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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Words Of Comparative Law, Olivier Moréteau Dec 2019

The Words Of Comparative Law, Olivier Moréteau

Journal Articles

While the word "comparative" refers to a cognitive and intellectual activity supposing that there are several elements to compare, the word "law" is used in the singular, as if law was to be compared to itself The whole phrase indicates that comparison takes place within the study of the law, but the use of the singular does not point to a pluralistic approach: what do we mean by law? Should we not talk about "comparing the laws" or "legal comparison"? With a reflection on the words of the law as a starting point, this paper visits the corpus of comparative …


Why Didn't The Common Law Follow The Flag?, Christian Burset May 2019

Why Didn't The Common Law Follow The Flag?, Christian Burset

Journal Articles

This Article considers a puzzle about how different kinds of law came to be distributed around the world. The legal systems of some European colonies largely reflected the laws of the colonizer. Other colonies exhibited a greater degree of legal pluralism, in which the state administered a mix of different legal systems. Conventional explanations for this variation look to the extent of European settlement: where colonizers settled in large numbers, they chose to bring their own laws; otherwise, they preferred to retain preexisting ones. This Article challenges that assumption by offering a new account of how and why the British …


White Paper: Options For A Treaty On Business And Human Rights, Douglass Cassel, Anita Ramasastry Jan 2016

White Paper: Options For A Treaty On Business And Human Rights, Douglass Cassel, Anita Ramasastry

Journal Articles

The United Nations Human Rights Council decided in June 2014 to establish an Intergovernmental Working Group to “elaborate an international legally binding instrument to regulate, in international human rights law, the activities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises.” The first meeting of the Working Group will take place in Geneva in July 2015.

The Council did not further specify what sort of instrument should be drafted. The Center for Human Rights of the American Bar Association and the Law Society of England and Wales have asked the present authors to prepare a “White Paper” on possible options for a …


Insuring Floods: The Most Common And Devastating Natural Catastrophes In America, Christopher French Mar 2015

Insuring Floods: The Most Common And Devastating Natural Catastrophes In America, Christopher French

Journal Articles

Flooding is the most common natural catastrophe Americans face, accounting for 90% of all damage caused by natural catastrophes. Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, for example, collectively caused over $160 billion in damage, but only approximately 10% of the Hurricane Katrina victims and 50% of the Hurricane Sandy victims had insurance to cover their flood losses. Consequently, both their homes and lives were left in ruins in the wake of the storms. Nationwide, only approximately 7% of homeowners have insurance that covers flood losses even though the risk of flooding is only increasing as coastal areas continue to be developed and …


Personal Guarantees And Sureties Between Commercial Law And Consumers In The United States, Christoph Henkel Jan 2014

Personal Guarantees And Sureties Between Commercial Law And Consumers In The United States, Christoph Henkel

Journal Articles

Guaranties and suretyships reduce the risk of default and today remain essential arrangements in many commercial and consumer transactions. A guarantor or surety promises to pay for the debt of a third party and may become primarily liable on that debt. Despite the significance of such a promise and the resulting obligation, U.S. law does not clearly distinguish between a guarantor and surety in a consumer or commercial context. This is of particular relevance, because in a consumer context a guaranty often has a gratuitous or sentimental element and a guarantor may not always be fully aware of the risks …


The Role Of Comparative Law In Shaping Corporate Statutory Reforms, Marco Ventoruzzo Jan 2014

The Role Of Comparative Law In Shaping Corporate Statutory Reforms, Marco Ventoruzzo

Journal Articles

This Essay discusses how comparative law played and plays a role in the statutory development of corporate laws. The influence of laws of other systems on the development of statutory law is common, explicit, and represents a tradition that accompanied legal reforms since the very beginning of the development of legislation.

Focusing on modern corporate law, I argue (but the argument could be extended to many other legal fields) that it is necessary to distinguish two basic ways in which comparative law influences legal reforms in one particular jurisdiction. The first one is through regulatory competition among different systems. In …


All Things In Proportion - American Rights Review And The Problem Of Balancing, Jud Mathews, Alec Stone Sweet Jan 2011

All Things In Proportion - American Rights Review And The Problem Of Balancing, Jud Mathews, Alec Stone Sweet

Journal Articles

This paper describes and evaluates the evolution of rights doctrines in the United States, focusing on the problem of balancing as a mode of rights adjudication. In the current Supreme Court, deep conflict over whether, when, and how courts balance is omnipresent. Elsewhere, we find that the world’s most powerful constitutional courts have embraced a stable, analytical procedure for balancing, known as proportionality. Today, proportionality analysis (PA) constitutes the defining doctrinal core of a transnational, rights-based constitutionalism. This Article critically examines alleged American exceptionalism, from the standpoint of comparative constitutional law and practice. Part II provides an overview of how …


Convergence In Contort: Landlord Liability For Defective Premises In Comparative Perspective, Melissa T. Lonegrass Jan 2010

Convergence In Contort: Landlord Liability For Defective Premises In Comparative Perspective, Melissa T. Lonegrass

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


The Evolution Of Chinese Merger Notification Guidelines: A Work In Progress Integrating Global Consensus And Domestic Imperatives, Susan Beth Farmer Jan 2009

The Evolution Of Chinese Merger Notification Guidelines: A Work In Progress Integrating Global Consensus And Domestic Imperatives, Susan Beth Farmer

Journal Articles

China is among the most recent entrants into global competition enforcement, having adopted the first competition law of general application, the Anti-Monopoly Law (AML) after more than a decade of drafting. The AML and Merger Notification Thresholds, rules issued by decree of the State Council, became effective on August 3, 2008. Both the law and the guidelines were subject to public review and comment, and went through a number of drafts before final adoption.

This article is a comprehensive comparison of merger standards across jurisdictions, with particular focus on the evolution of merger regulation in China. It comprises six parts; …


Proportionality Balancing And Global Constitutionalism, Jud Mathews, Alec Stone Sweet Jan 2009

Proportionality Balancing And Global Constitutionalism, Jud Mathews, Alec Stone Sweet

Journal Articles

Over the past fifty years, proportionality balancing – an analytical procedure akin to strict scrutiny in the United States – has become a dominant technique of rights adjudication in the world. From German origins, proportionality analysis spread across Europe, into Commonwealth systems (Canada, New Zealand, South Africa), and Israel; it has also migrated to treaty-based regimes, including the European Union, the European Convention on Human Rights, and the World Trade Organization. Part II proposes a theory of why judges are attracted to the procedure, an account that blends strategic and normative elements. Parts III and IV provide a genealogy of …


Lawyers Without Borders, Catherine A. Rogers Jan 2009

Lawyers Without Borders, Catherine A. Rogers

Journal Articles

Professional regulation of attorneys is still attempting to catch up with the burgeoning international legal profession, which until recently has been wholly unregulated. The primary effort has been through revisions to Model Rule 8.5 to extend the reach of the Rule to international cases and professional activities in foreign countries. Because Rule 8.5 was drafted for domestic multi-jurisdiction practice, however, it is based on assumptions about territoriality and the historical relationship between the jurisdiction of tribunals and the licensing of attorneys that are simply inapposite in international settings. As a result, applying Rule 8.5 to international tribunals and international advocacy …


Lawyers Without Borders, Catherine A. Rogers Jan 2009

Lawyers Without Borders, Catherine A. Rogers

Journal Articles

Professional regulation of attorneys is still attempting to catch up with the burgeoning international legal profession, which until recently has been wholly unregulated. The primary effort has been through revisions to Model Rule 8.5 to extend the reach of the Rule to international cases and professional activities in foreign countries. Because Rule 8.5 was drafted for domestic multi-jurisdiction practice, however, it is based on assumptions about territoriality and the historical relationship between the jurisdiction of tribunals and the licensing of attorneys that are simply inapposite in international settings. As a result, applying Rule 8.5 to international tribunals and international advocacy …


Policing The Compensation Of Victims Of Catastrophes: Combining Solidarity And Self-Responsibility, Olivier Moreteau Jan 2008

Policing The Compensation Of Victims Of Catastrophes: Combining Solidarity And Self-Responsibility, Olivier Moreteau

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


In Search Of A Theory For Constitutional Comparativism, Roger P. Alford Jan 2005

In Search Of A Theory For Constitutional Comparativism, Roger P. Alford

Journal Articles

Constitutional comparativism - the notion that international and foreign material should be used to interpret the U.S. Constitution - is gaining currency. Yet proponents of this practice rarely offer a firm theoretical justification for the practice. This Article contends that constitutional comparativism should be examined from the perspective of constitutional theory. The use of comparative and international material must be deemed appropriate or inappropriate based on a particular judge's interpretive mode of constitutional analysis. The Article presents four classic constitutional theories - originalism, natural law, majoritarianism, and pragmatism - and addresses the propriety of constitutional comparativism under each theory. This …


Foreign Judgments At Common Law: Rethinking The Enforcement Rules, Tanya J. Monestier Jan 2005

Foreign Judgments At Common Law: Rethinking The Enforcement Rules, Tanya J. Monestier

Journal Articles

England and Canada have adopted divergent approaches to the enforcement of foreign civil and commercial judgments. An English court will only enforce a foreign judgment where the defendant submitted to the junsdiction of the foreign court, or was present in the foreign jurisdiction when served with process. This position. while protecting domestic defendants, is outdated and does little to further the objectives underpinning judgment enforcement- Canadian courts, by contrast, have been far more liberal than their English counterparts, enforcing foreign judgments in cases where there is a "real and substantial connection" between the dispute and the judgment forum. While this …


Misusing International Sources To Interpret The Constituion, Roger P. Alford Jan 2004

Misusing International Sources To Interpret The Constituion, Roger P. Alford

Journal Articles

This article addresses the trend toward using international sources to interpret the Constitution. While recognizing that international sources may be appropriately used as persuasive authority in certain types of constitutional analysis, this article argues that such reliance is inappropriate if done improperly. There are four misuses of international sources that serve as the focus of the article.

The first misuse of international sources - particularly evident in death penalty litigation - occurs when the global opinions of humankind are ascribed constitutional value to thwart the domestic opinions of Americans. The article suggests that international norms cannot be internalized within our …


A Comparative Constitutional Law Canon, Donald P. Kommers, John E. Finn Jan 2000

A Comparative Constitutional Law Canon, Donald P. Kommers, John E. Finn

Journal Articles

The article discusses what types of legal cases constitute a “canon” on American constitutional theory and comparative constitutional law, examples of case law that illustrate important developments in the two subjects. It describes the process taken by the article's authors to select a small sampling of 90 “canon” cases for their course book on American constitutional law, which is designed for the academic community and for undergraduate students enrolled in a traditional liberal arts curriculum.


Uses And Misuses Of Comparative Law In International Human Rights: Some Reflections On The Jurisprudence Of The European Court Of Human Rights, Paolo G. Carozza Jan 1998

Uses And Misuses Of Comparative Law In International Human Rights: Some Reflections On The Jurisprudence Of The European Court Of Human Rights, Paolo G. Carozza

Journal Articles

Virtually all of Mary Ann Glendon's work can be seen as part of a persistent effort to open some windows in the edifice of American law and allow cross-currents of foreign experience to blow fresh insight into the rooms of our republic. In her critique of contemporary strains of rights discourse in the United States, she makes the case against American insularity quite directly: "In closing our own eyes and ears to the development of rights ideas elsewhere, our most grievous loss is ... the kind of assistance ... that can be gained from observing the successes and failures of …


Continuity And Rupture In "New Approaches To Comparative Law", Paolo G. Carozza Jan 1997

Continuity And Rupture In "New Approaches To Comparative Law", Paolo G. Carozza

Journal Articles

In the course of this conference on "new approaches to comparative law;" it has struck me as curious that so little has been said about the "old" approaches to comparative law. In such a self-conscious effort to distinguish ourselves from our predecessors, one would expect at least some articulation of distinctive criteria, if not a full-fledged manifesto of novelty. Giinter Frankenberg gave us three ideal-type identities of the comparative lawyer; David Kennedy boxed up the old approaches in his taxonomical chart. They and others have referred to the expansion of capitalist market economics and liberal democratic political structures as the …


Grandeur Or Mockery?, Alain A. Levasseur Jan 1997

Grandeur Or Mockery?, Alain A. Levasseur

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Condemned By Substance And Process: A Comment On "Doubly Condemned": Adjustments To The Crime And Punishment Regime In The Late Slavery Period In The British Caribbean Colonies And "Under The Present Mode Of Trial, Improper Verdicts Are Very Often Given": Criminal Procedure In The Trials Of Slaves In Antebellum Louisiana, Raymond T. Diamond Jan 1996

Condemned By Substance And Process: A Comment On "Doubly Condemned": Adjustments To The Crime And Punishment Regime In The Late Slavery Period In The British Caribbean Colonies And "Under The Present Mode Of Trial, Improper Verdicts Are Very Often Given": Criminal Procedure In The Trials Of Slaves In Antebellum Louisiana, Raymond T. Diamond

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Organic Goods: Legal Understandings Of Work, Parenthood, And Gender Equality In Comparative Perspective, Paolo G. Carozza Jan 1993

Organic Goods: Legal Understandings Of Work, Parenthood, And Gender Equality In Comparative Perspective, Paolo G. Carozza

Journal Articles

The United States and Italy have taken quite different approaches toward providing legal protections for working parents. This Article uses a comparative perspective to highlight crucial aspects of the American legal and cultural attitudes towards parental leave. The author demonstrates how deeply rooted beliefs about equality, work, and family life have influenced the development of parental leave law. In particular, the Article describes how Italian law rests on notions of fundamental social equality, as well as on views concerning the importance of the interests of children and the family. As a result of this broad conception of the interests involved, …


Arbitral Adjudication: A Comparative Assessment Of Its Remedial And Substantive Status In Transnational Commerce, Thomas E. Carbonneau Jan 1984

Arbitral Adjudication: A Comparative Assessment Of Its Remedial And Substantive Status In Transnational Commerce, Thomas E. Carbonneau

Journal Articles

With the growth of international trade, arbitration has emerged as the preferred remedy for disputes in private international commerce. Its adjudicatory features respond well to the sui generis dispute resolution needs of international commercial contracts. Most significantly, an arbitration agreement acts as an elaborate choice-of-forum clause. It allows the parties to satisfy their need for a predictable and effective dispute resolution process by creating a more realistic and workable framework that supersedes the fundamentally parochial alternative proffered by national legal systems. The party autonomy principle that underlies arbitration gives the contracting parties the power to fashion a remedial process tailored …


The Value Of Comparative Constitutional Law, Donald P. Kommers Jan 1976

The Value Of Comparative Constitutional Law, Donald P. Kommers

Journal Articles

The publication of an English translation of a notable decision by a major foreign tribunal' is a fitting occasion on which to discuss the value of comparative constitutional law as a subject of academic study and as a legal discipline of valid current applicability. When referring to comparative constitutional law, I am speaking mainly of case law and most particularly of judicial decisions handed down by national tribunals empowered to review the constitutionality of legislative and executive acts.