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Let's Not Do Responsibility Skepticism, Ken M. Levy Nov 2022

Let's Not Do Responsibility Skepticism, Ken M. Levy

Journal Articles

I argue for three conclusions. First, responsibility skeptics are committed to the position that the criminal justice system should adopt a universal nonresponsibility excuse. Second, a universal nonresponsibility excuse would diminish some of our most deeply held values, further dehumanize criminal, exacerbate mass incarcerations, and cause an even greater number of innocent people (nonwrongdoers) to be punished. Third, while Saul Smilansky's 'illusionist' response to responsibility skeptics - that even if responsibility skepticism is correct, society should maintain a responsibility-realist/retributivist criminal justice system - is generally compelling, it would not work if a majority of society were to convert, theoretically and …


Police Killings As Felony Murder, Guyora Binder, Ekow Yankah Aug 2022

Police Killings As Felony Murder, Guyora Binder, Ekow Yankah

Journal Articles

The widely applauded conviction of officer Derek Chauvin for the murder of George Floyd employedthe widely criticized felony murder rule. Should we use felony murder as a tool to check discriminatory and violent policing? The authors object that felony murder—although perhaps the only murder charge available for this killing under Minnesota law—understated Chauvin’s culpability and thereby inadequately denounced his crime. They show that further opportunities to prosecute police for felony murder are quite limited. Further, a substantial minority of states impose felony murder liability for any death proximately caused by a felony, even if the actual killer was a police …


The Importance Of Looking Under The 'Administrative Hood': A Case Study Of The National Waters Protection Rule, Nicholas S. Bryner, Victor Byers Flatt Jul 2022

The Importance Of Looking Under The 'Administrative Hood': A Case Study Of The National Waters Protection Rule, Nicholas S. Bryner, Victor Byers Flatt

Journal Articles

In an era of legislative gridlock, policy by administrative action has expanded, with major swings occurring when the political party of the presidency changes. These policy disputes have spilled into the third branch with a concomitant increase in legal challenges seeking judicial review of such actions. At the same time, both Republican and Democratic Administrations have made cost-benefit analysis the currency of federal rulemaking in the executive branch.

The combination of the expansion of cost-benefit analysis and the increased litigation over rulemaking has increased the importance of economic and scientific justifications in both the promulgation and revision of administrative actions. …


Amazon As A Seller Of Marketplace Goods Under Article 2, Tanya J. Monestier Jun 2022

Amazon As A Seller Of Marketplace Goods Under Article 2, Tanya J. Monestier

Journal Articles

You have probably purchased goods on Amazon. Did you know that if the goods you purchased on Amazon turn out to be defective and cause serious personal injury, Amazon is probably not liable for them? Did you know that even though you placed an order on Amazon, gave payment to Amazon, and received the goods in an Amazon box, there is a good chance that the goods are not “sold by” Amazon—but are instead sold by a third-party seller? Did you know that Amazon tries to avoid liability for goods sold on its platform on the technicality that it does …


Regional Cooperative Federalism And The Us Electric Grid, Hannah Jacobs Wiseman Feb 2022

Regional Cooperative Federalism And The Us Electric Grid, Hannah Jacobs Wiseman

Journal Articles

The U.S. Constitution makes no direct mention of regional governing entities, yet they are an entrenched part of our federalist system. In the area of electric grid governance, the federal government enlists independent, private entities called regional transmission organizations (RTOs) to implement federal policy and achieve state energy goals. RTOs are the most prominent form of regional cooperative federalism, yet other policy spheres, such as opioid control, encompass a similar approach. This is a twist on the classic form of cooperative federalism, in which the federal government relies upon individual states to achieve federal mandates.

The regionally governed electric grid …


Ethical, Legal, And Social Issues In The Earth Biogenome Project, Jacob S. Sherkow, Katharine B. Barker, Irus Braverman, Robert Cook-Deegan, Richard Durbin, Carla L. Easter, Melissa M. Goldstein, Maui Hudson, W. John Kress, Harris A. Lewin, Debra J. H. Mathews, Catherine Mccarthy, Ann M. Mccartney, Manuela Da Silva, Andrew W. Torrance, Henry T. Greely Jan 2022

Ethical, Legal, And Social Issues In The Earth Biogenome Project, Jacob S. Sherkow, Katharine B. Barker, Irus Braverman, Robert Cook-Deegan, Richard Durbin, Carla L. Easter, Melissa M. Goldstein, Maui Hudson, W. John Kress, Harris A. Lewin, Debra J. H. Mathews, Catherine Mccarthy, Ann M. Mccartney, Manuela Da Silva, Andrew W. Torrance, Henry T. Greely

Journal Articles

The Earth BioGenome Project (EBP) is an audacious endeavor to obtain whole-genome sequences of representatives from all eukaryotic species on Earth. In addition to the project’s technical and organizational challenges, it also faces complicated ethical, legal, and social issues. This paper, from members of the EBP’s Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues (ELSI) Committee, catalogs these ELSI concerns arising from EBP. These include legal issues, such as sample collection and permitting; the applicability of international treaties, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Nagoya Protocol; intellectual property; sample accessioning; and biosecurity and ethical issues, such as sampling from the …


The Conceptual Problems Arising From Legal Pluralism, Jorge Luis Fabra-Zamora Jan 2022

The Conceptual Problems Arising From Legal Pluralism, Jorge Luis Fabra-Zamora

Journal Articles

This paper argues that analytical jurisprudence has been insufficiently attentive to three significant puzzles highlighted by the legal pluralist tradition: the existence of commonalities between different types of law, the possibility of a distinction between law and non-law, and the explanatory centrality of the state. I further argue that the resolution of these questions sets the stage for a renewed agenda of analytical jurisprudence and has to be considered in attempts for reconciliation between the academic traditions of analytical jurisprudence and legal pluralism, often called “pluralist jurisprudence.” I also argue that the resolution of these problems affects the empirical, doctrinal, …


The Origins Of Supreme Court Question Selection, Benjamin B. Johnson Jan 2022

The Origins Of Supreme Court Question Selection, Benjamin B. Johnson

Journal Articles

Arbitrary control over its own docket is the hallmark of the modern Supreme Court. While the Court’s power to choose its cases is a frequent subject of study, its practice of preselecting questions for review has received almost no attention. This is particularly surprising since the Court openly adds or subtracts questions in some of its most consequential and politicizing cases. Yet, despite the significance of this practice, its origins are poorly understood. This is the first Essay to uncover the hidden history of the Court’s question-selection powers. It reveals an important---and possibly intractable---conflict between the Court’s legal authority and …


Drug Supervision, Jacob Schuman Jan 2022

Drug Supervision, Jacob Schuman

Journal Articles

Critics of harsh drug sentencing laws in the United States typically focus on long prison sentences. But the American criminal justice system also inflicts a significant volume of drug-related punishment through community supervision (probation, parole, and supervised release). Over one million people are under supervision due to a drug conviction, and drug activity is among the most common reasons for violations. In an age of “mass supervision,” community supervision is a major form of drug sentencing and drug policy.

In this Article, I analyze the federal system of supervised release as a form of drug policy. Congress created supervised release …


Federal Courts’ Recalcitrance In Refusing To Certify State Law Covid-19 Business Interruption Insurance Issues, Christopher French Jan 2022

Federal Courts’ Recalcitrance In Refusing To Certify State Law Covid-19 Business Interruption Insurance Issues, Christopher French

Journal Articles

Over 2,000 COVID-19 business interruption insurance cases have been filed in state and federal courts the past two years with most of the cases filed in or removed to federal courts. The cases are governed by state law. Rather than certify the novel state law issues presented in the cases to the respective state supreme courts that ultimately will determine the law applicable in the cases, each of the eight federal circuit courts to issue decisions on the merits in such cases to date has done so by making an Erie guess regarding how the controlling state supreme courts would …


Decoding Nondelegation After Gundy: What The Experience In State Courts Tells Us About What To Expect When We're Expecting, Daniel Walters Jan 2022

Decoding Nondelegation After Gundy: What The Experience In State Courts Tells Us About What To Expect When We're Expecting, Daniel Walters

Journal Articles

The nondelegation doctrine theoretically limits Congress’s ability to delegate legislative powers to the executive agencies that make up the modern administrative state. Yet, in practice, the U.S. Supreme Court has, since the New Deal, shied away from enforcing any limits on congressional delegation. That may change in the near future. In Gundy v. United States, the Court narrowly upheld a delegation, and a dissent signaled deep doubts about the Court’s longstanding “intelligible principle” standard and offered a new framework to replace it. Subsequent events strongly suggest that the Court is poised to move in the direction contemplated by the …


Regulating Charitable Crowdfunding, Lloyd Hitoshi Mayer Jan 2022

Regulating Charitable Crowdfunding, Lloyd Hitoshi Mayer

Journal Articles

Charitable crowdfunding is a global and rapidly growing new method for raising money to benefit charities and individuals in need. While mass fundraising has existed for more than a hundred years, crowdfunding is distinguishable from those earlier efforts because of its low cost, speed of implementation, and broad reach. Reflecting these advantages, it now accounts annually for
billions of dollars raised from tens of millions of donors through hundreds of Internet platforms such as Charidy, Facebook, GoFundMe, and GlobalGiving. Although most charitable crowdfunding campaigns raise only modest amounts, every year several efforts attract tens of millions of dollars in donations. …


The Bipartisan Consensus On Big Tech, Roger P. Alford Jan 2022

The Bipartisan Consensus On Big Tech, Roger P. Alford

Journal Articles

This Article contends that there is an emergent bipartisan consensus that Big Tech has grown too powerful and that action must be taken to address its abuse of power. That action takes the form of a variety of legislative proposals to enhance government enforcement powers, reform the merger laws, and address self-preferencing, data portability, and interoperability. Litigation efforts focus on Facebook and Google’s abuse of monopoly power, particularly with respect to Facebook’s elimination of competition through acquisitions and Google’s abuse of monopoly power in search and display advertising. While we are in the midst of one of the most divisive …


Equity, Law And The Seventh Amendment, Samuel Bray Jan 2022

Equity, Law And The Seventh Amendment, Samuel Bray

Journal Articles

The Seventh Amendment requires that the civil jury trial right be “preserved” in “Suits at common law.” Those bits of constitutional text have long set the justices on a path of historical reconstruction. For roughly two centuries, the Supreme Court has determined the scope of the civil jury trial right in federal court by reference to historic English courts. But no one is happy with the current test. In one widely used variant, it requires an inquiry into analogous 1791 actions, followed by an inquiry into the legal or equitable provenance of the remedy sought, and then a weighing that …


Grid Reliability Through Clean Energy, Hannah Jacobs Wiseman, Alexandra Klass, Joshua Macey, Shelley Welton Jan 2022

Grid Reliability Through Clean Energy, Hannah Jacobs Wiseman, Alexandra Klass, Joshua Macey, Shelley Welton

Journal Articles

In the wake of recent high-profile power failures, policymakers and politicians have asserted that there is an inherent tension between the aims of clean energy and grid reliability. But continuing to rely on fossil fuels to avoid system outages will only exacerbate reliability challenges by contributing to increasingly extreme climate-related weather events. These extremes will disrupt the power supply, with impacts rippling far beyond the electricity sector.

This Article shows that much of the perceived tension between clean energy and reliability is a failure of law and governance resulting from the United States’ siloed approach to regulating the electric grid. …


Facing The Sunset: An Egalitarian Approach Against Taxing Couples As A Unit, James M. Puckett Jan 2022

Facing The Sunset: An Egalitarian Approach Against Taxing Couples As A Unit, James M. Puckett

Journal Articles

With the sunset of marriage penalty relief in 2025, Congress has a bittersweet opportunity to align the taxable unit with the guiding norm of taxation according to "ability to pay." The federal income tax brackets have been designed around a misguided and poorly targeted assumption that comparing married couples is appropriate, whether because of pooling income, economies of scale, or untaxed housework and caregiving. This Article argues that the individual, rather than (married) couples, should emerge as the unit for income taxation under an egalitarian approach to distributive justice.

Welfarist insights and egalitarian arguments sometimes align on solutions to tax …


Addressing Climate Impacts In Alaska Native Tribes: Legal Barriers For Community Relocation Due To Thawing Permafrost And Coastal Erosion, Lara Fowler, Ekrem Korkut, Kathleen E. Halvorsen, David Holen, E. Lance Howe, Guangqing Chi Jan 2022

Addressing Climate Impacts In Alaska Native Tribes: Legal Barriers For Community Relocation Due To Thawing Permafrost And Coastal Erosion, Lara Fowler, Ekrem Korkut, Kathleen E. Halvorsen, David Holen, E. Lance Howe, Guangqing Chi

Journal Articles

Rural communities is Alaska—predominantly Alaska Native Tribes—are at the forefront of climate change impacts and climate justice concerns in the United States. According to the 2019 Alaska statewide threat assessment report, 29 communities are currently experiencing significant climate change-related erosion. Further, 38 communities faces significant flooding, and 35 have major problems with thawing permafrost. Some Alaska Native communities have explored community relocation to adapt to these impacts. Because federal law does not recognize gradual environmental impacts like thawing permafrost and coastal erosion as disasters, these communities are ineligible for disaster funding and struggling with how to adapt to the very …


Legal Uncertainties: Covid-19, Distance Learning, Bar Exams, And The Future Of U.S. Legal Education, Christine Corcos Jan 2022

Legal Uncertainties: Covid-19, Distance Learning, Bar Exams, And The Future Of U.S. Legal Education, Christine Corcos

Journal Articles

The COVID-19 pandemic forced the U.S. legal academy and legal profession to make changes to legal education and training very rapidly in order to accommodate the needs of students, graduates, practitioners, clients, and the public. Like most of the public, members of the profession assumed that most, if not all, of the changes would be temporary, and life would return to a pre-pandemic normal.

These assumed temporary changes included a rapid and massive shift to online teaching for legal education, to online administration of the bar exam in some jurisdictions, or the option to offer the diploma privilege in others. …


Never Look Back: Non-Regression In Environmental Law, Nicholas S. Bryner Jan 2022

Never Look Back: Non-Regression In Environmental Law, Nicholas S. Bryner

Journal Articles

Deregulatory advocates often frame environmental protection and economic well-being as a zero-sum tradeoff. During times of economic crisis, including the long-term fallout from the global covid-19 pandemic, policymakers may seek to withdraw or roll back environmental laws and regulations in an attempt to accelerate economic recovery. In order to safeguard the interests of vulnerable populations that suffer from pollution and other environmental harms, it is imperative to retain environmental regulations, removing or relaxing them only when there is a clear justification for doing so.

Built in environmental legal frameworks in both international and domestic law is a principle of non-regression—no …


Cross-Statute Employment Discrimination Claims And The Need For A "Super Statute", William R. Corbett Jan 2022

Cross-Statute Employment Discrimination Claims And The Need For A "Super Statute", William R. Corbett

Journal Articles

Employment discrimination law is almost sixty years old in the United States. The law has developed under several different statutes enacted by Congress at different times. Congress has amended the statutes over the years, almost always in reaction to Supreme Court decisions with which it disagrees. The Supreme Court and the lower courts then interpret these piecemeal repairs of the law. This approach has produced a body of employment discrimination law in which there are significant asymmetries among the protected characteristics and the several statutes. These asymmetries produce both practical and theoretical problems, creating employment discrimination law that is cumbersome …


Mapping Racial Capitalism: Implications For Law, Carmen G. Gonzalez, Athena D. Mutua Jan 2022

Mapping Racial Capitalism: Implications For Law, Carmen G. Gonzalez, Athena D. Mutua

Journal Articles

The theory of racial capitalism offers insights into the relationship between class and race, providing both a structural and a historical account of the ways in which the two are linked in the global economy. Law plays an important role in this. This article sketches what we believe are two key structural features of racial capitalism: profit-making and race-making for the purpose of accumulating wealth and power. We understand profit-making as the extraction of surplus value or profits through processes of exploitation, expropriation, and expulsion, which are grounded in a politics of race-making. We understand race-making as including racial stratification, …


Citizenship, Race, And Statehood, Kristina M. Campbell Jan 2022

Citizenship, Race, And Statehood, Kristina M. Campbell

Journal Articles

This Article will discuss the interplay between citizenship, race, and ratification of statehood in the United States, both historically and prospectively. Part II will discuss the development and history of the Insular Cases and the creation of the Territorial Incorporation Doctrine (“TID”), focusing on the Territory of Puerto Rico and how the issues of citizenship, race, and statehood have evolved in shadow of empire as a result. Part III will look back on the admission to the Union of New Mexico and Arizona—the forty-seventh and forty-eighth states—and discuss the substantial difficulties these territories had in getting admitted for statehood due …


On Foxes And Hedgehogs, Roger P. Alford Jan 2022

On Foxes And Hedgehogs, Roger P. Alford

Journal Articles

This Article is about John Nagle’s many means to one great end. It will outline the many themes of his scholarship: (i) environmental law, (ii) statutory interpretation, (iii) constitutional law, (iv) nuisance and pollution, (v) election law and campaign finance, (vi) Christianity and the environment, and (vii) national parks. It will offer conclusions on how he used his scholarly interests as a means to pursue his overarching worldview.


A Critical Problem Needing A Bolder Solution?: A Response To Atinuke O. Adediran's "Nonprofit Board Composition", Lloyd Hitashi Mayer Jan 2022

A Critical Problem Needing A Bolder Solution?: A Response To Atinuke O. Adediran's "Nonprofit Board Composition", Lloyd Hitashi Mayer

Journal Articles

The governing boards of nonprofit organizations, and particularly of nonprofits that serve low income and other vulnerable populations, fail to adequately include the populations that they serve. At least this is the common understanding among people familiar with these boards. Professor Atinuke Adediran not only confirms the existence of this problem but clarifies it in four important ways. Professor Adediran also proposes concrete steps to address it; although, the clarity she has brought to the problem raises the question of whether she could have been bolder in her proposed solutions.

The clarity comes from new data, careful consideration of previous …


Preventing Emissions From Slipping Through The Cracks: How Collaboration On New Technologies To Detect Violations And Minimize Emissions Can Efficiently Enforce Existing Clean Air Act Regulations, Kathryn Caballero Jan 2022

Preventing Emissions From Slipping Through The Cracks: How Collaboration On New Technologies To Detect Violations And Minimize Emissions Can Efficiently Enforce Existing Clean Air Act Regulations, Kathryn Caballero

Journal Articles

The link between air pollution and poor public health is well known and has been farther documented during the COVID-19 pandemic, 1 but EPA has outdated methods and rules to detect air emissions. Enforcing existing environmental regulations presents challenges because the detection and monitoring technologies identified in the regulations, or the regulation language itself, may not sufficiently identify environmental pollution, let alone complex environmental fraud. How can EPA best use new technologies and concepts to detect violations, with the intent of minimizing emissions, to improve human health and environmental outcomes during the lengthy process of drafting and publishing new regulations? …


Getting Into Equity, Samuel Bray, Paul Miller Jan 2022

Getting Into Equity, Samuel Bray, Paul Miller

Journal Articles

For two centuries, common lawyers have frequently talked about a “cause of action.” But “cause of action” is not an organizing principle for equity. This Article shows how a plaintiff gets into equity, and it shows equity is shaped by the interplay of its remedial, procedural, and substantive law. Equity is adjectival, related to law rather than the other way around. Remedies, not rights, are what give it power. And for getting into equity, it is the grievance that is central. To insist on an equitable cause of action is to work a fundamental change in how a plaintiff gets …


John Copeland Nagle: A Man For All Seasons, Patricia O'Hara Jan 2022

John Copeland Nagle: A Man For All Seasons, Patricia O'Hara

Journal Articles

Many fine law schools have faculty members who are outstanding teachers, preeminent scholars, and generous colleagues. Few law schools are as blessed as we were at Notre Dame to have someone as singular as John Copeland Nagle—a person who was all those things professionally, but who was also a man without self-serving ego or guile; a man possessed of a moral compass that made him "true north" to so many of us; a person who consistently acted out of charity in an effort to do the right thing in all things.

John was genuine, authentic, self-giving, and humble with every …


Humility, Climate Change, And The Pursuit Of Scientific Truth, John Nagle Jan 2022

Humility, Climate Change, And The Pursuit Of Scientific Truth, John Nagle

Journal Articles

This Essay begins with the understanding that environmental law could not exist without science. The tolerable amount of pollution, the proximity of a species to extinction, and the threats presented by climate change are just some of the questions that environmental law depends on science to answer. Often environmental law insists that science alone is relevant to a particular regulatory action, such as an air pollution standard or an endangered species listing. It is not surprising, therefore, that many disputes about environmental law are really disputes about science.

Science, however, does not always yield the information that environmental law needs …


Bon Voyage, My Friend, Amy Coney Barrett Jan 2022

Bon Voyage, My Friend, Amy Coney Barrett

Journal Articles

I met John in the fall of 2000, when he traveled to Washington to recruit new faculty at the annual hiring conference. Although I was not then on the teaching market, John heard that I intended to enter it in a year or two. He invited me to have coffee to discuss my plans, and so began a friendship that spanned nearly twenty years.

John wore many hats in the course of our relationship: mentor, colleague, co-author, and treasured friend.

Rather than putting his resources into himself, John put them into his family, friends, church, and work. And in each …


Who Is Wise Among You?, Bruce R. Huber Jan 2022

Who Is Wise Among You?, Bruce R. Huber

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.