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Full-Text Articles in Law

Rules Against Rulification, Michael Coenen Dec 2014

Rules Against Rulification, Michael Coenen

Journal Articles

The Supreme Court often confronts the choice between bright-line rules and open-ended standards — a point well understood by commentators and the Court itself. Far less understood is a related choice that arises once the Court has opted for a standard over a rule: May lower courts develop subsidiary rules to facilitate their own application of the Supreme Court’s standard, or must they always apply that standard in its pure, un-“rulified” form? In several recent cases, spanning a range of legal contexts, the Court has endorsed the latter option, fortifying its first-order standards with second-order “rules against rulification.” Rules against …


Freedom, Benefit And Understanding: Reflections On Laurence Claus's Critique Of Authority, John Finnis Nov 2014

Freedom, Benefit And Understanding: Reflections On Laurence Claus's Critique Of Authority, John Finnis

Journal Articles

Written for a symposium in the University of San Diego Law School in September 2013 on Laurence Claus, Law’s Evolution and Human Understanding (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), this article appears in the final issue of volume 52 of the San Diego Law Review. With new illustrations and considerations suggested by the book, the article argues for a number of theses: “Because I/we say so” is never a reasonable ground or formulation of authoritative acts such as enactments or parental or other orders. The moral authority of rule makers is never peremptory in a binary (all or nothing) as …


Yates V. United States: A Case Study In Overcriminalization, Stephen F. Smith Nov 2014

Yates V. United States: A Case Study In Overcriminalization, Stephen F. Smith

Journal Articles

In Yates v. United States, the Supreme Court will decide whether tossing undersized fish overboard can be prosecuted under the Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002, a law aimed at preventing massive frauds of the sort that led to the collapse of Enron and sent shock waves throughout the economy. Although the legal issue is narrow, the case has far-reaching significance. The Yates prosecution is a case study in the dangers posed by “overcriminalization”: the existence of multitudinous, often overlapping criminal laws that are so poorly defined that they sweep within their ambit conduct far afield from their intended target.

The …


Judicial Review And Non-Enforcement At The Founding, Matthew J. Steilen Nov 2014

Judicial Review And Non-Enforcement At The Founding, Matthew J. Steilen

Journal Articles

This Article examines the relationship between judicial review and presidential non-enforcement of statutory law. Defenders of non-enforcement regularly argue that the justification for judicial review that prevailed at the time of the founding also justifies the president in declining to enforce unconstitutional laws. The argument is unsound. This Article shows that there is essentially no historical evidence, from ratification through the first decade under the Constitution, in support of a non-enforcement power. It also shows that the framers repeatedly made statements inconsistent with the supposition that the president could refuse to enforce laws he deemed unconstitutional. In contrast, during this …


The Scope Of Precedent, Randy J. Kozel Nov 2014

The Scope Of Precedent, Randy J. Kozel

Journal Articles

The scope of Supreme Court precedent is capacious. Justices of the Court commonly defer to sweeping rationales and elaborate doctrinal frameworks articulated by their predecessors. This practice infuses judicial precedent with the prescriptive power of enacted constitutional and statutory text. The lower federal courts follow suit, regularly abiding by the Supreme Court's broad pronouncements. These phenomena cannot be explained by—and, indeed, oftentimes subvert—the classic distinction between binding holdings and dispensable dicta.

This Article connects the scope of precedent with recurring and foundational debates about the proper ends of judicial interpretation. A precedent's forward-looking effect should not depend on the superficial …


Reaching Backward And Stretching Forward: Teaching For Transfer In Law School Clinics, Shaun Archer, James Parry Eyster, James J. Kelly Jr., Tonya Kowalski, Colleen F. Shanahan Nov 2014

Reaching Backward And Stretching Forward: Teaching For Transfer In Law School Clinics, Shaun Archer, James Parry Eyster, James J. Kelly Jr., Tonya Kowalski, Colleen F. Shanahan

Journal Articles

In thinking about education, teachers may spend more time considering what to teach than how to teach. Unfortunately, traditional teaching techniques have limited effectiveness in their ability to help students retain and apply the knowledge either in later classes or in their professional work. What, then, is the value of our teaching efforts if students are unable to transfer the ideas and skills they have learned to later situations?

Teaching for transfer is important to the authors of this article, four clinical professors and one psychologist. The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to some of the …


A False Sense Of Security: Due Process Failures In Removal Proceedings, Darlene Goring Oct 2014

A False Sense Of Security: Due Process Failures In Removal Proceedings, Darlene Goring

Journal Articles

The article explores the reasons for the failure of due process rights afforded by aliens facing criminal prosecution for unauthorized return to the U.S. after prior removal proceedings. Topics discussed include Federal enforcement of the Immigration and Nationality Act, laws governing criminal prosecution and incarceration for previously removed aliens, and disclosure of the availability of judicial review to aliens facing removal from the U.S.


Hydraulic Fracturing: If Fractures Cross Property Lines Is There An Actionable Subsurface Trespass?, Keith B. Hall Oct 2014

Hydraulic Fracturing: If Fractures Cross Property Lines Is There An Actionable Subsurface Trespass?, Keith B. Hall

Journal Articles

The law recognizes trespass liability for subsurface intrusions, at least in some circumstances. Further, courts sometimes have stated that ownership of land extends to the earth's center. But such statements are dicta. Few courts have carefully considered the maximum extent of subsurface ownership or subsurface trespass liability. Courts in two jurisdictions have recently addressed whether a person incurs liability when he causes hydraulic fracturing fluid to intrude into the subsurface of a neighbor's land, but the courts reached opposite conclusions, with each suggesting that public policy supported its position. Neither adequately examined the legal issues. Careful consideration of trespass concepts …


“All Good Things Flow . . . ”: Rule Of Law, Public Goods, And The Divided American Metropolis, James J. Kelly Jr. Oct 2014

“All Good Things Flow . . . ”: Rule Of Law, Public Goods, And The Divided American Metropolis, James J. Kelly Jr.

Journal Articles

This essay is a review of and a response to Urban Decay, Austerity, and Rule of Law, an article written by Brent White, Simone Sepe, and Saura Masconale. Building upon an intuitively compelling social contract theory insight, the article sets out the theoretical and empirical cases for the authors’ contention that sustained investment in highly visible, essential local public goods provides crucial support for rule of law. White, Sepe, and Masconale offer their theory as a “make ‘gov’ not war” alternative to the Broken Windows Theory, which underlies ordermaintenance policing strategies. In the final section of the piece, the authors …


Seeing It Coming Since 1945: State Bans And Regulations Of Crafty Sciences Speech And Activity, Christine Corcos Oct 2014

Seeing It Coming Since 1945: State Bans And Regulations Of Crafty Sciences Speech And Activity, Christine Corcos

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Auctioning Class Settlements, Jay Tidmarsh Oct 2014

Auctioning Class Settlements, Jay Tidmarsh

Journal Articles

Although they promise better deterrence at a lower cost, class actions are infected with problems that can keep them from delivering on this promise. One of these problems occurs when the agents for the class (the class representative and class counsel) advance their own interests at the expense of the class. Controlling agency cost, which often manifests itself at the time of settlement, has been the impetus behind a number of class-action reform proposals. This Article develops a proposal that, in conjunction with reforms in fee structure and opt-out rights, controls agency costs at the time of settlement. The idea …


Wilderness Exceptions, John Copeland Nagle Oct 2014

Wilderness Exceptions, John Copeland Nagle

Journal Articles

This Article considers when activities that are inconsistent with wilderness are nonetheless allowed in it. That result happens in four different ways: (1) Congress decided not to designate an area as “wilderness” even though the area possesses wilderness characteristics; (2) Congress draws the boundaries of a wilderness area to exclude land that possesses wilderness characteristics because Congress wants to allow activities there that would be forbidden by the Act; (3) Congress specifically authorizes otherwise prohibited activities when it establishes a new wilderness area; or (4) Congress acts to approve contested activities in response to a controversy that arises after a …


Interpreting Secretary Perkins, Barry Cushman Oct 2014

Interpreting Secretary Perkins, Barry Cushman

Journal Articles

This essay is my contribution to an exchange with Professor Daniel R. Ernst of Georgetown University Law Center concerning the timing of a visit by Chief Justice Hughes and his wife to the Pennsylvania summer home of Justice Owen Roberts. In the 1950s, former Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins recounted in the oral history interview she gave to Columbia University that Mrs. Roberts had reported to her that Hughes and Roberts had held extended, private conversations during that visit. It has been argued by some scholars that the visit took place during the summer of 1936, shortly after the Court …


Improving Patent Quality With Applicant Incentives, Stephen Yelderman Oct 2014

Improving Patent Quality With Applicant Incentives, Stephen Yelderman

Journal Articles

This Article offers an alternative approach to the widely recognized problem of low-quality patents being granted by the patent office. Traditional reforms have focused almost exclusively on making the patent office more effective at examination. This Article instead looks at patent quality from an applicant’s perspective, and evaluates how certain patent rules might be encouraging inventors to file higher or lower quality claims. It proposes a variety of reforms to take advantage of applicants’ existing interests in obtaining patents that are both broad enough to create infringing activity and narrow enough to be valid. The result is a distinctive set …


The Law Is Made Of Stories: Erasing The False Dichotomy Between Stories And Legal Rules, Stephen Paskey Oct 2014

The Law Is Made Of Stories: Erasing The False Dichotomy Between Stories And Legal Rules, Stephen Paskey

Journal Articles

When lawyers think of legal analysis, they think chiefly of logic and reason. Stories are secondary. As Michael Smith explains, our legal system “is not founded on narrative reasoning” but on “a commitment to the rule of law.” The article suggests that this dichotomy between “rule-based reasoning” and “narrative reasoning” is false, and that narrative and stories are central to legal reasoning, including rule-based reasoning. In doing so, the article uses literary narrative theory to show that every governing legal rule has the structure of a “stock story”: the elements of the rule correspond to elements of a story. It …


Corporate Social Responsibility For Enforcement Of Labor Rights: Are There More Effective Alternatives?, Barbara Fick Sep 2014

Corporate Social Responsibility For Enforcement Of Labor Rights: Are There More Effective Alternatives?, Barbara Fick

Journal Articles

This article addresses the concept of corporate social responsibility (hereinafter CSR) as it relates to labor rights. It considers the following issues: is the CSR model, as evidenced by the adoption of corporate codes of conduct, effective in protecting labor rights?; and is this model the best way to protect labor rights? These issues are examined from two perspectives: practical and philosophical. Lastly, some alternative enforcement mechanisms are considered and their respective advantages and disadvantages for purposes of ensuring labor rights are discussed.


Why We Need A Comprehensive Recording Fraud Registry, Randall K. Johnson Sep 2014

Why We Need A Comprehensive Recording Fraud Registry, Randall K. Johnson

Journal Articles

This essay argues for a modest expansion of the Nationwide Mortgage Licensing System and Registry (NMLS) in order to detect and deter more recording fraud. It does so, initially, by explaining why this online registry limits mortgage fraud. The essay later describes how the NMLS could detect or deter other crimes, such as deed fraud and lien fraud. Lastly, it deals with concerns about a Comprehensive Recording Fraud Registry.


Just, Smart: Civil Rights Protections And Market-Sensitive Vacant Property Strategies, James J. Kelly Jr. Sep 2014

Just, Smart: Civil Rights Protections And Market-Sensitive Vacant Property Strategies, James J. Kelly Jr.

Journal Articles

This essay, prepared for and published by the Center for Community Progress, a national, non-profit intermediary dedicated to developing effective, sustainable solutions to turn vacant, abandoned and problem properties into vibrant places, examines the legal and normative implications of local governments' use of neighborhood real estate market data to strategically focus vacant property remediation tools. I and other writers, such as Frank Alexander, Alan Mallach and Joseph Schilling, have argued for the importance of understanding the economic feasibility of market-based rehabilitation of derelict, vacant houses in making decisions as to how and when to use a variety of code enforcement, …


The Speedy Trial Right And National Security Detentions: Critical Comments On United States V. Ghailani, Anthony O'Rourke Sep 2014

The Speedy Trial Right And National Security Detentions: Critical Comments On United States V. Ghailani, Anthony O'Rourke

Journal Articles

This article reviews the decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit to uphold the conviction and sentence of Ahmed Khalfan Ghailani, the sole Guantánamo detainee to have been transferred to the United States for trial. Ghailani was captured nearly five years before his arraignment and argued that his constitutional right to a speedy trial was violated by the delay. The article contends that, in rejecting Ghailani’s argument, the Second Circuit distorted the doctrinal framework governing speedy trial claims and mischaracterized the interests that the speedy trial right is intended to protect. The article also explores …


A Judicial Cure For The Disease Of Overcriminalization, Stephen F. Smith Aug 2014

A Judicial Cure For The Disease Of Overcriminalization, Stephen F. Smith

Journal Articles

The dangers of “overcriminalization” are widely appreciated across the political spectrum, but confusion remains as to its cause. Standard critiques fault legislatures alone. The problem, however, is not simply that too many criminal laws are on the books, but that they are poorly defined in ways that give unwarranted sweep to the criminal law, raising the danger of punishment absent or in excess of moral blameworthiness. Instead of narrowing ambiguous criminal laws to more appropriate bounds, courts frequently expand them, even when this ratchets up the punishment that offenders face, and fail to insist on proof of sufficiently culpable states …


The Woman Question In Post-Socialist Legal Education, Isabel Marcus Aug 2014

The Woman Question In Post-Socialist Legal Education, Isabel Marcus

Journal Articles

Sex equality—a significant contribution to the international human rights canon—was one of the legitimating principles of socialist states in Eastern Europe and, at least formally, of their post-socialist democratic successors. Why then has the subject been ignored or deeply marginalized in post-socialist legal education? Using socio-legal analysis to establish a legitimation or delegitimation dynamic regarding law in theory and practice in both eras, the author provides answers to this question and suggests various options for reforming post-socialist legal education to provide adequate training in the subject of women’s rights consistent with states’ international and regional human rights obligations.


Death By Daubert: The Continued Attack On Private Antitrust, Christine P. Bartholomew Aug 2014

Death By Daubert: The Continued Attack On Private Antitrust, Christine P. Bartholomew

Journal Articles

In 2011, with five words of dicta, the Supreme Court opened Pandora’s box for private antitrust enforcement. By suggesting trial courts must evaluate the admissibility of expert testimony at class certification, the Court placed a significant obstacle in the path of antitrust class actions. Following the Supreme Court’s lead, most courts now permit parties to bring expert challenges far earlier than the traditional summary judgment or pretrial timing. Premature rejection of expert testimony dooms budding private antitrust suits — cases that play an essential role in modern antitrust enforcement. The dangers for private antitrust plaintiffs are compounded by the Court’s …


Why Retributivism Needs Consequentialism: The Rightful Place Of Revenge In The Criminal Justice System, Ken Levy Jul 2014

Why Retributivism Needs Consequentialism: The Rightful Place Of Revenge In The Criminal Justice System, Ken Levy

Journal Articles

Consider the reaction of Trayvon Martin’s family to the jury verdict. They were devastated that George Zimmerman, the defendant, was found not guilty of manslaughter or murder. Whatever the merits of this outcome, what does the Martin family’s emotional reaction mean? What does it say about criminal punishment – especially the reasons why we punish? Why did the Martin family want to see George Zimmerman go to jail? And why were – and are – they so upset that he didn’t? This Article will argue for three points. First, what fuels this kind of outrage is vengeance: the desire to …


Disparate Impact, School Closures, And Parental Choice, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jul 2014

Disparate Impact, School Closures, And Parental Choice, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

We live in an era of parental choice. Today, forty-two states and the District of Columbia authorize charter schools, and twenty states and the District of Columbia permit students to use public funds to attend a private school. During the 2012-2013 school year, nearly 2 million children attended charter schools, and nearly 250,000 children received publicly funded scholarship to attend a private school. The expanding menu of publicly funded educational options is one (but by no means the only) factor contributing to the current, intensely controversial, waves of urban public school closures. In school-closure debates, proponents of traditional public schools …


Dynamic Forest Federalism, Blake Hudson Jul 2014

Dynamic Forest Federalism, Blake Hudson

Journal Articles

State and local governments have long maintained regulatory authority to manage natural resources, and most subnational governments have politically exercised that authority to some degree. Policy makers, however, have increasingly recognized that the dynamic attributes of natural resources make them difficult to manage on any one scale of government. As a result, the nation has shifted toward multilevel governance known as “dynamic federalism” for many if not most regulatory subject areas, especially in the context of the natural environment. The nation has done so both legally and politically — the constitutional validity of expanded federal regulatory authority over resources has …


Tipping The Scales In Favor Of Charitable Bequests: A Critique, Elizabeth Carter Jul 2014

Tipping The Scales In Favor Of Charitable Bequests: A Critique, Elizabeth Carter

Journal Articles

This paper considers the public policy favoring testamentary bequests to charity and offers a critique of that policy. Public policy favors testamentary bequests to charity. At least, that is the claim of numerous courts and legislative bodies. The policy favoring charitable bequests may tip the scales in deciding the proper interpretation of a will or the merits of an undue influence, incapacity, or tortuous interference with inheritance claim. Paradoxically, courts and legislative bodies rarely discuss the source of this public policy. Nor do they inquire into the wisdom of the policy. They should.


Windsor Beyond Marriage: Due Process, Equality & Undocumented Immigration, Anthony O'Rourke Jun 2014

Windsor Beyond Marriage: Due Process, Equality & Undocumented Immigration, Anthony O'Rourke

Journal Articles

The Supreme Court’s recent decision in United States v. Windsor, invalidating part of the federal Defense of Marriage Act, presents a significant interpretive challenge. Early commentators have criticized the majority opinion’s lack of analytical rigor, and expressed doubt that Windsor can serve as a meaningful precedent with respect to constitutional questions outside the area of same-sex marriage. This short Article offers a more rehabilitative reading of Windsor, and shows how the decision can be used to analyze a significant constitutional question concerning the use of state criminal procedure to regulate immigration.

From Windsor’s holding, the Article distills …


Productive Unionism, Matthew Dimick May 2014

Productive Unionism, Matthew Dimick

Journal Articles

Do labor unions have a future? This Article considers the role and importance of labor union structures, in particular the degree of centralization in collective bargaining, to the future of labor unions. Centralization refers primarily to the level at which collective bargaining takes place: whether at the plant, firm, industry, or national level. The Article examines the historical origins of different structures of bargaining in the United States and Europe, the important implications that centralization has for economic productivity, and the ways that various labor law rules reinforce or reflect different bargaining structures. Most critically, the Article contends that greater …


Throwing Dirt On Doctor Frankenstein’S Grave: Access To Experimental Treatments At The End Of Life, Michael J. Malinowski Apr 2014

Throwing Dirt On Doctor Frankenstein’S Grave: Access To Experimental Treatments At The End Of Life, Michael J. Malinowski

Journal Articles

All U.S. federal research funding triggers regulations to protect human subjects known as the Common Rule, a collaborative government effort that spans seventeen federal agencies. The Department of Health and Human Services has been in the process of re-evaluating the Common Rule comprehensively after decades of application and in response to the jolting advancement of biopharmaceutical science. The Common Rule designates specific groups as “vulnerable populations”—pregnant women, fetuses, children, prisoners, and those with serious mental comprehension challenges—and imposes heightened protections of them. This article addresses a question at the cornerstone of regulations to protect human subjects as biopharmaceutical research and …


Governing The Wild: Databases, Algorithms, And Population Models As Biopolitics, Irus Braverman Mar 2014

Governing The Wild: Databases, Algorithms, And Population Models As Biopolitics, Irus Braverman

Journal Articles

This essay draws on interviews with conservation biologists to reflect on two interrelated aspects of the in situ – ex situ divide and its increasing integration: database systems and population management models. Specifically, I highlight those databases and software programs used by zoos in ex situ conservation settings, and the parallel, traditionally distinct, in situ databases and risk assessment models. I then explore the evolving technologies that integrate wild-captive databases and population models and, in particular, emerging metapopulation and meta-model approaches to small population management. My central argument is that, while still viewed by many as separate, the in situ …