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Full-Text Articles in Law

Fair Housing And The Causation Standard After Comcast, Robert G. Schwemm Jan 2021

Fair Housing And The Causation Standard After Comcast, Robert G. Schwemm

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The Supreme Court last term held in the Comcast case that “but-for” causation must be shown by plaintiffs under the 1866 Civil Rights Act’s § 1981 and also announced that this standard is the default position presumed to govern all other federal civil rights statutes. This Article deals with how Comcast’s but-for presumption applies to fair housing cases.

The answer is complicated, because these cases are often brought under multiple laws. For example, a Black applicant who is rejected by an apartment complex ostensibly for having inadequate income, but who believes this decision was racially motivated because the complex ...


When Your Plate Is Already Full: Efficient And Meaningful Outcomes Assessment For Busy Law Schools, Melissa N. Henke Mar 2020

When Your Plate Is Already Full: Efficient And Meaningful Outcomes Assessment For Busy Law Schools, Melissa N. Henke

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The American Bar Association (ABA) accreditation standards involving outcome-based assessment are a game changer for legal education. The standards reaffirm the importance of providing students with formative feedback throughout their course of study to assess and improve student learning. The standards also require law schools to evaluate their effectiveness, and to do so from the perspective of student performance within the institution’s program of study. The relevant question is no longer what are law schools teaching their students, but instead, what are students learning from law schools in terms of the knowledge, skills, and values that are essential for ...


Reflections On Moving Toward Integration And Modern Exclusionary-Zoning Cases Under The Fair Housing Act, Robert G. Schwemm Jan 2020

Reflections On Moving Toward Integration And Modern Exclusionary-Zoning Cases Under The Fair Housing Act, Robert G. Schwemm

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Article has two parts: Part I presents my views on Moving Toward Integration [Richard H. Sander et al., Moving Toward Integration: The Past and Future of Fair Housing (2018)], and Part II examines one of the book’s policy recommendations for furthering residential integration—exclusionary zoning litigation—along with some of the roadblocks to this and other pro-integration efforts erected by the Trump Administration.


Source-Of-Income Discrimination And The Fair Housing Act, Robert G. Schwemm Jan 2020

Source-Of-Income Discrimination And The Fair Housing Act, Robert G. Schwemm

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Amending the federal Fair Housing Act (“FHA”) to ban “source-of-income” discrimination has been discussed for over twenty years. During this time, a growing number of states and localities (including many of the nation’s largest cities) have taken this step by amending their fair housing laws to prohibit discrimination against Section 8 voucher holders and others based on their source of income. Meanwhile, bills proposing such an amendment to the FHA have regularly been introduced, including four in the current Congress.

Proponents of such an amendment say it would help fulfill the voucher program’s goal of providing low-income families ...


Outlaws, Pirates, Judges: Judicial Activism As An Expression Of Antiauthoritarianism In Anglo-American Culture Antiauthoritarianism In Angloamerican Culture, Beau Steenken Jan 2020

Outlaws, Pirates, Judges: Judicial Activism As An Expression Of Antiauthoritarianism In Anglo-American Culture Antiauthoritarianism In Angloamerican Culture, Beau Steenken

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This article will argue that the rejection of what scholars otherwise

view as controlling legal authority lies at the heart of judicial activism.

Furthermore, it will argue that judicial activism itself channels the

antiauthoritarian current in American culture (and in English culture

predating its importation to America). Part II will examine the extensive

scholarly writings already existing on judicial activism in order to identify

common themes and to explore to what extent scholars have arrived at a

consensus definition of judicial activism. Part III will then show that

judicial activism may better be understood within the context of law as ...


The Consumer Protection Ecosystem: Law, Norms, And Technology, Christopher G. Bradley Jan 2020

The Consumer Protection Ecosystem: Law, Norms, And Technology, Christopher G. Bradley

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In recent years, the tools consumers use to buy and borrow have changed radically. New technologies for advertising, contracting, and transacting have proliferated, and so have fierce policy debates on issues such as identity theft and online privacy; arbitration clauses and class action lawsuits; and Americans’ accumulation of debt and the unsavory practices sometimes used by collectors of it. Facing these realities, scholars, policymakers, and advocates have devoted increasing energy to this area of law. Despite its prominence, confusion persists regarding what consumer protection really is or does. Though much discussed, it remains undertheorized. In particular, analysis of consumer law ...


Artworks As Business Entities: Sculpting Property Rights By Private Agreement, Christopher G. Bradley Jan 2020

Artworks As Business Entities: Sculpting Property Rights By Private Agreement, Christopher G. Bradley

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Modern business entities, such as LLCs, are increasingly created and deployed to accomplish customized transactions and evade legal restrictions. Rather than acting as traditional business enterprises, entities serve as tools to facilitate complex commercial transactions and surmount limitations presented by existing bodies of law. One limitation constrains the ways that private parties can agree to divide property rights—a doctrinal limitation sometimes referred to as numerus clausus. This Article shows that such limitations on the customizing of property rights by private agreement now can be surmounted by virtue of modern business entity law. After describing the key features of modern ...


The New Small Business Bankruptcy Game: Strategies For Creditors Under The Small Business Reorganization Act, Christopher G. Bradley Jan 2020

The New Small Business Bankruptcy Game: Strategies For Creditors Under The Small Business Reorganization Act, Christopher G. Bradley

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Most unsecured creditors have little incentive to act energetically in bankruptcy proceedings. They are unlikely to be paid enough to make it worth the effort. Our bankruptcy law allocates much more power to debtors and to secured claimants. This Article suggests that the Act further erodes the position of most unsecured creditors. Their expected recoveries will remain too low to justify anything other than a relatively passive attitude toward the bankruptcy proceeding, and the Act lowers the protections for passive creditors.

Part I provides an overview of the major features of the Act. It explains how a subchapter V case ...


Academic Law Libraries And Scholarship: Communication, Publishing, And Ranking, Dana Neacsu, James Donovan Jan 2020

Academic Law Libraries And Scholarship: Communication, Publishing, And Ranking, Dana Neacsu, James Donovan

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The context in which academic libraries operate is fast evolving, and the current COVID pandemic has underscored the new demands on libraries to reinvent themselves and their scholarship role. The library’s role has always been focused on scholarly dissemination and preservation, more recently by archiving their faculty work on mirror sites known as academic repositories. Libraries connect scholarship and users by offering the space for users to come and use the archived knowledge. However, if historically their role was to collect and provide secure access to sources, that role is in the midst of radical transformations.

In our age ...


Mise En Scene And The Decisive Moment Of Visual Legal Rhetoric, Michael D. Murray Dec 2019

Mise En Scene And The Decisive Moment Of Visual Legal Rhetoric, Michael D. Murray

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This article explores the attorney author's understanding and implementation of principles that define how visual rhetorical works fulfill the task of effective visual communication and advocacy. These principles-referred to as mise en scene-will guide the attorney in the identification or creation of works that will exhibit the "decisive moment" of effective visual rhetoric in legal contexts. In equal measure, knowledge and understanding of these principles will enable lawyers to design and use effective visuals, and to challenge or respond to the visual rhetorical works proffered by their opponents.


The Current State Of Opioid Litigation, Richard C. Ausness Apr 2019

The Current State Of Opioid Litigation, Richard C. Ausness

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Opioid litigation began around the turn of the century and mostly involved unsuccessful lawsuits by addicts against the manufacturers of prescription opioids. The landscape began to change several years ago when a number of state and local governments filed lawsuits against opioid drug manufacturers, seeking damages and other relief for the social and economic consequences of widespread opioid addiction in their territory. Since then, hundreds of government entities (hereinafter referred to as "government plaintiffs") have sued the manufacturers, distributors, prescribers, retail sellers, corporate officers and physician promoters of opioid products (hereinafter referred to as "defendants"). When I began working on ...


Time For A Fresh Look At Strict Liability For Pharmaceuticals, Mary J. Davis Apr 2019

Time For A Fresh Look At Strict Liability For Pharmaceuticals, Mary J. Davis

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Part I provides a brief and basic explanation of pharmaceutical liability treatment. Part II explains the impact of federal preemption doctrine, which has dramatically limited the operation of tort law in pharmaceutical liability cases. Part III explains the parallel trends in the marketing and use of pharmaceuticals that increase the incidence of adverse drug events, affect prescribing practices, and fail to enhance informed practitioner and consumer choice in use of pharmaceuticals. Part IV provides support for the application of strict liability given the convergence of these trends. This Part also provides a theoretical justification for strict liability in tort for ...


Legal Realism: Unfinished Business, Ramsi A. Woodcock Feb 2019

Legal Realism: Unfinished Business, Ramsi A. Woodcock

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

No abstract provided.


Metaphors On Trademark: A Response To Adam Mossoff, “Trademark As A Property Right”, Brian L. Frye Jan 2019

Metaphors On Trademark: A Response To Adam Mossoff, “Trademark As A Property Right”, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

No abstract provided.


Art In The Age Of Contractual Negotiation, Christopher G. Bradley, Brian L. Frye Jan 2019

Art In The Age Of Contractual Negotiation, Christopher G. Bradley, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This paper explores the function and purpose of the Artist’s Contrast as a legal document—but not from the perspective of legal enforceability, which is how legal effectiveness is traditionally measured. Rather this paper tells the story of a document that relies upon hallmarks of law (legal language, formality, specificity, and so on) in order to express and attempt to consolidate particular views on artists, artworks, the collectors to whom they sell, and the markets in which they sell. This powerful connection inevitably continues past the moment of sale, and the Artist’s Contract can be read as an ...


A "Mere Expectancy?" What Rights Do Beneficiaries Of A Revocable Trust Have Prior To The Death Of The Settlor?, Richard C. Ausness Jan 2019

A "Mere Expectancy?" What Rights Do Beneficiaries Of A Revocable Trust Have Prior To The Death Of The Settlor?, Richard C. Ausness

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Revocable trusts became a popular form of a will substitute in the 1960s and remain so to this day. If the trust is funded, the settlor typically retains the right to receive income from the trust, the right to invade the trust principal, and the right to modify the terms of the trust. In addition, the settlor may serve as trustee or may appoint a third-party trustee. At the settlor's death, the trust assets, which may also include property transferred to the trust from the settlor's probate estate by means of a pour-over provision in the will, will ...


State And Local Laws Banning Source-Of-Income Discrimination, Robert G. Schwemm Jan 2019

State And Local Laws Banning Source-Of-Income Discrimination, Robert G. Schwemm

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Most states and many localities have civil rights laws that are substantially equivalent to the federal Fair Housing Act ("FHA"),' which means they at least ban discrimination based on the seven factors outlawed by the FHA (i.e., race, color, religion, national origin, sex, familial status, and disability). Many of these state and local laws also include other protected classes, such as age, marital status, sexual orientation, and source of income.

This Article reviews state and local efforts to outlaw source-of-income discrimination.4 (For its part, Congress currently has multiple bills before it that would add such a prohibition to ...


State Automatic Enrollment Iras After The Trump Election: Are They Preempted By Erisa?, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2019

State Automatic Enrollment Iras After The Trump Election: Are They Preempted By Erisa?, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In recent years, a number of states have sought to close the retirement savings funding gap by enacting legislation mandating that employers that do not sponsor a voluntary pension plan for their employees automatically enroll their employees in a state-administered IRA program. This Article focuses on the most serious legal challenge these programs face: ERISA preemption.

The Article begins by providing an overview of the state automatic enrollment IRA programs. It then discusses a regulatory safe harbor created for these programs in 2016 and disapproved under the Congressional Review Act in 2018. It then turns to the question whether, in ...


Precedent, Three-Judge District Courts, And The Law Of Democracy, Joshua A. Douglas Jan 2019

Precedent, Three-Judge District Courts, And The Law Of Democracy, Joshua A. Douglas

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

As recent partisan gerrymandering cases have shown, three-judge district courts play a unique and important role in how the federal judiciary considers significant election law disputes. Yet two somewhat quirky procedural questions involving these courts remain unresolved: first, is a Supreme Court ruling to summarily affirm a three-judge district court’s decision precedential on all future courts? That is, why should a one-line order from the Supreme Court, without explanation, formally bind all future courts on the issue, especially when it is unclear what aspect of the lower court’s decision was correct? Second, must a three-judge district court follow ...


Disrupting Secured Transactions, Christopher G. Bradley Jan 2019

Disrupting Secured Transactions, Christopher G. Bradley

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) governs secured transactions in personal property in all fifty states and has been lauded as “the most successful commercial statute ever.” But while Article 9 has facilitated commerce and economic growth, it remains complicated and inefficient in numerous respects. Its weaknesses are well known but have been considered necessary evils, accepted because no better approaches were available. But just as the UCC was motivated initially by the idea of streamlining the law to accommodate modern commerce, now that goal should motivate revision of the UCC itself.

This Article proposes to remove and ...


Too Much, Too Soon? Obergefell As Applied Equality Practice, James Donovan, Alyssa Oakley Milby Jan 2019

Too Much, Too Soon? Obergefell As Applied Equality Practice, James Donovan, Alyssa Oakley Milby

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Abrupt cultural change inevitably arouses anxieties, and often those fears provoke a retrograde reaction seeking to preserve the familiar status quo. When the world by which we define ourselves undergoes unexpected transitions, especially in directions that contradict the comfortable taken-for-granted assumptions that had been earlier enjoyed, we feel threatened. One needs only recall how the new standards of racial equality announced in Brown I and Brown II elicited virulent protests as some districts chose to shutter all public schools rather than have them become racially integrated. In the shadow of such traumas, it may seem an obvious lesson that progress ...


Neoformalist Constitutional Construction And Public Employee Speech, Scott R. Bauries Dec 2018

Neoformalist Constitutional Construction And Public Employee Speech, Scott R. Bauries

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Article examines, evaluates, and prescribes improvements to a familiar form of constitutional construction favored by neoformalists—the preference for rules over standards. Constitutional law development can be understood as being composed of two judicial tasks—interpretation and construction. Judicial interpretation of the Constitution involves determining the semantic meaning of the words contained in the document. Once that semantic meaning is determined, the interpreted meaning must be constructed into legal doctrine for application in court. Sometimes, that construction involves the articulation of the legal doctrines based on the interpreted constitutional text that will govern a particular case and those similar ...


Monuments Of Folly: How Local Governments Can Challenge Confederate "Statue Statutes", Zachary A. Bray Oct 2018

Monuments Of Folly: How Local Governments Can Challenge Confederate "Statue Statutes", Zachary A. Bray

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Monuments to the Confederacy and former Confederate figures have been prominently displayed in parks, courthouse squares, and other public spaces of many American towns and cities for many years. Their history is inextricably linked with patterns of institutionalized racism, including but not limited to the rise of Jim Crow and resistance to the integration of public schools. In recent years, the continued display of these monuments has given rise to intense controversy and outbreaks of violence. In response, some local governments have sought to remove or modify Confederate monuments in public spaces, but in several states, local governments face statutory ...


Christmas In July: A Response To David Fagundes, Why Less Property Is More, Brian L. Frye Aug 2018

Christmas In July: A Response To David Fagundes, Why Less Property Is More, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

A response to David Fagundes, Why Less Property Is More: Inclusion, Dispossession, & Subjective Well-Being, 103 Iowa L. Rev. 1361 (2018).


The Obsolescence Of Advertising In The Information Age, Ramsi Woodcock Jun 2018

The Obsolescence Of Advertising In The Information Age, Ramsi Woodcock

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The vast amount of product information available to consumers through online search renders most advertising obsolete as a tool for conveying product information. Advertising remains useful to firms only as a tool for persuading consumers to purchase advertised products. In the mid-twentieth century, courts applying the antitrust laws held that such persuasive advertising is anticompetitive and harmful to consumers, but the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) was unable to pursue an antitrust campaign against persuasive advertising for fear of depriving consumers of advertising’s information value. Now that the information function of most advertising is obsolete, the FTC should renew its ...


The Antitrust Duty To Charge Low Prices, Ramsi Woodcock May 2018

The Antitrust Duty To Charge Low Prices, Ramsi Woodcock

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Over the past forty years, antitrust has come to embrace a goal of consumer welfare maximization that cannot be achieved solely through condemnation of collusive or exclusionary conduct. To address cases in which firms achieve the power to raise prices and harm consumers without engaging in collusive or exclusionary conduct, antitrust should impose a general duty on businesses to charge a price no higher than economic cost. Courts would not need to set prices to enforce this duty, because violations would be punishable only by nominal damages, and shame, rather than by an injunction setting a reasonable price. Although the ...


Sailing Under False Colors: The Continuing Presence Of Negligence Principles In "Strict" Products Liability Law, Richard C. Ausness Apr 2018

Sailing Under False Colors: The Continuing Presence Of Negligence Principles In "Strict" Products Liability Law, Richard C. Ausness

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Dean Prosser, in his celebrated article, The Assault Upon the Citadel, compared the assault on warranty law's privity requirement to an attack on a stoutly defended fortress during the Middle Ages. Since that time, another conflict has arisen among students of products liability, namely whether product sellers should be subject to strict liability or whether certain aspects of this field should instead be controlled by negligence principles. However, unlike the assault some sixty years ago on the privity requirement, this present conflict bears a greater resemblance to the protracted trench warfare of World War I than it does to ...


Criminalizing (Poor) Fatherhood, Cortney E. Lollar Jan 2018

Criminalizing (Poor) Fatherhood, Cortney E. Lollar

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

States prosecute and incarcerate thousands of fathers every year for failing to pay their child support obligations. Ostensibly, these prosecutions aim to foster the health and well-being of children without requiring the child’s mother to bear the costs of raising the child alone. What may appear on the surface to be a system that balances out inequities is actually a deeply flawed government program—one that promotes criminal recidivism and reinforces the poverty of indigent fathers. Contrary to the common image of a “deadbeat dad” raking in money and staying on the lam to avoid helping a mother raise ...


The Ballad Of Harry James Tompkins, Brian L. Frye Jan 2018

The Ballad Of Harry James Tompkins, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

At about 2:30 a.m. on Friday, July 27, 1934, William Colwell of Hughestown, Pennsylvania was awakened by two young men banging on his front door. When he went downstairs, they told him that someone had been run over by a train. Colwell looked out his side window. In the moonlight, he saw someone lying on the ground near the railroad tracks. He went back upstairs and told his wife that there had been an accident. She told him “not to go out, that them fellows was crazy,” but he dressed and went out to help anyway. Colwell's ...


The Sharpest Tool In The Toolbox: Visual Legal Rhetoric, Michael D. Murray Jan 2018

The Sharpest Tool In The Toolbox: Visual Legal Rhetoric, Michael D. Murray

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Visual briefs and other forms of visual rhetoric in legal communication may eventually become the norm in legal practice because of the enormous communicative and rhetorical power of visual media. I have discussed the uses of visual legal rhetoric and the ensuing ethical and professional considerations elsewhere. Here, I will focus on providing instruction to law students and lawyers regarding proper and effective usage of visual legal rhetoric.