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Worker Well-Being In The 21st Century: Addressing The Psychosocial Context Of Work, Barbara Fick Aug 2009

Worker Well-Being In The 21st Century: Addressing The Psychosocial Context Of Work, Barbara Fick

Journal Articles

The world of work has undergone significant change since the days when nation-states first began addressing the issue of worker well-being. Early legal responses (such as worker compensation laws and health and safety regulations) focused on the physical environmental hazards to which workers were subjected, e.g. unsafe machinery or exposure to toxic chemicals. The transformation in the nature of work to a service-oriented economy has led many to rethink the types of hazards to which workers are exposed. Recent research has focused on the psychological and social environment in the workplace and how that may contribute to undermining worker health. …


Not Just Collective Bargaining: The Role Of Trade Unions In Creating And Maintaining A Democratic Society, Barbara Fick Jun 2009

Not Just Collective Bargaining: The Role Of Trade Unions In Creating And Maintaining A Democratic Society, Barbara Fick

Journal Articles

This essay addresses the historical and contemporary roles which trade unions have played in creating conditions necessary for democracy to flourish. Their effectiveness in fulfilling these roles is due in large measure to the organizational characteristics which make trade unions the archetypal civil society organization: democratic representation, demographic representation, financial independence, breadth of concerns and placement within society. This essay explores these aspects of the trade union movement and suggests that advocates for democracy have cause for concern in the absence of a vibrant, and independent, domestic trade union movement.


The Appropriations Power And Sovereign Immunity,, Jay Tidmarsh, Paul F. Figley May 2009

The Appropriations Power And Sovereign Immunity,, Jay Tidmarsh, Paul F. Figley

Journal Articles

Discussions of sovereign immunity assume that the Constitution contains no explicit text regarding sovereign immunity. As a result, arguments about the existence-or nonexistence-of sovereign immunity begin with the English and American common-law doctrines. Exploring political, fiscal, and legal developments in England and the American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, this Article shows that focusing on common-law developments is misguided. The common-law approach to sovereign immunity ended in the early 1700s. The Bankers' Case (1690- 1700), which is often regarded as the first modern common-law treatment of sovereign immunity, is in fact the last in the line of English …


The Securities Laws And The Mechanics Of Legal Change, Barry Cushman Jan 2009

The Securities Laws And The Mechanics Of Legal Change, Barry Cushman

Journal Articles

This essay, prepared for the Virginia Law Review symposium marking the 75th anniversary of the Securities Exchange Commission, explores the mechanisms through which the Roosevelt Administration secured the Supreme Court's approval of various features of the New Deal's securities law program.


The Nobel Effect, Roger P. Alford Jan 2009

The Nobel Effect, Roger P. Alford

Journal Articles

For the first time in scholarly literature, this article traces the history of modern international law from the perspective of the constructivist theory of international relations. Constructivism is one of the leadings schools of thought in international relations today. This theory posits that state preferences emerge from social construction and that state interests are evolving rather than fixed. Constructivism further argues that international norms have a life cycle composed of three stages: norm emergence, norm acceptance (or "norm cascades"), and norm internalization. As such, constructivism treats international law as a dynamic process in which "norm entrepreneurs" interact with state actors …


Religious Freedom, Church Autonomy, And Constitutionalism, Richard W. Garnett Jan 2009

Religious Freedom, Church Autonomy, And Constitutionalism, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

Our topic at this symposium is "religion, the state, and constitutionalism"-not "the Constitution," or "the First Amendment," but "constitutionalism." Countless conferences, cases, books, and articles have wrestled with one version or another of the question, "how does our Constitution, with its First Amendment and its religion clauses, promote, protect, or perhaps restrain religion?" We are considering, it seems to me, a question that is different, and that is different in interesting and important ways: What are connections between religion and religious freedom, on the one hand, and constitutionalism, on the other?


Standing, Spending, And Separation: How The No-Establishment Rule Does (And Does Not) Protect Conscience, Richard W. Garnett Jan 2009

Standing, Spending, And Separation: How The No-Establishment Rule Does (And Does Not) Protect Conscience, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

The First Amendment’s “Establishment Clause” is widely thought to protect “conscience.” Does it? If so, how? It is proposed in this paper that the no-establishment rule does indeed promote and protect religious liberty, and does safeguard conscience, but not (or, at least, not only) in the way most people think it does, namely, by sparing those who object from the asserted injury to their conscience caused by public funding of religious activity.

The Supreme Court’s decision in Hein v. Freedom from Religion Foundation - a case in which the Justices limited taxpayer standing to bring Establishment Clause claims - reminds …


Religious Liberties: The International Religious Freedom Act, Richard W. Garnett, Thomas F. Farr, T. Jeremy Gunn, William L. Saunders Jan 2009

Religious Liberties: The International Religious Freedom Act, Richard W. Garnett, Thomas F. Farr, T. Jeremy Gunn, William L. Saunders

Journal Articles

MR. SAUNDERS: Welcome to this panel, put on by the Religious Liberties Practice Group. Any of you who would like to join that Practice Group, you are cordially invited to do so. Welcome to the Federalist Society Annual Convention. My name is Bill Saunders. I am a Senior Fellow at the Family Research Council, and I am the Chairman of the Religious Liberties Practice Group at the Federalist Society.

Our aim today is: to talk about religious freedom, to talk about whether it should be an aspect of U.S. foreign policy, how best to make it so if you believe …


Private Norms And Public Spaces, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2009

Private Norms And Public Spaces, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

This Essay explores the role of private norms in the allocation of urban public spaces as well as local governments' efforts to enforce these norms. The Essay was prepared for the 2008 Brigham-Kanner Property Rights Conference, William and Mary School of Law, as a tribute to Robert Ellickson. community policing, informal norms


An Alternate Approach To Channeling?, Mark P. Mckenna Jan 2009

An Alternate Approach To Channeling?, Mark P. Mckenna

Journal Articles

Intellectual property law has developed a variety of doctrines to police the boundaries between various forms of protection. Courts and scholars alike overwhelmingly conceive of these doctrines in terms of the nature of the objects of protection. The functionality doctrine in trademark law, for example, defines the boundary between trademark and patent law by identifying and refusing trademark protection to features that play a functional role in a product’s performance. Likewise, the useful article doctrine works at the boundary of copyright and patent law to identify elements of an article’s design that are dictated by function and to channel protection …


Proportional Mens Rea, Stephen F. Smith Jan 2009

Proportional Mens Rea, Stephen F. Smith

Journal Articles

This Essay makes the case for "proportional mens rea," a proportionality-based approach to mens rea selection. Proportional mens rea would provide proportionality safeguards that are otherwise entirely lacking in substantive criminal law and,as a practical matter, unavailable in constitutional law. Creating implied mens rea requirements, where necessary to ensure proportional punishment, is not a judicial usurpation of a legislative function. Rather, it is to take seriously the role that courts play, under both constitutional and substantive criminal law, to ensure that punishment "fits" the crime. Moreover, proportional mens rea would represent a needed counterweight to prosecutorial behavior whereas current doctrine …


An Appropriate Focus On War, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2009

An Appropriate Focus On War, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

This paper is part of book discussion featuring the 2009 Winner of the ASIL Certificate of Merit for Creative Scholarship--The Historical Foundations of World Order: The Tower and the Arena, by Douglas M. Johnston.

This panel was convened at 1:00 pm, Thursday, March 26, 2009 by its moderator, Devashish Krishan of Baker Botts LLP, who introduced the panelists:

  • David Bederman, Emory University School of Law
  • Tai-Heng Cheng, New York Law School
  • John Crook, George Washington University Law School
  • Mary Ellen O'Connell, University of Notre Dame Law School

The full issue of the proceedings is available via Oxford University Press


Breaching A Leaking Dam?: Corporate Money And Elections, Lloyd Hitoshi Mayer Jan 2009

Breaching A Leaking Dam?: Corporate Money And Elections, Lloyd Hitoshi Mayer

Journal Articles

With a brief order issued at the end of its last term, the Supreme Court dramatically raised the stakes in Citizens United v. FEC. What many had predicted would be a case decided on narrow, technical grounds has now become a possible vehicle for overturning two key campaign finance precedents. By ordering re-argument and supplemental briefing on the issue of whether it should overrule either or both Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce and the part of McConnell v. FEC which addresses the facial validity of Section 203 of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002, the Court signaled that …


Profiling Minority Law Librarians: An Update, Dwight B. King, Rhea Ballard-Thrower, Grace M. Mills Jan 2009

Profiling Minority Law Librarians: An Update, Dwight B. King, Rhea Ballard-Thrower, Grace M. Mills

Journal Articles

This is a 2007 update of a survey of minority law librarians first conducted in 1992. It offers a recent profile of our minority colleagues, enabling one to see how things have changed - or remained the same - over the course of fifteen years.


Federalization In Information Privacy Law, Patricia L. Bellia Jan 2009

Federalization In Information Privacy Law, Patricia L. Bellia

Journal Articles

In Preemption and Privacy, Professor Paul Schwartz argues that it would be unwise for Congress to adopt a unitary federal information privacy statute that both eliminates the sector-specific distinctions in federal information privacy law and blocks the development of stronger state regulation. That conclusion, though narrow, rests on descriptive and normative claims with broad implications for the state-federal balance in information privacy law. Descriptively, Professor Schwartz sees the current information privacy law landscape as the product of successful experimentation at the state level. That account, in turn, fuels his normative claims, and in particular his sympathy with theories of competitive …


A Hands-Off Approach To Religious Doctrine: What Are We Talking About?, Richard W. Garnett Jan 2009

A Hands-Off Approach To Religious Doctrine: What Are We Talking About?, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

At the 2008 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Law Schools, the program organized by the Section on Law and Religion presented for consideration the claim that “the United States Supreme Court has shown an increasing unwillingness to engage in deciding matters that relate to the interpretation of religious practice and belief.” The Court, it was proposed, is — more and more — taking a “hands-off approach to religious doctrine.”

This proposal was, and remains, timely and important, as is illustrated by — to mention just a few, diverse examples — the ongoing property-ownership dispute between several “breakaway” Episcopal …


Homes Affordable For Good: Covenants And Ground Leases As Long-Term Resale-Restriction Devices, James J. Kelly Jan 2009

Homes Affordable For Good: Covenants And Ground Leases As Long-Term Resale-Restriction Devices, James J. Kelly

Journal Articles

Covenants and ground leases have been, and continue to be, used to create shared spaces that are fundamentally, and often invidiously, exclusive. Famously made a dead letter in the case of Shelley v. Kraemer, covenants banning resale to nonwhite households put the force of law behind the segregated birth of America’s suburbs. Today, gated residential communities and shopping malls assure a degree of class exclusivity through covenants and commercial ground leases, respectively. These same legal mechanisms, however, are now deployed to assure long-term inclusion as well.

Developers of affordable housing are creating homes that are not only beneficial to the …


The Idea Of Pollution, John C. Nagle Jan 2009

The Idea Of Pollution, John C. Nagle

Journal Articles

Pollution is the primary target of environmental law. During the past forty years, hundreds of federal and state statutes, administrative regulations, and international treaties have established multiple approaches to addressing pollution of the air, water, and land. Yet the law still struggles to identify precisely what constitutes pollution, how much of it is tolerable, and what we should do about it.

But environmental pollution is hardly the only type of pollution. Historically, the idea of pollution referred to a host of effects upon human environments. This remains evident in contemporary anthropological literature, which studies the pollution beliefs of cultures throughout …


Trademark Use And The Problem Of Source, Mark P. Mckenna Jan 2009

Trademark Use And The Problem Of Source, Mark P. Mckenna

Journal Articles

This Article mediates a scholarly debate regarding the existence and desirability of a "trademark use" doctrine. It argues that trademark use is a predicate of liability under the Lanham Act, but those who advocate treating trademark use as a threshold question put much more weight on that concept than it can bear. Courts cannot consistently apply trademark use as a distinct element of the plaintiff's prima facie case because trademark use can be determined only from the perspective of consumers. Specifically, courts can determine whether a defendant has made trademark use of a plaintiff's mark only by asking whether consumers …


Does "Proceeds" Really Mean "Net Profits"? The Supreme Court's Efforts To Diminish The Utility Of The Federal Money Laundering Statute, Jimmy Gurule Jan 2009

Does "Proceeds" Really Mean "Net Profits"? The Supreme Court's Efforts To Diminish The Utility Of The Federal Money Laundering Statute, Jimmy Gurule

Journal Articles

The Supreme Court’s decision in United States v. Santos is severely hampers the fight against drug traffickers, terrorists, mobsters and white collar criminals. It restricts the scope of the money laundering statute, defining the term “proceeds” in it as net profits, not gross receipts from unlawful activity. This imposes an unreasonable and unwarranted burden on prosecutors to prove net criminal profits, money acquired beyond the defendant’s overhead expenses from unlawful activities. The court’s holding also restricts other provisions of the money laundering statute, such as the concealment theory of money laundering, and it creates confusion over whether the Court’s restrictive …


The Federal Common Law Of Nations, Anthony J. Bellia, Bradford R. Clark Jan 2009

The Federal Common Law Of Nations, Anthony J. Bellia, Bradford R. Clark

Journal Articles

Courts and scholars have vigorously debated the proper role of customary international law in American courts: To what extent should it be considered federal common law, state law, or general law? The debate has reached something of an impasse, in part because various positions rely on, but also are in tension with, historical practice and constitutional structure. This Article describes the role that the law of nations actually has played throughout American history. In keeping with the original constitutional design, federal courts for much of that history enforced certain rules respecting other nations' perfect rights (or close analogues) under the …


Rethinking Adequacy Of Representation, Jay Tidmarsh Jan 2009

Rethinking Adequacy Of Representation, Jay Tidmarsh

Journal Articles

This article questions the usefulness of traditional tests for adequacy of representation in class action proceedings. When determining whether to certify a class, courts have sought to avoid endorsing those classes marred by conflicting interests or the possibility of collusion. Yet, such conflicts of interest are an intrinsic characteristic of class actions, stemming from the very policy rationales that have prompted the judiciary to allow litigation by classes. As a result, the current doctrine of adequate representation has left the courts without a bright-line rule; instead, the courts' inquiries into adequacy of representation must focus primarily on the degree of …


The Limits Of Administrative Guidance In The Interpretation Of Tax Treaties, Michael Kirsch Jan 2009

The Limits Of Administrative Guidance In The Interpretation Of Tax Treaties, Michael Kirsch

Journal Articles

This Article addresses the increasingly important role of administrative guidance in interpreting the United States' international treaty obligations. The relationship between administrative guidance and treaties raises important issues at the intersection of international law, constitutional law, and administrative law. These issues are explored in the context of the United States' extensive tax treaty network. Tax treaties play an important role in a global economy, attempting to reconcile the complex and ever-changing internal tax laws of different countries. The Treasury Department is considering the increased use of administrative guidance to interpret the meaning and application of tax treaties, particularly in response …


Clarence X?: The Black Nationalist Behind Justice Thomas's Constitutionalism, Stephen F. Smith Jan 2009

Clarence X?: The Black Nationalist Behind Justice Thomas's Constitutionalism, Stephen F. Smith

Journal Articles

The opinions of Justice Thomas reflect a jurisprudence that is uniquely his own. His well-known commitment to textualism and originalism combines with a weak commitment to stare decisis on constitutional questions. This often puts Thomas at odds with Justice Scalia and other Justices who are far more willing to defer to precedents with which they disagree. The most distinctive aspect of Thomas's jurisprudence, however, involves cases of particular concern to black Americans. In these cases, his originalism and textualism are powerfully supplemented by another -ism—namely, "black nationalism."

Throughout his tenure, Justice Thomas has repeatedly explored the implications of controversial rulings …


"But For The Grace Of God There Go I": Justice Thomas And The Little Guy, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2009

"But For The Grace Of God There Go I": Justice Thomas And The Little Guy, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

This Essay, prepared for a NYU Journal of Law and Liberty symposium on “The Unknown Justice Thomas,” challenges the oft-repeated criticism that Justice Clarence Thomas’s opinions reflect a lack of empathy for the less fortunate. The Essay argues that, on the contrary, Justice Thomas’s opinions are replete with expressions of concern for the “little guy,” which are frequently overlooked or misinterpreted. The Essay explores three themes reflecting this concern in Thomas’s opinions.


Testing Modern Trademark Law's Theory Of Harm, Mark Mckenna Jan 2009

Testing Modern Trademark Law's Theory Of Harm, Mark Mckenna

Journal Articles

Modern scholarship takes a decidedly negative view of trademark law. Commentators rail against doctrinal innovations like dilution and initial interest confusion. They clamor for clearer and broader defenses. And they plead for greater First Amendment scrutiny of various applications of trademark law. But beneath all of this criticism lies overwhelming agreement that consumer confusion is harmful. This easy acceptance of the harmfulness of confusion is a problem because it operates at too high a level of generality, ignoring important differences between types of relationships about which consumers might be confused. Failure to differentiate between these different relationships has enabled trademark …


International Human Rights Law And Security Detention, Douglass Cassel Jan 2009

International Human Rights Law And Security Detention, Douglass Cassel

Journal Articles

This article analyzes the grounds, procedures, and conditions required by International Human Rights Law for preventive detention of suspected terrorists as threats to security. Such detention is generally permitted, provided it is based on grounds and procedures previously established by law; is not arbitrary, discriminatory, or disproportionate; is publicly registered and subject to fair and effective judicial review; and the detainee is not mistreated and is compensated for any unlawful detention. In Europe, however, preventive detention for security purposes is generally not permitted. If allowed at all, it is permitted only when a State in time of national emergency formally …


Politics At The Pulpit: Tax Benefits, Substantial Burdens, And Institutional Free Exercise, Lloyd Hitoshi Mayer Jan 2009

Politics At The Pulpit: Tax Benefits, Substantial Burdens, And Institutional Free Exercise, Lloyd Hitoshi Mayer

Journal Articles

More than fifty years ago, Congress enacted a prohibition against political campaign intervention for all charities, including churches and other houses of worship, as a condition for receiving tax deductible contributions. Yet the IRS has never taken a house of worship to court for alleged violation of the prohibition through political comments from the pulpit, presumably at least in part because of concerns about the constitutionality of doing so. This decision is surprising, because a careful review of Free Exercise Clause case law - both before and after the landmark Employment Division v. Smith decision - reveals that the prohibition …


The Limitations Of Majoritarian Land Assembly, Daniel B. Kelly Jan 2009

The Limitations Of Majoritarian Land Assembly, Daniel B. Kelly

Journal Articles

In their article, Land Assembly Districts, Professors Michael Heller and Rick Hills address the collective action problem arising from excessively fragmented land. They propose an innovative solution: Land Assembly Districts (or LADs). In this Article, I raise several concerns regarding LADs in particular and majoritarian land assembly in general. LADs rely on majority voting by a neighborhood's existing owners. Yet majority voting, coupled with the possibility of heterogeneity, means that LADs may both approve socially undesirable assemblies and disapprove socially desirable ones. LADs also permit owners to bargain over a project's surplus. But such bargaining creates additional costs for developers, …


Bioethics And Self-Governance: The Lessons Of The Universal Declaration On Bioethics And Human Rights, O. Carter Snead Jan 2009

Bioethics And Self-Governance: The Lessons Of The Universal Declaration On Bioethics And Human Rights, O. Carter Snead

Journal Articles

The following article analyzes the process of conception, elaboration, and adoption of the Universal Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights, and reflects on the lessons it might hold for public bioethics on the international level. The author was involved in the process at a variety of levels: he provided advice to the IBC on behalf of the President's Council of Bioethics; he served as the U.S. representative to UNESCO's Intergovernmental Bioethics Committee; and led the U.S. Delegation in the multilateral negotiation of Government experts that culminated in the adoption of the declaration in its final form. The author is currently …