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Free To Believe, Richard Garnett May 2007

Free To Believe, Richard Garnett

Journal Articles

Richard Garnett reviews Religious Freedom and the Constitution by Christopher L. Eisgruber & Lawrence G. Sager, Harvard University Press, 352 pages, $28.95


Individuals First, Richard Garnett Apr 2007

Individuals First, Richard Garnett

Journal Articles

Richard Garnett reviews Modern Liberty and the Limits of Government by Charles Fried, W.W. Norton, 224 pp. (2006)


Drop Coffers, Richard W. Garnett, Benjamin P. Carr Apr 2007

Drop Coffers, Richard W. Garnett, Benjamin P. Carr

Journal Articles

”Coffers.” When we hear or read the word, what do we picture? Buried treasure on the Isle of Monte Cristo? The dragon Smaug’s stolen riches, piled deep under the Lonely Mountain? Maybe we dimly remember a line of Shakespeare or Chaucer. If one is male and of a certain age, the word might bring to the surface suppressed memories of the all-nighters and arcana associated with Dungeons & Dragons. And, if one is a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, one’s thoughts might turn to the checking account of St. Jerome Catholic School in Cleveland.


Grasping Smoke: Enforcing The Ban On Political Activity By Charities, Lloyd Histoshi Mayer Jan 2007

Grasping Smoke: Enforcing The Ban On Political Activity By Charities, Lloyd Histoshi Mayer

Journal Articles

The rule that charities are not allowed to intervene in political campaigns has now been in place for over fifty years. Despite uncertainty about the exact reasons for Congress' enactment of it, skepticism by some about its validity for both constitutional and public policy reasons, and continued confusion about its exact parameters, this rule has survived virtually unchanged for all of those years. Yet while overall noncompliance with the income tax laws has drawn significant scholarly attention, few scholars have focused on violations of this prohibition and the IRS' attempts to enforce it.

This Article focuses on the elusive issue …


Comment: On Contractual Defaults And Experimental Law And Economics, Avishalom Tor Jan 2007

Comment: On Contractual Defaults And Experimental Law And Economics, Avishalom Tor

Journal Articles

It is possible that contract default rules, whose relevance is contingent upon parties' agreement to contract, differ from other default states. Parties therefore might not perceive contingent contractual defaults as relevant reference points. Ironically, however, Sloof, Oosterbeek and Sonnemans' (SOS) "default contract" applied inevitably whenever proposed and whenever Respondents rejected a non-default proposal, bearing greater resemblance to a legal right than to a contractual default. Thus, the contingency of typical contractual defaults cannot account for the No Bias Finding. Other aspects of the SOS experimental design, on the other hand, may explain the No Bias Finding.


Pilgrim Law: Overcoming False Consciousness Through The Witness Of London's Economic Migrants, Vincent D. Rougeau Jan 2007

Pilgrim Law: Overcoming False Consciousness Through The Witness Of London's Economic Migrants, Vincent D. Rougeau

Journal Articles

The article discusses the author's view on the works and beliefs of Robert E. Rodes Jr. He considered faith and professional life as the powerful link on Rodes works and cited three points of reflection on the matter which includes on Rodes' concept of "Pilgrim Law" that has been influential on the author's works, thinking about the relationship between the professional roles of a lawyer and a call to a lived Christian faith. He believed that the Rodes' book "Pilgrim Law" took a formidable task on extending the principles of the theology of liberation to American jurisprudence and became an …


The Ban On The Bomb – And Bombing: Iran, The U.S., And The International Law Of Self-Defense, Mary Ellen O'Connell, Maria Alevras-Chenl Jan 2007

The Ban On The Bomb – And Bombing: Iran, The U.S., And The International Law Of Self-Defense, Mary Ellen O'Connell, Maria Alevras-Chenl

Journal Articles

Since the March 2003, U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, rumors have persisted of a United States plan to attack Iran. Some U.S. officials are apparently willing to contemplate the use of military force to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons. Under international law, however, there is no right without Security Council authorization to use significant military force on the territory of another state to stop nuclear research. Knowing this, alternative arguments are being floated by those sympathetic to the plan to attack Iran. One such argument asserts that the U.S. could attack Iran on the basis of collective self-defense with Iraq …


Taking Shareholder Rights Seriously, Julian Velasco Jan 2007

Taking Shareholder Rights Seriously, Julian Velasco

Journal Articles

The great corporate scandals of the recent past and the resulting push for legal reform have revived the role of the shareholder in the corporation as a subject of great debate. Those who favor an expanded role for shareholders in corporate governance tend to focus on developing new legal rights for shareholders, and their critics respond with reasons why such rights are unnecessary and inappropriate. While these issues certainly are worthy of consideration, issues concerning existing shareholder rights are more fundamental. If existing rights are adequate or could be improved, then new rights may not be necessary; but if existing …


What's On Your Mind? Imputing Motive In A Title Vii Case, An Analysis Of Bci Coca-Cola Bottling Co. V. Eeoc, Barbara J. Fick Jan 2007

What's On Your Mind? Imputing Motive In A Title Vii Case, An Analysis Of Bci Coca-Cola Bottling Co. V. Eeoc, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article examines the case E.E.O.C. v. BCI Coca-Cola Bottling Co. of Los Angeles, which was scheduled for argument before the Supreme Court, but was dismissed before that argument occurred.


On Professors And Poor People - A Jurisprudential Memoir, Robert E. Rodes Jan 2007

On Professors And Poor People - A Jurisprudential Memoir, Robert E. Rodes

Journal Articles

This article describes the origin and sources of the author's jurisprudential doctrine, and his adoption of liberation theology as a way of reconciling Sociological Jurisprudence with the philosophy of history. It argues that the pursuit of justice is eschatologically validated even though its historical fruition is problematical. It goes on to discuss the working out in legal practice of the liberationists' call for a preferential option for the poor.


Law And Order Without Coercion, G. Marcus Cole Jan 2007

Law And Order Without Coercion, G. Marcus Cole

Journal Articles

Much of the contemporary discussion regarding law and public policy focuses on how government ought to address important issues. From global warming to technological innovation to corporate finance, voters and policy-makers alike share the belief that the tools of government ought to be brought to bear on all of the important matters of our times.

Virtually no attention is given public policy debates, however, to the question of whether government ought to address these important issues. In fact, the larger and more complex the issue, the more policy-makers and opinion leaders assume that government provides the only mechanism for addressing …


Neuroimaging And The "Complexity" Of Capital Punishment, O. Carter Snead Jan 2007

Neuroimaging And The "Complexity" Of Capital Punishment, O. Carter Snead

Journal Articles

The growing use of brain imaging technology to explore the causes of morally, socially, and legally relevant behavior is the subject of much discussion and controversy in both scholarly and popular circles. From the efforts of cognitive neuroscientists in the courtroom and the public square, the contours of a project to transform capital sentencing both in principle and in practice have emerged. In the short term, these scientists seek to play a role in the process of capital sentencing by serving as mitigation experts for defendants, invoking neuroimaging research on the roots of criminal violence to support their arguments. Over …


Aging America, Thomas L. Shaffer Jan 2007

Aging America, Thomas L. Shaffer

Journal Articles

Professor Sarah Harper's assessment of the legal, political, medical, and economic issues associated with old age in the United States heralded the theme for this Symposium, "Aging America." Her analysis turns, as she puts it, on "a fundamental shift in the demographic structure of society. No longer will it be the norm to have large numbers of young and small numbers of old,"1 as it was when I was a boy (age 11 on V.J. Day, 1945).

"Rather, we are entering a world where age groups will be distributed more or less equally across society-an age-symmetric society."

2 Soon, America …


Social Security For Migrant Workers: The Eu, Ilo & Treaty Based Regimes, Barbara Fick, Alma Clara Garcia Flechas Jan 2007

Social Security For Migrant Workers: The Eu, Ilo & Treaty Based Regimes, Barbara Fick, Alma Clara Garcia Flechas

Journal Articles

Migrant workers face special problems in terms of qualifying for, and receiving payment under, national social security systems. In an effort to mitigate these problems, many states coordinate their social security systems. This paper explores how coordination schemes work in regional mechanisms such as the European Union, in international conventions adopted by the International Labour Organisation, and in multi-lateral treaties such as the Andean Social Security Instrument.


Preserving The Peace: The Continuing Ban On War Between States, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2007

Preserving The Peace: The Continuing Ban On War Between States, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

The history of international law is, in large part, about the development of restraints on states' right to resort to force in dealing with external conflicts. Today, states may use force only in self-defense to an armed attack or with Security Council authorization. Even in these cases, states may use force only as a last resort, and then only if doing so will not disproportionately harm civilians, their property, or the natural environment. These rules restricting force are found in treaties (especially the United Nations Charter), customary international law, and the general principles of international law. In other words, the …


"Technical" Defenses: Ethics, Morals, And The Lawyer As Friend, Thomas L. Shaffer, Robert F. Cochran Jr. Jan 2007

"Technical" Defenses: Ethics, Morals, And The Lawyer As Friend, Thomas L. Shaffer, Robert F. Cochran Jr.

Journal Articles

This essay examines the question of lawyer-client counseling on the issue of raising "technical" defenses, such as statutes of limitations. The authors challenge the prevailing notion of American lawyers that technical defenses raise no moral issue worthy of dialogue between lawyers and clients. Looking at the history of legal ethics and modern treatment in European law, they suggest that questions of limitations do raise moral issues. They go on to explore how those moral issues ought to be discussed and decided between lawyers and clients, using the framework of lawyers as godfathers, hired guns, gurus, and friends that they laid …


Suburbs As Exit, Suburbs As Entrance, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2007

Suburbs As Exit, Suburbs As Entrance, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

Most academics assume that suburbanites are exiters who have abandoned central cities. The exit story is a foundational one in the fields of land-use and local-government law: Exiters' historical, social, and economic connections with their center cities are frequently used to justify both growth controls and regional government. The exit story, however, no longer captures the American suburban experience. For a majority of Americans, suburbs have become points of entrance to, not of exit from, urban life. Most suburbanites are enterers - people who were born in, or migrated directly to, suburbs and who have not spent time living in …


The Public Choice Of Driving Competence Regulations, Margaret Brinig Jan 2007

The Public Choice Of Driving Competence Regulations, Margaret Brinig

Journal Articles

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe and classify each state's driver's licensing laws and then test whether the licensing laws affect the percentages of over-64 persons licensed and the proportion of older drivers involved in accidents to determine an optimal level of driving.

Design and Methods: This paper evaluates state driving rules, obtained from laws, regulations, and driver's manuals, tests, based upon Department of Transportation data, whether the type of laws affects driving and accident rates for those over 64 and suggests a uniform scheme combining self-reporting of driving problems, on-the-road tests of drivers who fall below …


The Fourth Amendment Status Of Stored E-Mail: The Law Professors' Brief In Warshak V. United States, Susan Freiwald, Patricia L. Bellia Jan 2007

The Fourth Amendment Status Of Stored E-Mail: The Law Professors' Brief In Warshak V. United States, Susan Freiwald, Patricia L. Bellia

Journal Articles

This paper contains the law professors' brief in the landmark case of Warshak v. United States, the first federal appellate case to recognize a reasonable expectation of privacy in electronic mail stored with an Internet Service Provider (ISP). While the 6th circuit's opinion was subsequently vacated and reheard en banc, the panel decision will remain extremely significant for its requirement that law enforcement agents must generally acquire a warrant before compelling an ISP to disclose its subscriber's stored e-mails. The law professors' brief, co-authored by Susan Freiwald (University of San Francisco) and Patricia L. Bellia (Notre Dame) and signed by …


Church, State, And The Practice Of Love, Richard W. Garnett Jan 2007

Church, State, And The Practice Of Love, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

In his first encyclical letter, Deus caritas est, Pope Benedict XVI describes the Church as a community of love. In this letter, he explores the organized practice love by and through the Church, and the relationship between this practice, on the one hand, and the Church's commitment to the just ordering of the State and society, on the other. God is love, he writes. This paper considers the implications of this fact for the inescapably complicated nexus of church-state relations in our constitutional order.

The specific goal for this paper is to draw from Deus caritas est some insight into …


Addressing The Incoherency Of The Preemption Provision Of The Copyright Act Of 1976, Joseph P. Bauer Jan 2007

Addressing The Incoherency Of The Preemption Provision Of The Copyright Act Of 1976, Joseph P. Bauer

Journal Articles

Section 301 of the Copyright Act of 1976 expressly preempts state law actions that are within the "general scope of copyright" and that assert claims that are "equivalent to" the rights conferred by the Act. The Act eliminated the previous system of common law copyright for unpublished works, which had prevailed under the prior 1909 Copyright Act. By federalizing copyright law, the drafters of the statute sought to achieve uniformity and to avoid the potential for state protection of infinite duration.

The legislative history of § 301 stated that this preemption provision was set forth "in the clearest and most …


Finding Room For State Class Actions In A Post-Cafa World: The Case Of The Counterclaim Class Action, Jay Tidmarsh Jan 2007

Finding Room For State Class Actions In A Post-Cafa World: The Case Of The Counterclaim Class Action, Jay Tidmarsh

Journal Articles

In this Article, I wish to suggest one place in which state courts can continue to have an impact on class-action practice: the adjudication of counterclaim class actions. A counterclaim class action arises when a non-class complaint is filed by a plaintiff against a defendant, who turns around and asserts against the plaintiff, on behalf of a class of similarly situated individuals, a counterclaim for relief. In Part II, I explain the factual, jurisdictional, and legal dynamics of such state-court counterclaim class actions. In Part III, I argue that counterclaim class actions, when filed in state court, are not removable …


Planning As Public Use?, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2007

Planning As Public Use?, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

This short Essay explores the Supreme Court's suggestion in Kelo v. New London that public, participatory planning may be a constitutional safe harbor that separates impermissible private takings from presumptively valid public ones. After briefly reviewing the Court's discussion of the planning that preceded the Kelo litigation, the Essay examines how Kelo's emphasis on planning departs from standard rational basis review of economic policies and asks what such a departure means for future public-use litigants. The Essay then explores three possible practical benefits of a constitutional rule that encourages the government to engage in detailed planning before exercising the power …


The Origins Of Article Iii "Arising Under" Jurisdiction, Anthony J. Bellia Jan 2007

The Origins Of Article Iii "Arising Under" Jurisdiction, Anthony J. Bellia

Journal Articles

Article III of the Constitution provides that the judicial Power of the United States extends to all cases arising under the Constitution, laws, and treaties of the United States. What the phrase arising under imports in Article III has long confounded courts and scholars. This Article examines the historical origins of Article III arising under jurisdiction. First, it describes English legal principles that governed the jurisdiction of courts of general and limited jurisdiction--principles that animated early American jurisprudence regarding the scope of arising under jurisdiction. Second, it explains how participants in the framing and ratification of the Constitution understood arising …


Erastian And High Church Approaches To The Law: The Jurisprudential Categories Of Robert E. Rodes, Jr., M. Cathleen Kaveny Jan 2007

Erastian And High Church Approaches To The Law: The Jurisprudential Categories Of Robert E. Rodes, Jr., M. Cathleen Kaveny

Journal Articles

It is a great honor for me to have been asked to contribute to this issue of the Journal of Law and Religion focusing on the work of my colleague and friend, Robert E. Rodes, Jr. In June 2006, Professor Rodes celebrated his fiftieth anniversary as a member of the faculty of Notre Dame Law School. His long career has marked him as a founding father of interdisciplinary scholarship at the intersection of faith, law, and morality—the very sort of scholarship which this journal is dedicated to fostering and preserving.

The topics that Professor Rodes has considered over the years …


Pluralism, Dialogue, And Freedom: Professor Robert Rodes And The Church-State Nexus, Richard W. Garnett Jan 2007

Pluralism, Dialogue, And Freedom: Professor Robert Rodes And The Church-State Nexus, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

The idea of church-state separation and the image of a wall are at the heart of nearly every citizen's and commentator's thinking about law and religion, and about faith and public life. Unfortunately, the inapt image often causes great confusion about the important idea. What should be regarded as an important feature of religious freedom under constitutionally limited government too often serves simply as a slogan, and is too often employed as a rallying cry, not for the distinctiveness and independence of religious institutions, but for the marginalization and privatization of religious faith.

How, then, should we understand church-state separation? …


From Family To Individual And Back Again, Margaret F. Brinig Jan 2007

From Family To Individual And Back Again, Margaret F. Brinig

Journal Articles

Loving v. Virginia has been thought of in many ways: as an important step toward full equality for African-Americans, as, more generally, a statement about the suspect classification of race, as a declaration about the fundamental nature of marriage, and as a critical addition to the construction of the right to privacy (as well as, of course, exemplified in the validation of the Lovings' own marriage).

In my contribution to the first Loving symposium, I wrote about the increasing tendency of the Supreme Court, following the 1967 decision, to treat the rights of intimacy as belonging to the individual adults …


On Lawyers And Moral Discernment, Robert E. Rodes Jan 2007

On Lawyers And Moral Discernment, Robert E. Rodes

Journal Articles

Drawing on Jacques Maritain's doctrine of Knowledge through Connaturality, and on other authors including David Hume and Edmond Cahn, this article argues that judgments of right and wrong are arrived at primarily through immediate discernment, and only secondarily through the application of general principles. It is possible, therefore, for lawyers and clients to arrive at agreement on how to handle their cases, even though they do not agree on the general principles that apply.


Sosa, Federal Question Jurisdiction, And Historical Fidelity, Anthony J. Bellia Jan 2007

Sosa, Federal Question Jurisdiction, And Historical Fidelity, Anthony J. Bellia

Journal Articles

In his paper "International Human Rights in American Courts," Judge Fletcher concludes that Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain “has left us with more questions than answers.” Sosa attempted to adapt certain principles belonging to the "general law" to a post-Erie positivistic conception of common law while maintaining fidelity to certain historical expectations. “[I]t would be unreasonable,” the Court thought, “to assume that the First Congress would have expected federal courts to lose all capacity to recognize enforceable international norms simply because the common law might lose some metaphysical cachet on the road to modern realism.” The Court was unwilling, however, out …


Property In-Laws, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2007

Property In-Laws, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

My family's story will be familiar to those who have read Eduardo Pefialver and Sonia Katyal's engaging article, Property Outlaws. Robert Fowler was, according to their taxonomy, an "[a]cquisitive outlaw[]": he was a trespasser whose actions were "oriented primarily toward direct appropriation." Pefialver and Katyal contrast the self-interested acquisitive outlaw with the other-regarding "[e]xpressive out law[]," who trespasses as a form of conscientious objection, and the "intersectional outlaw[]," whose actions commingle acquisitive and expressive elements. According to Pefialver and Katyal, property outlaws are underappreciated because, in appropriate circumstances, they serve both "redistributive" and "informational" functions. That is, property outlaws both …