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The Influence Of Marvin V. Marvin On Housework During Marriage, Margaret F. Brinig Oct 2001

The Influence Of Marvin V. Marvin On Housework During Marriage, Margaret F. Brinig

Journal Articles

When Michelle Marvin was forced to leave the home she shared with what today we would call her partner, Lee Marvin, she had a number of problems. The first ones, of course, were legal: she had no marriage with Lee and no written contract that could distinguish their relationship from "mere cohabitation." Nor had she contributed directly to his career or other assets. What she alleged was his express promise to "take care of her" (for some time period that was not altogether clear) and, less obviously, a promise implied by all she had done with and for him during …


Legal Ethics And Jurisprudence From Within Religious Congregations, Thomas L. Shaffer Apr 2001

Legal Ethics And Jurisprudence From Within Religious Congregations, Thomas L. Shaffer

Journal Articles

The Rabbis of the Talmud were a community for moral discernment—a community commissioned by God to interpret the Word of God. Their story is theology. Michael Scanlon, a modem Roman Catholic thinker, assumes such a theology and adds anthropology.

The Rabbis assume and Scanlon describes a community for ethical discernment. It is a perception—somewhat empirical, somewhat theological—that is important and neglected for lawyers in academic jurisprudence and in religious legal ethics. My argument here is that what lawyers should do about "ethical dilemmas" in professional practice can be discerned in the sort of community the Talmud describes, and Scanlon describes, …


The Stealth Assault On Antitrust Enforcement: Raising The Barriers For Antitrust Injury And Standing, Joseph P. Bauer Jan 2001

The Stealth Assault On Antitrust Enforcement: Raising The Barriers For Antitrust Injury And Standing, Joseph P. Bauer

Journal Articles

The first Annual Conference sponsored by the American Antitrust Institute featured a number of prominent speakers and explored a number of important issues. The Conference had two principal focuses: substantive questions of antitrust liability and the future direction of public enforcement of the antitrust laws by the Department of Justice's Antitrust Division and by the Federal Trade Commission. However, an issue of at least equal importance was barely discussed, although it has seriously affected the scope and direction of the antitrust laws. That issue: Private enforcement of the antitrust laws, and the significant undermining of those efforts by a number …


The Venture Capital Investment Bust: Did Agency Costs Play A Role? Was It Something Lawyers Helped Structure?, Joseph Bankman, Marcus Cole Jan 2001

The Venture Capital Investment Bust: Did Agency Costs Play A Role? Was It Something Lawyers Helped Structure?, Joseph Bankman, Marcus Cole

Journal Articles

This Article examines the question of why venture capital firms would continue to raise technology funds, and then invest those funds, when they were certain that the business markets for such investments were overvalued preceding the “crash” of April 2000. We interviewed a number of venture capitalists, lawyers, entrepreneurs, and other industry observers in search of an explanation. The explanations offered by key decision makers for the observed investment behavior can be categorized as of three types of theories: agency cost theories, herd behavior and other cognitive bias theories, and non–agency cost theories. Agency cost theories suggest that the activity …


Religious Claims And The Dynamics Of Argument, M. Cathleen Kaveny Jan 2001

Religious Claims And The Dynamics Of Argument, M. Cathleen Kaveny

Journal Articles

This Article investigates the questions whether and when religious claims may enter into public debate about important political issues by considering the purposes of argument in the public square. These purposes include: (1) argument as self-disclosure; (2) argument as persuasion; and (3) argument as bulwark against engagement with the ideas of others. The Article argues that restrictions on the use of religious claims in public deliberations and discussion impede the legitimate functions of public argument as self-disclosing and persuasive activities. In contrast, such restrictions contribute to the use of argument as bulwark, which is arguably destructive to public deliberation in …


Can Contested Disciplinary Actions Be Considered In Subsequent Termination Proceedings? An Analysis Of United States Postal Service V. Gregory, Barbara J. Fick Jan 2001

Can Contested Disciplinary Actions Be Considered In Subsequent Termination Proceedings? An Analysis Of United States Postal Service V. Gregory, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case U.S. Postal Service v. Gregory, 534 U.S. 1, 2001. The author expected the case to examine whether, under the Civil Service Reform Act, the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) abuse its discretion when it considers prior discipline that is currently being challenged by the employee in ongoing grievance proceedings?


Editorial Introduction, Gerard V. Bradley, John M. Finnis Jan 2001

Editorial Introduction, Gerard V. Bradley, John M. Finnis

Journal Articles

This Article is a forward to nine articles from the 2001 Symposium on Natural Law and Human Fulfillment, held at Notre Dame Law School. The Symposium was held to mark the 35th anniversary of the publication of Germain Grisez's "The First Principle of Practical Reason: A Commentary on the Summa Theologiae."


Religion At A Public University, Gerard V. Bradley Jan 2001

Religion At A Public University, Gerard V. Bradley

Journal Articles

On March 6, 2007, the College of William & Mary announced a “compromise” solution to its polite civil war over the historic Wren Chapel. In a joint statement with President Gene Nichol, the Board of Visitors declared that permanent display of the Christian cross within the Chapel would resume. The cross would be moved, however, from its former place at center stage on the Chapel altar. Accompanying the elocated display would be a plaque “explaining the College's Anglican roots.” The compromise further provided that, when needed during certain worship services, the cross could be moved back to the altar. When …


On Law And Chastity, Robert E. Rodes Jan 2001

On Law And Chastity, Robert E. Rodes

Journal Articles

When Dwight Eisenhower was President, and the baby boomers of today were but gleams in the eyes of their monogamous parents, it was well understood that chastity was the prevailing social norm.

On the whole, the standard was reinforced by the social ambiance. It was not at all difficult for people of relatively chaste mind to go for days, sometimes weeks, without encountering much of anything at which they could justly take offense. In most environments, social discourse was relatively free of explicit sex, and even sexual innuendo was far from pervasive. Films and broadcasting were closely censored, and detailed …


The Practical Impact Of The Common Good In Catholic Social Thought, John J. Coughlin Jan 2001

The Practical Impact Of The Common Good In Catholic Social Thought, John J. Coughlin

Journal Articles

As an introduction to the general panel discussion, I would like to pose the following question. Is the notion of the common good in Catholic social thought merely a nice sounding theory, or does it have any real and practical impact?

The Vatican II document Gaudium et Spes offers this definition of the common good: "the sum of those conditions" which allow people, either as groups or as individuals, to reach their fulfillment more fully and more easily. This notion of the common good places a primacy on the flourishing of individual human beings-spiritually, intellectually, culturally, and financially-through participation in …


Chasing Bits Across Borders, Patricia L. Bellia Jan 2001

Chasing Bits Across Borders, Patricia L. Bellia

Journal Articles

As computer crime becomes more widespread, countries increasingly confront difficulties in securing evidence stored in electronic form outside of their borders. These difficulties have prompted two related responses. Some states have asserted a broad power to conduct remote cross-border searches - that is, to use computers within their territory to access and examine data physically stored outside of their territory. Other states have pressed for recognition of a remote cross-border search power in international fora, arguing that such a power is an essential weapon in efforts to combat computer crime. This Article explores these state responses and develops a framework …


The Use And Misuse Of Antiabuse Rules: Lessons From The Partnership Antiabuse Regulations, Alan Gunn Jan 2001

The Use And Misuse Of Antiabuse Rules: Lessons From The Partnership Antiabuse Regulations, Alan Gunn

Journal Articles

Subchapter K of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code was designed to achieve simplicity and flexibility in taxing partners. To limit this flexibility the regulations under subchapter K contain "antiabuse rules", aimed at insuring that subchapter K rules are applied consistently, with the "intent" of those rules in mind and allowing the Commissioner to treat a partnership as an aggregate of its partners in applying any Internal Revenue Code provision. Though antiabuse rules have received harsh criticism for being badly written, they are valuable in many ways. Such rules define abuse as something distinct in principle from substance-over-form and business purpose …


Moral Nuisances, John C. Nagle Jan 2001

Moral Nuisances, John C. Nagle

Journal Articles

Nuisance law provides a remedy for activities that substantially interfere with the use and enjoyment of one's land. Most nuisance cases today involve environmental pollution or unwanted noises, sights, or smells. Historically, though, nuisance law had a much broader application that regulated brothels, saloons, and gambling parlors - what I call moral nuisances.

I articulate a theory of moral nuisances that applies when (1) a substantial and legally cognizable interference with a landowner's use or enjoyment of his or her land is caused by (2) an action that is regarded as immoral by a reasonable person within the community (3) …


Voluntary Campaign Finance Reform, John C. Nagle Jan 2001

Voluntary Campaign Finance Reform, John C. Nagle

Journal Articles

Any effort to achieve voluntary campaign finance reform raises two questions: Is it really voluntary, and does it really work? In Part I of this Essay, I examine the voluntariness of "voluntary" campaign finance reform. Agreements like that reached by Clinton and Lazio last year—what I term "purely voluntary agreements"—satisfy most legal tests for voluntariness. By contrast, the voluntariness of spending limits and other campaign restrictions that are imposed as a condition for receiving government funding of a political campaign—what I term "governmentally induced agreements"—is more doubtful. The extant jurisprudence recognizes that Buckley prohibits governmental actions that are more coercive …


Virtue And The Constitution Of The United States, John M. Finnis Jan 2001

Virtue And The Constitution Of The United States, John M. Finnis

Journal Articles

In this Article, Finnis reflects on the following five questions: (1) Does the Constitution require or presuppose, or thwart or even forbid, a formative project of government inculcating in citizens the civic virtue necessary to promote and sustain a good society?; (2) To what extent can the institutions of civil society support or even supplant government in inculcating civic virtue?; (3) What is the content of the civic virtue that should be inculcated in circumstances of moral disagreement, and how does it relate to traditional moral virtue?; (4) Does it include respect for and appreciation of diversity?; (5) Should a …


With All Due Deference: What Constitutes The Exercise Of "Independent Judgment" In The Workplace? An Analysis Of Nlrb V. Kentucky River Community Care, Barbara J. Fick Jan 2001

With All Due Deference: What Constitutes The Exercise Of "Independent Judgment" In The Workplace? An Analysis Of Nlrb V. Kentucky River Community Care, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case NLRB v. Kentucky River Community Care, Inc., 532 U.S. 706 (2001). The author expected the Court to examine two issues: (1) What is the appropriate interpretation of the statutory phrase "independent judgment" as used in § 2(11) of the National Labor Relations Act in defining which individuals are supervisors; and (2) Who has the burden of proving that an employee meets the definition of supervisor?


Troxel And The Limits Of Community, Margaret F. Brinig Jan 2001

Troxel And The Limits Of Community, Margaret F. Brinig

Journal Articles

The Troxel grandparent-visitation case that frames this symposium, the Washington statute included in Troxel, the mercifully completed odyssey of Cuban-born Elian Gonzalez, and the "right to die" case of Hugh Finn all illustrate both the fervor with which the broader community justifies its involvement with families and the extremes to which this involvement can spread. Using constitutional language, advocates point out the rights of extended family members to continue or strengthen ties to children, whether adult or minor. On the other side, parents and spouses claim their own rights not to have outsiders second-guess or interfere with their decisions.

Though …


In Search Of Prince Charming, Margaret F. Brinig Jan 2001

In Search Of Prince Charming, Margaret F. Brinig

Journal Articles

This response begins by addressing the different perspectives as presented by the panel “Sex, Lies and Exploitation.” One of the panelists, professor Plasencia, presented a powerful and graphic documentation of digital communication’s influence on the sex industry. Some of the images involved explicitly portrayed the sex trade while in others, it was portrayed more subtly as an arranged or mail-order marriage. The author's response to professor Plasencia is mixed. On the one hand, it is rather easy these days for one to mistakenly encounter a sexually explicit website. On the other hand, however, since little information exists on how widespread …


Feminism And Child Custody Under Chapter Two Of The American Law Institute's Principles Of The Law Of Family Dissolution, Margaret F. Brinig Jan 2001

Feminism And Child Custody Under Chapter Two Of The American Law Institute's Principles Of The Law Of Family Dissolution, Margaret F. Brinig

Journal Articles

The Chief Reporter of the American Law Institute's Principles of the Law of Family Dissolution wrote in his introduction; "Children are necessarily at the heart of any set of principles of family law." My favorite chapter of the Principles is Chapter Two, entitled "Principles Governing the Allocation of Custodial and Decisionmaking Responsibilities for Children." As of this writing, Chapter Two holds the distinction of being the only portion to have been adopted by a state legislature. While other Chapters had Reporters who were women, Chapter Two not only had a feminist Reporter, but the "allocation principle" that forms the substantive …


Does International Human Rights Law Make A Difference?, Douglass Cassel Jan 2001

Does International Human Rights Law Make A Difference?, Douglass Cassel

Journal Articles

Does international human rights law make a difference? Does it protect rights in practice? The importance of these questions for rights protection is obvious: the institutions of international human rights law deserve our energetic support only to the extent they contribute meaningfully to protection of rights, or at least promise eventually to do so. Moreover, at the moment these questions have added urgency. They underlie an ongoing debate, fomented in part by this Journal, on the extent to which the United States should be prepared to cede degrees of its national sovereignty to international human rights institutions, in return for …


The History Of The Judicial Review Of Administrative Power And The Future Of Regulatory Governance, John J. Coughlin Jan 2001

The History Of The Judicial Review Of Administrative Power And The Future Of Regulatory Governance, John J. Coughlin

Journal Articles

Traditionally, judicial review has afforded an important check on the exercise of administrative power. First, judicial review functions to protect the legislative intent behind the statutory authorization of the exercise of administrative power. Pursuant to the conventional model, an administrative agency exercises restricted legislative and judicial functions under judicial scrutiny to insure compliance with congressional intent. Judicial review insures that "a congressional delegation of power . . . must be accompanied by discernible standards, so that the delegatee's action can be measured for its fidelity to the legislative will." Additionally, the opportunity for judicial review of administrative action corrects and …


A Quiet Faith? Taxes, Politics, And The Privatization Of Religion, Richard W. Garnett Jan 2001

A Quiet Faith? Taxes, Politics, And The Privatization Of Religion, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

The government exempts religious associations from taxation and, in return, restricts their putatively political expression and activities. This exemption-and-restriction scheme invites government to interpret and categorize the means by which religious communities live out their vocations and engage the world. But government is neither well-suited nor to be trusted with this kind of line-drawing. What's more, this invitation is dangerous to authentically religious consciousness and associations. When government communicates and enforces its own view of the nature of religion - i.e., that it is a private matter - and of its proper place - i.e., in the private sphere, not …


Jews, Christians, Lawyers, And Money, Thomas L. Shaffer Jan 2001

Jews, Christians, Lawyers, And Money, Thomas L. Shaffer

Journal Articles

Years ago, when I was the resident guru in legal ethics at Washington and Lee University, in the little mountain town of Lexington, Virginia, a reporter from the daily newspaper in Roanoke asked me to identify the most serious ethical issue for American lawyers. My answer: "Money."

Part of that answer reflected the fact that American lawyers make about twice as much money as lawyers in other "developed" countries. And American lawyers make, on the average, fifty percent more than average Americans do. (Reference to averages and means here do not reflect how steep the incline is from the middle …


The Road From Welfare To Work: Informal Transportation And The Urban Poor, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2001

The Road From Welfare To Work: Informal Transportation And The Urban Poor, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

Individuals struggling to move from welfare to work face numerous obstacles. This Article addresses one of those obstacles: lack of transportation. Without reliable transportation, many welfare recipients are unable to find and maintain jobs located out of the reach of traditional forms of public transportation. Professor Garnett argues that lawmakers should remove restrictions on informal van or jitney services, allowing entrepreneurs to provide low-cost transportation to their communities. This reform would not only help people get to work, but it could also provide jobs for low-income people.


Lochner, Liquor, And Longshoremen: A Puzzle In Progressive Era Federalism, Barry Cushman Jan 2001

Lochner, Liquor, And Longshoremen: A Puzzle In Progressive Era Federalism, Barry Cushman

Journal Articles

In 1890, the Supreme Court shocked and thrilled the civilized world with the announcement that dry states could not prohibit the sale of liquor shipped in from outside the state. So long as the out-of-state goods remained in their "original packages," the Court held they retained their character as interstate commerce subject only to federal regulation. The consequences for the cause of local sobriety were, predictably, catastrophic. The proliferation in temperance territory of "original package saloons," at which one could purchase liquor free from the superintendence of local liquor authorities, was appalling to dry eyes. Members of Congress immediately proposed …


Elihu Root And Crisis Prevention, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2001

Elihu Root And Crisis Prevention, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

Elihu Root pursued two themes relevant to international law and crisis. He believed firmly in the value of arbitration and adjudication to prevent crisis. He also worked toward the codification and greater specificity of international law so that judges and arbitrators would have more law available to apply in aid of crisis prevention. When crisis had not been prevented, as in the case of World War I, Root did not in fact believe international law-either process or substance-had much to offer. In his view, the Kaiser started World War I because he was bent on hegemony. Arbitration would not stop …


Moving Toward A First-Best World: Minnesota's Position On Multiethnic Adoptions, Margaret F. Brinig Jan 2001

Moving Toward A First-Best World: Minnesota's Position On Multiethnic Adoptions, Margaret F. Brinig

Journal Articles

The best world allows a child to grow to adulthood with biological parents, or at least one parent, who love the child unconditionally and who have resources to support the child. A second-best world allows the child to permanently and completely become part of an extended family that loves him or her and has the resources for supporting and meeting the child's needs. Hopefully this process costs little in terms of time or emotional or physical harm to the child. In traditional third-party adoptions, the child permanently moves and becomes part of (hopefully, at low cost) a family that will …


On Castles And Commerce: Zoning Law And The Home Business Dilemma, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2001

On Castles And Commerce: Zoning Law And The Home Business Dilemma, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

Most zoning laws severely restrict residents' ability to work from home. Some prohibit it outright. These regulations serve the ostensible purpose of protecting neighbors from externalities that might be generated by home businesses. But, home occupation restrictions also reflect in a particularly sharp way the central motivating ideology underlying all zoning laws - namely, that the good life requires the careful segregation of work and home. Today, home business regulations are being challenged by both planning theory and economic reality. At the same time that many in the academy and planning professions are calling into question zoning's pervasive segregation of …


One Of A Kind - Professor Emeritus Charles E. Rice, Robert E. Rodes Jan 2001

One Of A Kind - Professor Emeritus Charles E. Rice, Robert E. Rodes

Journal Articles

In the spring of 1959, when I was faculty advisor of the law review (then called the Notre Dame Lawyer), and my future colleague Bob Blakey was the student associate editor, we worked together on an article called A.I.D.—An Heir of Controversy. The subject, artificial insemination from a donor, was interesting, the treatment was at once lively, rueful, and orthodox, and the conclusion was an engaging shrug of the shoulders: "Upon that note . . . your writer respectfully throws in the towel.'' The author, a graduate of Boston College Law School taking an advanced degree at New York University, …


A Tribute To Andrew W. Mcthenia, Jr., Thomas L. Shaffer Jan 2001

A Tribute To Andrew W. Mcthenia, Jr., Thomas L. Shaffer

Journal Articles

Uncas picked up a five-letter name when he was a boarding school student in Orange, Virginia. By now, it is the way his friends and colleagues, his students and his clients, his wife and his children and his neighbors, identify him. It works throughout the United States and in Canada. I would not be surprised to see it work in, say, the offices of the European Union in Salzburg or in the former Soviet Union. (It occurs to me that this universal name for Andrew W. McThenia, Jr., a name his boarding-school classmates borrowed from James Fenimore Cooper, shares brevity …