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Discretion And Disobedience In The Chinese Exclusion Era, Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia Jan 2022

Discretion And Disobedience In The Chinese Exclusion Era, Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia

Journal Articles

This Article examines the use of prosecutorial discretion from its first recorded use in the nineteenth century to protect Chinese subject to deportation, following to its implication in modern day immigration policy. A foundational Supreme Court case, known as Fong Yue Ting, provides a historical precedent for the protection of a category of people as well as a deeper history of prosecutorial discretion in immigration law. This Article also sharpens the policy argument to protect political activists through prosecutorial discretion and forces consideration for how modern immigration policy should respond to historical exclusions and racialized laws. This Article centers its …


All The Presidents' Dreamers: Immigration Reform That Biden And Trump Can Agree On (And Why That Reform May Be Elusive), Victor C. Romero Jan 2022

All The Presidents' Dreamers: Immigration Reform That Biden And Trump Can Agree On (And Why That Reform May Be Elusive), Victor C. Romero

Journal Articles

While a sizeable gulf exists between the Trump and Biden administrations’ approaches to immigration, there is one policy area where these presidents would see eye-to-eye: a legal pathway for “Dreamers,” longtime undocumented residents who initially came to the U.S. as children. Notwithstanding this exceptional example of bipartisanship, how the nation now moves forward to create such a pathway is a conundrum. The political divide that has stalled a two-decades-long search for a congressional solution has its roots in America’s longstanding ambivalence about whether and how to provide basic opportunities to the least of its denizens. This Essay traces the current …


Decitizenizing Asian Pacific American Women, Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia, Margaret Hu Jan 2022

Decitizenizing Asian Pacific American Women, Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia, Margaret Hu

Journal Articles

The Page Act of 1875 excluded Asian women immigrants from entering the United States, presuming they were prostitutes. This presumption was tragically replicated in the 2021 Atlanta Massacre of six Asian and Asian American women, reinforcing the same harmful prejudices. This Article seeks to illuminate how the Atlanta Massacre is symbolic of larger forms of discrimination, including the harms of decitizenship. These harms include limited access to full citizenship rights due to legal barriers, restricted cultural and political power, and a lack of belonging. The Article concludes that these harms result from the structure of past and present immigration laws …


Reframing Taxigration In The Search For Tax Justice, Jacqueline Lainez Flanagan May 2021

Reframing Taxigration In The Search For Tax Justice, Jacqueline Lainez Flanagan

Journal Articles

The Search for Tax Justice is a Tax Notes State series examining the inequities inherent in state and federal taxes. In this installment, Jacqueline Laínez Flanagan, associate professor of law and director of the University of the District of Columbia’s David A. Clarke School of Law Tax Clinic, discusses tax challenges faced by immigrants and responds to myths about the undocumented taxpayer community.


Asylum Attorney Burnout (Model Survey And Additional Survey Responses), Lindsay M. Harris, Hillary A. Mellinger Jan 2021

Asylum Attorney Burnout (Model Survey And Additional Survey Responses), Lindsay M. Harris, Hillary A. Mellinger

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Tenants Without Rights: Immigrants’ Experiences In The U.S. Low-Income Housing Market, Mekkonen Firew Ayano Jan 2021

Tenants Without Rights: Immigrants’ Experiences In The U.S. Low-Income Housing Market, Mekkonen Firew Ayano

Journal Articles

Immigrants who recently arrived in the United States generally are not able to exclusively possess rental properties in the formal market because they lack a steady source of income and credit history. Instead, they rent shared bedrooms, basements, attics, garages, and illegally converted units that violate housing codes and regulations. Their situations highlight the disconnect between tenant rights law and the deleterious conditions of informal residential tenancies. Tenant rights law confers a variety of rights and remedies to a residential tenant if the renter has exclusive possession of the premises. If the renter lacks exclusive possession, courts typically characterize the …


Asylum Under Attack: Restoring Asylum Protections In The United States, Lindsay M. Harris Jan 2021

Asylum Under Attack: Restoring Asylum Protections In The United States, Lindsay M. Harris

Journal Articles

The U.S. asylum system has endured four years of systematic attack. The Trump Administration attempted to dismantle the United States’ system to protect asylum seekers through changes to case law, executive orders, presidential proclamations, internal agency guidance and sweeping regulatory changes, among other measures. The system largely ground to a halt after the Trump Administration co-opted the coronavirus public health crisis to effectively close the southern border to asylum seekers with its March 2020 Centers for Disease Control order. This catastrophic order was not even the last in a long line of the Trump Administration’s efforts since assuming power to …


Asylum Attorney Burnout And Secondary Trauma, Lindsay M. Harris, Hillary Mellinger Jan 2021

Asylum Attorney Burnout And Secondary Trauma, Lindsay M. Harris, Hillary Mellinger

Journal Articles

We are in the midst of a crisis of mental health for attorneys across all practice areas. Illustrating this broader phenomenon, this interdisciplinary Article shares the results of the 2020 National Asylum Attorney Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress Survey (“Survey”). Using well-established tools, such as the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and the Secondary Stress Trauma Survey, the Survey assessed the well-being of over 700 immigration attorneys navigating the tumultuous asylum space. As the largest such study of United States attorneys to date, it is particularly timely. Between 2017 and 2021, the Trump administration’s extreme policies, sweeping regulatory changes, and Attorney General …


Echoes Of 9/11: Rhetorical Analysis Of Presidential Statements In The "War On Terror", Bruce Ching Nov 2020

Echoes Of 9/11: Rhetorical Analysis Of Presidential Statements In The "War On Terror", Bruce Ching

Journal Articles

This article examines persuasive statements by Presidents George W. Bush, Barack Obama, and Donald Trump involving appeals to national identity as a rhetorical foundation for anti-terrorism policy since 9/11. Their specific rhetorical methods have included the use of memorable catchphrases, alliteration, metaphorical framing, and contrast between values of the United States and those of the terrorists. President Bush focused on rallying the nation’s response against the perpetrators of the 9/11 attacks, identifying the U.S. with “freedom itself” and invoking the phrase “War on Terror.” President Obama emphasized the importance of the nation’s values while denouncing the Bush administration’s torture of …


Presidential Ideology And Immigrant Detention, Catherine Y. Kim, Amy Semet May 2020

Presidential Ideology And Immigrant Detention, Catherine Y. Kim, Amy Semet

Journal Articles

In our nation’s immigration system, a noncitizen charged with deportability may be detained pending the outcome of removal proceedings. These individuals are housed in remote facilities closely resembling prisons, with severe restrictions on access to counsel and contact with family members. Given severe backlogs in the adjudication of removal proceedings, such detention may last months or even years.

Many of the noncitizens initially detained by enforcement officials have the opportunity to request a bond hearing before an administrative adjudicator called an Immigration Judge (IJ). Although these IJs preside over relatively formal on-the-record hearings and are understood to exercise “independent judgement,” …


An Empirical Study Of Political Control Over Immigration Adjudication, Catherine Y. Kim, Amy Semet Mar 2020

An Empirical Study Of Political Control Over Immigration Adjudication, Catherine Y. Kim, Amy Semet

Journal Articles

Immigration plays a central role in the Trump Administration’s political agenda. This Article presents the first comprehensive empirical assessment of the extent to which immigration judges (IJs), the administrative officials charged with adjudicating whether a given noncitizen will be deported from the United States, may be influenced by the presidential administration’s political preferences.

We constructed an original dataset of over 830,000 removal proceedings decided between January 2001 and June 2019 after individual merits hearings. First, we found that every presidential administration—not just the current one—disproportionately appointed IJs with backgrounds in the former Immigration and Naturalization Service, the Department of Homeland …


Vicarious Trauma And Ethical Obligations For Attorneys Representing Immigrant Clients: A Call To Build Resilience Among The Immigration Bar, Hannah C. Cartwright, Lindsay M. Harris, Liana M. Montecinos, Anam Rahman Jan 2020

Vicarious Trauma And Ethical Obligations For Attorneys Representing Immigrant Clients: A Call To Build Resilience Among The Immigration Bar, Hannah C. Cartwright, Lindsay M. Harris, Liana M. Montecinos, Anam Rahman

Journal Articles

This article analyzes the ethical obligations for attorneys representing immigrant clients and the consequences of vicarious trauma, compassion fatigue, and burnout for the immigration bar and immigrant clients. The authors identify barriers for immigration attorneys in preventing, recognizing, and responding to vicarious trauma in themselves and colleagues and suggest practical ways that the immigration bar can and should seek to build resilience.


Darkside Discretion In Immigration Cases, Shoba Wadhia Jan 2020

Darkside Discretion In Immigration Cases, Shoba Wadhia

Journal Articles

"Darkside Discretion" refers to a situation where the noncitizen satisfies the statutory criteria set by Congress to be eligible for remedy but is denied by an adjudicator in the exercise of discretion. Imagine a woman who arrived in the United States six months ago who meets her burden of proving she is a refugee based on a fear of persecution by the government in her home country because of her religious beliefs, but who is denied asylum for discretionary reasons. This kind of decision exposes the "darkside" of discretion because it reflects how the government uses the tool of discretion …


The Case Against Chevron Deference In Immigration Adjudication, Shoba Wadhia, Christopher Walker Jan 2020

The Case Against Chevron Deference In Immigration Adjudication, Shoba Wadhia, Christopher Walker

Journal Articles

The Duke Law Journal’s fifty-first annual administrative law symposium examines the future of Chevron deference—the command that a reviewing court defer to an agency’s reasonable interpretation of an ambiguous statute the agency administers. In the lead article, Professors Kristin Hickman and Aaron Nielson argue that the Supreme Court should narrow Chevron’s domain to exclude interpretations made via administrative adjudication. Building on their framing, this Article presents an in-depth case study of immigration adjudication and argues that this case against Chevron has perhaps its greatest force when it comes to immigration. That is because much of Chevron’s theory for congressional delegation …


Anti-Sanctuary And Immigration Localism, Pratheepan Gulasekaram, Rick Su, Rose Cuison Villazor Apr 2019

Anti-Sanctuary And Immigration Localism, Pratheepan Gulasekaram, Rick Su, Rose Cuison Villazor

Journal Articles

A new front in the war against sanctuary cities has emerged. Until recently, the fight against sanctuary cities has largely focused on the federal government's efforts to defund states like California and cities like Chicago and New York for resisting federal immigration enforcement. Thus far, localities have mainly prevailed against this federal anti-sanctuary campaign, relying on federalism protections afforded by the Tenth Amendment's anticommandeering and anticoercion doctrines. Recently, however, the battle lines have shifted with the proliferation of state-level laws that similarly seek to punish sanctuary cities. States across the country are directly mandating local participation, and courts thus far …


Immigration Litigation In The Time Of Trump, Shoba Wadhia Jan 2019

Immigration Litigation In The Time Of Trump, Shoba Wadhia

Journal Articles

A number of immigration policies have been announced, implemented, or challenged in courts during the first half of Donald J. Trump's presidency. This Essay provides an update on ongoing litigation on a handful of these policies and was inspired by keynote remarks delivered at the Emerging Immigration Scholars Conference at Brigham Young University in June 2019. The topics covered by this Essay include: litigation affecting those covered by the travel or "Muslim Ban," asylum policy changes, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals ("DACA"), unlawful presence rules, and the border wall. This Essay also discusses lessons and common themes emerging from the …


Withholding Protection, Lindsay M. Harris Jan 2019

Withholding Protection, Lindsay M. Harris

Journal Articles

In June 2018, President Trump wrote a pair of tweets en route to his golf course, calling for “no Judges or Court Cases” at our border and swift deportation of immigrants, essentially without due process. While immigrant advocates were quick to explain the myriad constitutional problems with this proposal, elements of Trump’s dream are already a reality. This Article reveals how a single Customs and Border Protection officer can short-circuit the checks and balances prescribed by U.S. and international law to protect refugees from being returned to harm, and cast a long shadow over a future, meritorious asylum claim. In …


Remarks On Prosecutorial Discretion And Immigration, Shoba Wadhia Jan 2019

Remarks On Prosecutorial Discretion And Immigration, Shoba Wadhia

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Americans In Waiting: Finding Solutions For Long Term Residents, Shoba Wadhia Jan 2019

Americans In Waiting: Finding Solutions For Long Term Residents, Shoba Wadhia

Journal Articles

For more than a century, U.S. immigration law has recognized long-term residence as a primary factor in granting formal relief or protection. The rationale for regularizing the status of long-term residence is both clear and multifaceted. Over time, long-term residents in the United States build families, buy homes, and integrate into their communities. These equities, coupled with long-term residence, are reflected in the laws used to legalize and protect noncitizens. Many of these laws include a discretionary component, which is itself a powerful sword used by judges and officers when making immigration decisions.

This paper explores the history and role …


Making Room For Children: A Response To Professor Estin On Immigration And Child Welfare, Rick Su Sep 2018

Making Room For Children: A Response To Professor Estin On Immigration And Child Welfare, Rick Su

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


The #Buffalo 25 And The New Era Of Immigration Enforcement, Nicole Hallett May 2018

The #Buffalo 25 And The New Era Of Immigration Enforcement, Nicole Hallett

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Immigration Enforcement And The Future Of Discretion, Shoba Wadhia Jan 2018

Immigration Enforcement And The Future Of Discretion, Shoba Wadhia

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Contemporary Family Detention And Legal Advocacy, Lindsay M. Harris Jan 2018

Contemporary Family Detention And Legal Advocacy, Lindsay M. Harris

Journal Articles

This essay explores the contemporary practice of detaining immigrant women and children — the vast majority of whom are fleeing violence in their home countries and seeking protection in the United States — and the response by a diverse coalition of legal advocates. In spite of heroic advocacy, both within and outside the detention centers from the courts to the media to the White House, family detention continues. By charting the evolution of family detention from the time the Obama Administration resurrected the practice in 2014 and responsive advocacy efforts, this essay maps the multiple levels at which sustained advocacy …


Sanctuary, Temporary Protected Status, And Catholic Social Teaching, Kristina M. Campbell Jan 2018

Sanctuary, Temporary Protected Status, And Catholic Social Teaching, Kristina M. Campbell

Journal Articles

The concept of sanctuary has deep roots in many religious traditions, including the Roman Catholic Church. Indeed, during the Sanctuary Movement of the 1980s, many Roman Catholic congregations in the United States provided physical sanctuary to Central American refugees fleeing the brutal wars in their countries. In more recent times, Roman Catholic Churches have participated in the “New Sanctuary Movement,” providing not only physical sanctuary to undocumented immigrants and refugees facing detention and removal by federal immigration authorities, but engaging in advocacy and activism on some of the larger questions surrounding immigration policy in the 21st century. Since initiating his …


Dreamers Deferred: The Broken Promise Of Immigration Reform In The Obama Years, Kristina M. Campbell Jan 2018

Dreamers Deferred: The Broken Promise Of Immigration Reform In The Obama Years, Kristina M. Campbell

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Learning In "Baby Jail": Lessons From Law Student Engagement In Family Detention Centers, Lindsay M. Harris Jan 2018

Learning In "Baby Jail": Lessons From Law Student Engagement In Family Detention Centers, Lindsay M. Harris

Journal Articles

Between 2014 and 2017, more than 40 law schools and likely well over 1000 law students engaged in learning within immigration family detention centers. The Trump Administration’s “zero tolerance” policy and implementation of wide-scale family separation in 2018 led to increased involvement by professors and students in the constantly shifting landscape of immigration detention. As the detention of immigrant families becomes increasingly entrenched, this article hits the pause button and assesses the benefits and challenges of the various approaches to, and proposes some principles for, law student engagement in this crisis lawyering in immigration detention centers, for families, and beyond.


La Proteccion De Los Inmigrantes Irregulares En Los Estados Unidos Y La Libertad De Circulacion En Una 'Union Americana', Kristina M. Campbell Jan 2018

La Proteccion De Los Inmigrantes Irregulares En Los Estados Unidos Y La Libertad De Circulacion En Una 'Union Americana', Kristina M. Campbell

Journal Articles

Este artículo es una continuación y ampliación de una propuesta que formulé en 2009, y se plantea si —y cómo— los Estados Unidos pueden apartarse de su actual sistema de regulación de la inmigración punitivo, cuasi-penal y de exigencia dura de su cumplimiento. ¿Es posible para los Estados Unidos y sus vecinos acercarse a un sistema de protección de los refugiados y otros migrantes irregulares del resto de las Américas, modelado sobre el concepto de «libertad de circulación» de la Unión Europea? Si es así, ¿a qué debería parecerse dicho sistema? Permitiendo a todos los ciudadanos de una «Unión Americana» …


National Security, Immigration And The Muslim Bans, Shoba Wadhia Jan 2018

National Security, Immigration And The Muslim Bans, Shoba Wadhia

Journal Articles

National security language has continued to guide the creation and defense of Executive Orders and related immigration policies issued in the Donald J. Trump administration. This Article builds on earlier scholarship examining the relationship between national security and immigration in the wake of September 11, 2001, under the Obama administration, and during the campaign leading to the 2016 Election. While the Article is largely descriptive, it ultimately questions the longevity of using national security to create and defend immigration law. This Article is limited in scope -- it does not provide a deep dive into the constitutionality of the Muslim …


Operation Sojourner: The Government Infiltration Of The Sanctuary Movement In The 1980s And Its Legacy On The Modern Central American Refugee Crisis, Kristina M. Campbell Jan 2017

Operation Sojourner: The Government Infiltration Of The Sanctuary Movement In The 1980s And Its Legacy On The Modern Central American Refugee Crisis, Kristina M. Campbell

Journal Articles

This Article will discuss “Operation Sojourner,” the federal government’s covert infiltration, and subsequent criminal prosecution, of persons involved in the Sanctuary Movement in the 1980s, as well as its impact on the modern Sanctuary Movement in Arizona and the Southwest occurring in response to the current Central American refugee crisis. Section I will provide an overview of the Sanctuary Movement in the 1980s, and the general religious beliefs and philosophies of those involved in the movement. Section II will discuss the genesis of Operation Sojourner by the former Immigration and Nationality Service (INS) in the early 1980s, and the criminal …


Freedom From Detention: The Constitutionality Of Mandatory Detention For Criminal Aliens Seeking To Challenge Grounds For Removal, Darlene Goring Jan 2017

Freedom From Detention: The Constitutionality Of Mandatory Detention For Criminal Aliens Seeking To Challenge Grounds For Removal, Darlene Goring

Journal Articles

The article focuses on the immigration system of the U.S., and mentions constitutionality of mandatory detention for criminal aliens who are seeking to challenge grounds for removal. Topics include U.S. Supreme Court case Demore v. Kim, which deals with mandatory detention during removal proceedings; current statutory framework governing mandatory detention for criminal aliens; and modification of the mandatory detention framework offering protection of the fundamental liberty.