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Tinder Love And Care: Proposing An Industry Self-Regulation Policy Implementing Safety Procedures For Dating App Companies, Marissa Meredith Apr 2023

Tinder Love And Care: Proposing An Industry Self-Regulation Policy Implementing Safety Procedures For Dating App Companies, Marissa Meredith

Indiana Law Journal

Online dating companies have monetized and capitalized on the idea of finding love, creating a billion-dollar industry matching individuals with their “soul mates.” With its perks and benefits, the online love industry is not without risk. Despite some dating companies limiting user eligibility in their terms and conditions to those without felony and sexual offense convictions, there is no actual screening process established by these companies. Furthermore, there are no uniform safety protocols among dating app companies. This lack of uniformity coupled with access to all, including violent offenders, allows repeat offenders to engage in “delightful” conversations with unsuspecting strangers …


Just-Right Government: Interstate Compacts And Multistate Governance In An Era Of Political Polarization, Policy Paralysis, And Bad-Faith Partisanship, Jon Michaels, Emme M. Tyler Apr 2023

Just-Right Government: Interstate Compacts And Multistate Governance In An Era Of Political Polarization, Policy Paralysis, And Bad-Faith Partisanship, Jon Michaels, Emme M. Tyler

Indiana Law Journal

Those committed to addressing the political, economic, and moral crises of the day— voting rights, racial justice, reproductive autonomy, gaping inequality, LGBTQ rights, and public health and safety—don’t know where to turn. Federal legislative and regulatory pathways are choked off by senators quick to filibuster and by judges eager to strike down agency rules and orders. State pathways, in turn, are compromised by limited capacity, collective action problems, externalities, scant economies of scale, and—in many jurisdictions—a toxic political culture hostile to even the most anodyne government interventions. Recognizing the limited options available on a binary (that is, federal or state) …


Frivolous Floodgate Fears, Blair Druhan Bullock Apr 2023

Frivolous Floodgate Fears, Blair Druhan Bullock

Indiana Law Journal

When rejecting plaintiff-friendly liability standards, courts often cite a fear of opening the floodgates of litigation. Namely, courts point to either a desire to protect the docket of federal courts or a burden on the executive branch. But there is little empirical evidence exploring whether the adoption of a stricter standard can, in fact, decrease the filing of legal claims in this circumstance. This Article empirically analyzes and theoretically models the effect of adopting arguably stricter liability standards on litigation by investigating the context of one of the Supreme Court’s most recent reliances on this argument when adopting a stricter …


The Future Of Roe And The Gender Pay Gap: An Empirical Assessment, Itay Ravid, Jonathan Zandberg Apr 2023

The Future Of Roe And The Gender Pay Gap: An Empirical Assessment, Itay Ravid, Jonathan Zandberg

Indiana Law Journal

In Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, the Supreme Court upheld a Mississippi law that prohibits nearly all abortions after the fifteenth week of pregnancy and overruled the holding in Roe v. Wade. Among the many arguments raised in Dobbs in an attempt to overturn Roe, the State of Mississippi argued that due to “the march of progress” in women’s role in society, abortion rights are no longer necessary for women to participate equally in economic life. It has also been argued that there is no empirical support to the relationship between abortion rights and women’s economic success in society. …


Climate Security Insights From The Covid-19 Response, Mark Nevitt Apr 2023

Climate Security Insights From The Covid-19 Response, Mark Nevitt

Indiana Law Journal

The climate change crisis and COVID-19 crisis are both complex collective action problems. Neither the coronavirus nor greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions respect political borders. Both impose an opportunity cost that penalizes inaction. They are also increasingly understood as nontraditional, novel security threats. Indeed, COVID-19’s human cost is staggering, with American lives lost vastly exceeding those lost in recent armed conflicts. And climate change is both a threat accelerant and a catalyst for conflict—a characterization reinforced in several climate-security reports. To counter COVID-19, the President embraced martial language, stating that he will employ a “wartime footing” to “defeat the virus.” Perhaps …


The Rise Of Corporate Guidelines In The United States, 2005-2021: Theory And Evidence, Asaf Eckstein Apr 2023

The Rise Of Corporate Guidelines In The United States, 2005-2021: Theory And Evidence, Asaf Eckstein

Indiana Law Journal

Institutional investors are legally obliged to be faithful stewards of their portfolio companies. Yet, the conventional wisdom among commentators is that institutional investors have failed to perform this obligation because they are not incentivized to make adequate investments in corporate governance. This Article contends that this criticism is based on an incomplete analysis that misses a critical aspect of the operation of institutional investors. The critics focus exclusively on institutional investors’ efforts in actively engaging with the managements of their portfolio companies. They ignore, however, an important passive governance tool that institutional investors routinely use: corporate guidelines. Corporate guidelines are …


Second Chances In Criminal And Immigration Law, Ingrid V. Eagly Apr 2023

Second Chances In Criminal And Immigration Law, Ingrid V. Eagly

Indiana Law Journal

This Essay publishes the remarks given by Professor Ingrid Eagly at the 2022 Fuchs Lecture at Indiana University Maurer School of Law. The Fuchs Lecture was established in honor of Ralph Follen Fuchs in 2001. Professor Fuchs, who served on the Indiana University law faculty from 1946 until his retirement in 1970, was awarded the title of university professor in recognition of his scholarship, teaching, and public service. In her Fuchs lecture, Professor Eagly explores the growing bipartisan consensus behind “second chance” reforms in the state and federal criminal legal systems. These incremental reforms acknowledge racial bias, correct for past …


In The Best Interests Of Whom?: An Analysis Of Judicial Bias In Custody Disputes Involving Transgender Children, Caden Pociask Apr 2023

In The Best Interests Of Whom?: An Analysis Of Judicial Bias In Custody Disputes Involving Transgender Children, Caden Pociask

Indiana Law Journal

Anti-transgender discrimination and bias loom large in many areas of our society, but perhaps one of the most concerning settings is within the four walls of a courtroom. Evidence suggests that judicial decision making in custody determinations involving transgender children are influenced by anti-transgender bias. In this Note, I examine the current best practice for treating transgender children, the affirmative model, and explore the legal landscape of custody cases involving parents who disagree on how to treat their transgender child. I then suggest a model of comprehensive judicial education reform to help eliminate antitransgender bias from family courts in the …


Patenting Genetic Information, David S. Olson, Fabrizio Ducci Apr 2023

Patenting Genetic Information, David S. Olson, Fabrizio Ducci

Indiana Law Journal

The U.S. biotechnology industry got its start and grew to maturity over roughly three decades, beginning in the 1980s. During this period genes were patentable, and many gene patents were granted. University researchers performed basic research— often funded by the government—and then patented the genes they discovered with the encouragement of the Bayh-Dole Act, which sought to encourage practical applications of basic research by allowing patents on federally funded inventions and discoveries. At that time, when a researcher discovered the function of a gene, she could patent it such that no one else could work with that gene in the …


A Newfound Power: How The Ohio Supreme Court Should Approach The Next Partisan Gerrymander, Bradley Davis Apr 2023

A Newfound Power: How The Ohio Supreme Court Should Approach The Next Partisan Gerrymander, Bradley Davis

Indiana Law Journal

Partisan gerrymandering is a practice as old as the nation itself and a problem both state and federal courts continue to struggle with. In 2015, the people of Ohio overwhelmingly voted to amend the state constitution to prevent overly partisan outcomes in state legislative redistricting. Following the 2021 redistricting cycle, the Ohio Supreme Court narrowly struck down several redistricting proposals in what devolved into a protracted fight with legislators and executive officials. This Note carefully lays out the development of redistricting jurisprudence, Ohio’s relevant constitutional provisions, and various state and federal judicial approaches to alleged gerrymanders. Using a combination of …


Levels Of Free Speech Scrutiny, Alexander Tsesis Apr 2023

Levels Of Free Speech Scrutiny, Alexander Tsesis

Indiana Law Journal

Inconsistencies abound throughout current exacting, strict, and most exacting scrutiny doctrines. Formalism also runs throughout recent cases that have opportunistically relied on the First Amendment in matters peripherally concerned with core principles of free speech. Jurisprudence that relies on the exacting scrutiny standard remains significantly under-theorized. The uncertainty creates doctrinal flux that shifts from case-to-case. The same unexplained malleability appears in the most exacting scrutiny jurisprudence. The Court, moreover, sometimes refers to these two standards as equivalent to strict scrutiny. On the other hand, during the last decade, and most recently in 2021, various opinions have also used exacting scrutiny …


Pain Management, Disorders Of Consciousness, And Tort Law: An Emergency Tort To Fix A Longstanding Injustice, Joseph J. Fins, Zachary E. Shapiro Apr 2023

Pain Management, Disorders Of Consciousness, And Tort Law: An Emergency Tort To Fix A Longstanding Injustice, Joseph J. Fins, Zachary E. Shapiro

Indiana Law Journal

We address the systemic undertreatment of pain for individuals diagnosed with disorders of consciousness (DoC). Patients with DoC are often unable to communicate due to damage to their brains, and because DoC patients appear to be insensate, practitioners often believe that these patients are unable to feel pain and may not offer them analgesia, even before painful medical procedures. However, science shows that many DoC patients are able to feel pain, even if they are unable to communicate their distress. This Article moves from recognition of this problem to proposing solutions, in particular exploring what the legal system can do …


Jury-Related Errors In Copyright, Zahr K. Said Apr 2023

Jury-Related Errors In Copyright, Zahr K. Said

Indiana Law Journal

Copyright law is surprisingly hard. Copyright does not do what laypeople think it does, nor do its terms mean what laypeople expect. Copyright also possesses systemic indeterminacy about what it protects and the extent of that protection. For laypeople, copyright law is decidedly “user-unfriendly.” Nonetheless, copyright law reserves for lay jurors its most-litigated, most difficult, and most consequential question at trial: whether works are “substantially similar” and thus infringing. Many have criticized this allocation because in the context of copyright law, juries effectively have the power to expand or contract owners’ rights with little oversight or correction. But blaming the …


Criminogenic Risks Of Interrogation, Margareth Etienne, Richard Mcadams Apr 2023

Criminogenic Risks Of Interrogation, Margareth Etienne, Richard Mcadams

Indiana Law Journal

In the United States, moral minimization is a pervasive police interrogation tactic in which the detective minimizes the moral seriousness and harm of the offense, suggesting that anyone would have done the same thing under the circumstances, and casting blame away from the offender and onto the victim or society. The goal of these minimizations is to reinforce the guilty suspect’s own rationalizations or “neutralizations” of the crime. The official theory—posited in the police training manuals that recommend the tactic—is that minimizations encourage confessions by lowering the guilt or shame of associated with confessing to the crime. Yet the same …


Trust The Science But Do Your Research: A Comment On The Unfortunate Revival Of The Progressive Case For The Administrative State, Mark Tushnet Jan 2023

Trust The Science But Do Your Research: A Comment On The Unfortunate Revival Of The Progressive Case For The Administrative State, Mark Tushnet

Indiana Law Journal

This Article offers a critique of one Progressive argument for the administrative state, that it would base policies on what disinterested scientific inquiries showed would best advance the public good and flexibly respond to rapidly changing technological, economic, and social conditions. The critique draws on recent scholarship in the field of Science and Technology Studies, which argues that what counts as a scientific fact is the product of complex social, political, and other processes. The critique is deployed in an analysis of the responses of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Food and Drug Administration to some important aspects …


The Afterlife Of Confederate Monuments, Jess Phelps, Jessica N. Owley Jan 2023

The Afterlife Of Confederate Monuments, Jess Phelps, Jessica N. Owley

Indiana Law Journal

As communities increasingly remove Confederate monuments from public spaces, they must decide what to do with these troubled statues. Given the recent wave of monument removal, we consider how property law and other restrictions impact community decisions on the disposition of monuments removed from public spaces on two levels—by location and future owner. In considering the fate of removed monuments, we profile potential destinations including museums, battlefields, cemeteries, and even storage. Alongside these examples, we discuss how laws constrain (or fail to constrain) the options for new owners and the restrictions on where monuments can be relocated. Even where laws …


Layered Fiduciaries In The Information Age, Zhaoyi Li Jan 2023

Layered Fiduciaries In The Information Age, Zhaoyi Li

Indiana Law Journal

Technology companies such as Facebook have long been criticized for abusing customers’ personal information and monetizing user data in a manner contrary to customer expectations. Some commentators suggest fiduciary law could be used to restrict how these companies use their customers’ data.1 Under this framework, a new member of the fiduciary family called the “information fiduciary” was born. The concept of an information fiduciary is that a company providing network services to “collect, analyze, use, sell, and distribute personal information” owes customers and end-users a fiduciary duty to use the collected data to promote their interests, thereby assuming fiduciary liability …


Purchasing Population Growth, Edward W. De Barbieri Jan 2023

Purchasing Population Growth, Edward W. De Barbieri

Indiana Law Journal

State and local lawmakers compete to attract new populations of workers to purchase homes, grow the tax base, and develop local economies. Even before the pandemic, lawmakers used a variety of tax incentives and other legal levers to attract new residents. Increasingly, in some cases bolstered by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act funds, local governments are attracting high-paid, well-skilled, remote workers with cash gifts and other direct economic benefits.

Although cash incentives for remote workers have been increasing in popularity, they remain unproven with respect to intended outcomes and have yet to face legal challenge. The …


Adapting Standards Of Judicial Impartiality To Student Discipline In Higher Education: Pitfalls And Potential Learned From Title Ix Adjudications, Brennan Murphy Jan 2023

Adapting Standards Of Judicial Impartiality To Student Discipline In Higher Education: Pitfalls And Potential Learned From Title Ix Adjudications, Brennan Murphy

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Defining Disparate Treatment: A Research Agenda For Our Times, Deborah Hellman Jan 2023

Defining Disparate Treatment: A Research Agenda For Our Times, Deborah Hellman

Indiana Law Journal

Both statutory and constitutional laws prohibiting discrimination forbid actions taken on the basis of certain traits. But rarely are those traits specifically defined. As a result, courts fill in these definitions and do so with consequential results. The boundaries they draw often determine whether or not a law, policy, or action constitutes disparate treatment on the basis of a legally protected trait. As disparate treatment calls for a significantly heavier burden of justification than does disparate impact, the key move putting laws, policies, and the acts of individuals into one category or the other happens in this definitional step.

Defining …


Strengthening Our Intuitions About Hacking, Jeffrey L. Vagle Jan 2023

Strengthening Our Intuitions About Hacking, Jeffrey L. Vagle

Indiana Law Journal

The computer trespass analogy has served us reasonably well as a basis for cybersecurity policies and related anti-hacking laws, but computers, and our uses of them, have changed significantly in ways that stretch the computer trespass metaphor beyond usefulness. This Essay proposes an approach to expanding and strengthening our intuitions about computer security that accounts for new computing paradigms, giving courts and lawmakers additional tools for interpreting and drafting effective anti-hacking laws.

This Essay argues that many new and existing computer use scenarios leave courts unsure how existing anti-hacking laws might apply, increasing the possibility of under- or over-inclusive policies …


Floating Liens Over Crypto-In-Commerce, Christopher K. Odinet, Andrea Tosato Jan 2023

Floating Liens Over Crypto-In-Commerce, Christopher K. Odinet, Andrea Tosato

Indiana Law Journal

Commercial law and crypto are colliding. Against the backdrop of explosive growth (and discord) in the digital asset market, there has been a series of recent revisions to American commercial law aimed at addressing new and emerging technologies. These changes to the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) are designed to facilitate the buying and selling of digital assets as well as their use as collateral. However, to date, the literature exploring these changes has mainly focused on understanding the basics of the new regime. This Essay moves beyond that baseline by showing how the UCC amendments can be used to structure …


Mobilizable Labor Law, Scott L. Cummings, Andrew Elmore Jan 2023

Mobilizable Labor Law, Scott L. Cummings, Andrew Elmore

Indiana Law Journal

In the history of new labor localism, city-level living wage ordinances—emerging in the 1990s with Los Angeles leading the way—have generally been understood as a second-best, limited antipoverty device designed to raise wage floors, with only indirect effects on organized labor. Drawing upon original archival materials, this Article offers an alternative reading of the history of the living wage in Los Angeles, showing how it was designed and operationalized as a proactive tool to rebuild union density and reshape city politics. Doing so makes four key contributions. First, the Article theorizes and empirically examines the living wage as a pioneering …


Power And Pay Secrecy, Michael M. Oswalt, Jake Rosenfeld, Patrick Denice Jan 2023

Power And Pay Secrecy, Michael M. Oswalt, Jake Rosenfeld, Patrick Denice

Indiana Law Journal

The legal momentum toward pay transparency is widespread and fast-moving. Since 2010, over a dozen states have passed laws prohibiting employers from telling workers they may not talk about wages. Proponents see these and related transparency laws as crucial steps to combat sex- and race-based pay discrimination in the workplace. But do state anti-secrecy laws actually reduce pay secrecy in the first place? That basic question remains largely unexplored. This Article fills the gap through a unique national survey that includes information about pay discussion rules and a range of other relevant employer and employee characteristics across the fifty states. …


On Warrants & Waiting: Electronic Warrants & The Fourth Amendment, Tracy Hresko Pearl Jan 2023

On Warrants & Waiting: Electronic Warrants & The Fourth Amendment, Tracy Hresko Pearl

Indiana Law Journal

Police use of electronic warrant (“e-warrant”) technology has increased significantly in recent years. E-warrant technology allows law enforcement to submit, and magistrate judges to review and approve, warrant applications on computers, smartphones, and tablets, often without any direct communication. Police officers report that they favor e-warrants over their traditional, paper counterparts because they save officers a significant amount of time in applying for warrants by eliminating the need to appear in-person before a magistrate. Legal scholars have almost uniformly praised e-warrant technology as well, arguing that use of these systems will increase the number of warrants issued throughout the United …


Vicarious Liability For Ai, Mihailis E. Diamantis Jan 2023

Vicarious Liability For Ai, Mihailis E. Diamantis

Indiana Law Journal

When an algorithm harms someone—say by discriminating against her, exposing her personal data, or buying her stock using inside information—who should pay? If that harm is criminal, who deserves punishment? In ordinary cases, when A harms B, the first step in the liability analysis turns on what sort of thing A is. If A is a natural phenomenon, like a typhoon or mudslide, B pays, and no one is punished. If A is a person, then A might be liable for damages and sanction. The trouble with algorithms is that neither paradigm fits. Algorithms are trainable artifacts with “off” switches, …


Psychedelic Drugs & The Prior Art Problem, Anneli E. Kawaoka Jan 2023

Psychedelic Drugs & The Prior Art Problem, Anneli E. Kawaoka

Indiana Law Journal

For the first time since the War on Drugs began in the 1970s, researchers have returned to the promise of psychedelic drugs for treating the growing mental health crisis in the United States. As research into psychedelic drugs as a conventional treatment method for mental health conditions grows, so does the number of filings at the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office for psychedelic-related patents. But the decades-long lapse in the development of psychedelic drugs creates the risk that low-quality psychedelic patents will issue, giving limited monopolies to companies that have not truly innovated in the psychedelic space. In this Note, …


State Workarounds To The Irc's Salt Cap: The Past, The Present, And Building For The Future, Richard Stephenson Mcewan Jan 2023

State Workarounds To The Irc's Salt Cap: The Past, The Present, And Building For The Future, Richard Stephenson Mcewan

Indiana Law Journal

Recently, Congress has debated measures to provide some relief to taxpayers negatively impacted by the Internal Revenue Code’s State and Local Tax (SALT) deductibility limit. Although Congress has not yet budged on whether to adjust this cap, many states have taken it upon themselves to find creative workarounds to provide relief for their constituent taxpayers. In the face of an uncertain future for the current SALT cap, crucial questions exist for these state workarounds and those still to come. This Note carefully lays out the individual income tax issue posed by the SALT cap, before analyzing the core elements of …


Situating Structural Challenges To Agency Authority Within The Framework Of The Finality Principle, Harold J. Krent Jan 2023

Situating Structural Challenges To Agency Authority Within The Framework Of The Finality Principle, Harold J. Krent

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Policy Origins Of Wi-Fi, John Blevins Jan 2023

The Policy Origins Of Wi-Fi, John Blevins

Indiana Law Journal

Wi-Fi technology has become a necessary foundation of modern economic and cultural life. This Article explains its history. Specifically, it argues that Wi-Fi owes its existence and widespread adoption to federal policy choices that have been underexplored in the literature. Wi-Fi’s development is often portrayed as an unexpected and lucky accident following the FCC’s initial decision in the 1980s to allow more unlicensed and experimental uses. This view, however, obscures the more fundamental role that federal policy played. For one, the rise of modern Wi-Fi was the product of a series of policy decisions spanning decades. In addition, the FCC’s …