil Procedure Exam Question To Teach Persuasion, Sophie M. Sparrow Dec 2001

Using A Civil Procedure Exam Question To Teach Persuasion, Sophie M. Sparrow

Law Faculty Scholarship

Studies show that learners master new material more effectively when it builds upon what they already know. By revisiting assignments from a previous semester, students can focus their efforts on persuading, rather than learning new doctrine or facts. Turning a predictive discussion into a persuasive argument demonstrates that making an argument requires the same rigorous thinking as predicting a result. One way to do this is to assign students to write an argument based on their fall Civil Procedure exam.


In The Title Ix Race Toward Gender Equity, The Black Female Athlete Is Left To Finish Last: The Lack Of Access For The “Invisible Woman", Tonya M. Evans Jan 1998

In The Title Ix Race Toward Gender Equity, The Black Female Athlete Is Left To Finish Last: The Lack Of Access For The “Invisible Woman", Tonya M. Evans

Law Faculty Scholarship

Although each of us is defined by race and gender, those of us who are neither white nor male often experience invisibility as a result of our dual subordinate status.... Black women have been disproportionately located at the lower end of the economic hierarchy and, therefore, have been unable to afford private golf, swimming, or tennis lessons. Overt racial discrimination prevented black women from gaining access to the sports participated in by white women. To the extent that the main thrust of solutions to gender inequity and a lack of adherence to Title IX mandates has been the addition of ...