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Comments On Preliminary Draft 3 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek Dec 2017

Comments On Preliminary Draft 3 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek

Faculty Scholarship

The absence of stated principles underlying the articulation of the black letter and comments – principles that the Reporters have said they will provide at the end of the process – continues to trouble the Draft. It remains unclear whether the Reporters are synthesizing positive law, or seeking to reform it. We are not contending that ALI should not push for law reform (even though Principles or some other form might provide a preferable and more transparent vehicle for aspirational endeavors), but we do think the objectives and methodology should be clear from the outset. We remain concerned that ALI’s …


The Antitrusting Of Patentability, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Nov 2017

The Antitrusting Of Patentability, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Faculty Scholarship

Deciding a patent’s validity is costly, and so is deciding it incorrectly. Judges and juries must expend significant resources in order to reach a patent validity determination that is properly informed by the relevant facts. At the same time, patent validity determinations reached quickly and cheaply may conserve resources today while creating future costs. Wrongly preserving an invalid patent can distort the competitive market and enable abuses, such as nuisance litigation. Meanwhile, wrongly striking down a valid patent can undermine incentives for continued investment and commercialization in knowledge assets. Courts facing patent validity issues have begun to strike this balance …


Thinking About The Trans-Pacific Partnership (And A Mega-Regional Agreement On Life Support), Peter K. Yu Nov 2017

Thinking About The Trans-Pacific Partnership (And A Mega-Regional Agreement On Life Support), Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Commissioned for a conference on the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) at VNU University of Economics & Law in Vietnam, this article provides a retrospective analysis of the partnership. It begins with a historical overview of the TPP. The article then examines the partnership’s status in light of the United States' withdrawal and contends that the TPP will exert considerable influence regardless of whether it is dead or alive.

The second half of this article identifies three interrelated but distinct aspects of the TPP: (1) as a TRIPS-plus intellectual property agreement; (2) as a regional investment agreement; and (3) as a plurilateral …


Three Strikes For Copyright, Jessica Silbey Oct 2017

Three Strikes For Copyright, Jessica Silbey

Faculty Scholarship

How should copyright law change to take account of the internet? Should copyright expand to plug the internet’s leakiness and protect content that the internet would otherwise make more freely available? Or, should copyright relax its strict liability regime given diverse and productive reuses in the internet age and the benefits networked diffusion provides users and second-generation creators? Answering these questions depends on what we think copyright is for and how it is used and confronted by creators and audiences. In a new article studying these questions in the very focused setting of Wikipedia articles about baseball and baseball players …


A Spatial Critique Of Intellectual Property Law And Policy, Peter K. Yu Oct 2017

A Spatial Critique Of Intellectual Property Law And Policy, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Although geography has had an important and lasting impact on the development of intellectual property law and policy, at both the domestic and international levels, geographical perspectives and spatial analysis have thus far not attracted much attention from policymakers and commentators. Only recently have we seen greater linkage between these two undeniably connected fields. Even with such linkage, the discussion tends to focus narrowly on specific issues, such as the parallel importation of pharmaceuticals, the protection of geographical indications and the treatment of traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions.

This article aims to provide a systematic analysis of the linkage …


Optimal Remedies For Patent Infringement, Keith N. Hylton, Mengxi Zhang Oct 2017

Optimal Remedies For Patent Infringement, Keith N. Hylton, Mengxi Zhang

Faculty Scholarship

This paper derives optimal remedies for patent infringement, examining damages awards and injunctions. The fundamental optimality condition that applies to both awards and injunctions equates the marginal static cost of intellectual property protection with the marginal “dynamic” benefit from the innovation thereby induced. When the social value of the patent is sufficiently high, the optimal award induces socially efficient investment by giving the innovator the entire social value of her investment.


Copyright Owners' Putative Interests In Privacy, Reputation, And Control: A Reply To Goold, Wendy J. Gordon Jun 2017

Copyright Owners' Putative Interests In Privacy, Reputation, And Control: A Reply To Goold, Wendy J. Gordon

Faculty Scholarship

My own view is that Goold overstates the explanatory role of tort law. But even were that not the case, the courts need to reach some kind of “settled” understanding on these various interests before a cause of action is created or definitively rejected, and that no such consensus on the three matters mentioned yet exists, whether they are viewed as forms of tort or otherwise. Goold’s work may nevertheless be an important step toward reaching closure on these and other open questions in copyright law.


Geographical Indications Between Trade, Development, Culture, And Marketing: Framing A Fair(Er) System Of Protection In The Global Economy?, Irene Calboli Jun 2017

Geographical Indications Between Trade, Development, Culture, And Marketing: Framing A Fair(Er) System Of Protection In The Global Economy?, Irene Calboli

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter analyzes some of the topics on the current debate involving geographical indications (GIs) of origin that will be further elaborated by the contributors to this volume from a variety of perspectives and angles. As the title indicates, this volume focuses on GI protection “at the crossroads of trade, development, and culture,” with a specific focus on the countries in the Asia-Pacific region. This choice is due primarily to the fact that the analysis of issues related to GI protection in this region is, to date, not as extensive as the analysis in other regions, particularly in the Western …


The Rcep And Trans-Pacific Intellectual Property Norms, Peter K. Yu May 2017

The Rcep And Trans-Pacific Intellectual Property Norms, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

In the past few years, the Trans-Pacific Partnership has garnered considerable media, policy and scholarly attention. Rarely analyzed and only occasionally mentioned is the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). This agreement is currently being negotiated between Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea and the 10 members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Launched in November 2012 under the ASEAN 6 framework, the RCEP negotiations built on past trade and non-trade discussions between ASEAN and its six major Asia-Pacific neighbors.

This article examines the RCEP with a focus on the intellectual property norms that it seeks to …


Transformative Use In Software, Clark D. Asay May 2017

Transformative Use In Software, Clark D. Asay

Faculty Scholarship

Fair use is copyright law’s most important defense against claims of copyright infringement. It provides courts with an equitable tool for allowing parties to use the copyrighted materials of others without liability when doing so facilitates copyright’s constitutional purpose of promoting the “progress of Science and the useful Arts.”

When analyzing fair use, modern courts place great emphasis on whether the purportedly fair use involves a “transformative use” of the copyrighted materials. In what some are calling the most important software copyright case in decades, a jury recently handed Google a victory by concluding that Google’s reuse of some of …


The Patently Unexceptional Venue Statute, Paul Gugliuzza, Megan M. La Belle Apr 2017

The Patently Unexceptional Venue Statute, Paul Gugliuzza, Megan M. La Belle

Faculty Scholarship

Legal doctrines developed by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit are often derided as “exceptionalist,” particularly on issues of procedure. The court’s interpretation of the venue statute for patent infringement suits seems, at first glance, to fit that mold. According to the Federal Circuit, the statute places few constraints on the plaintiff’s choice of forum when suing corporate defendants. This permissive venue rule has lead critics to suggest that the court is, once again, outside the mainstream. The Supreme Court’s recent grant of certiorari in TC Heartland v. Kraft Foods would seem to indicate that those critics …


The Significance Of The Data Exclusivity And Its Impact On Generic Drugs, Srividhya Ragavan Apr 2017

The Significance Of The Data Exclusivity And Its Impact On Generic Drugs, Srividhya Ragavan

Faculty Scholarship

The following is a law review interview with Professor Srividhya Ragavan on the issues in interpretation of data exclusivity provisions under the TRIPS Agreement, and the impact of data exclusivity on generic drugs.


The Field Of Invention, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Mar 2017

The Field Of Invention, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Faculty Scholarship

Federal courts can ill afford to ignore, assume, or improvise a pervasively important administrative power that the Patent Office exercises regularly and effectively: technology classification. This agency-court asymmetry has persisted for decades but has now become unmanageably problematic for two related reasons. First, Supreme Court guidance, patent reform legislation, and academic commentary have all broadly rejected long-standing patent exceptionalism in administrative law, while making the Patent Office a major substitute for federal courts in resolving patent disputes. Still, patent doctrine has been slow to correct, particularly in judicial deference to agency action. Second, criticisms of the patent system are highly …


The Investment-Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property Rights, Peter K. Yu Feb 2017

The Investment-Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property Rights, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

From the debate among presidential candidates on whether the United States should ratify the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement to the arbitrations Philip Morris and Eli Lilly have sought through the investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanism, the investment-related aspects of intellectual property rights have recently garnered considerable policy, scholarly and media attention.

This growing attention, to some extent, has brought back memories about the time when the WTO TRIPS Agreement began to transform intellectual property law and policy by redirecting our focus to the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights. Whether the recent developments on the investment front represent yet another …


United States Response To Questionnaire Concerning Copyright: To Be Or Not To Be, Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek, Nathalie Russell Feb 2017

United States Response To Questionnaire Concerning Copyright: To Be Or Not To Be, Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek, Nathalie Russell

Faculty Scholarship

ALAI-USA is the U.S. branch of ALAI (Association Littèraire et Artistique Internationale). ALAI-USA was started in the 1980's by the late Professor Melville B. Nimmer, and was later expanded by Professor John M. Kernochan.


"Free Speech, First Amendment, And New Media For Cons And Festivals" From Pop Culture Business Handbook For Cons And Festivals, Jon Garon Jan 2017

"Free Speech, First Amendment, And New Media For Cons And Festivals" From Pop Culture Business Handbook For Cons And Festivals, Jon Garon

Faculty Scholarship

This article is part of a series of book excerpts from The Pop Culture Business Handbook for Cons and Festivals, which provides the business, strategy, and legal reference guide for fan conventions, film festivals, musical festivals, and cultural events.Although most events are organized by private parties, the location of these events in public venues and the crowd management issues involving free speech make First Amendment and free speech issues a critical component of event management. This excerpt provides a framework for understanding the legal and security issues involving free speech at public events.


"The Reel Story: Film Festivals And Markets" From The Pop Culture Business Handbook For Cons And Festivals, Jon Garon Jan 2017

"The Reel Story: Film Festivals And Markets" From The Pop Culture Business Handbook For Cons And Festivals, Jon Garon

Faculty Scholarship

This article is part of a series of book excerpts from The Pop Culture Business Handbook for Cons and Festivals, which provides the business, strategy, and legal reference guide for fan conventions, film festivals, musical festivals, and cultural events.There may be between three thousand and four thousand film festivals running this year. Compared to fewer than 750 feature films that are released theatrically during the year, the overwhelming number of film festivals make this experience somewhat unique within the Con culture. A film festival attracts its audience in order to highlight the best work it can showcase and to recognize …


Toward A Federal Jurisprudence Of Trade Secret Law, Sharon Sandeen, Christopher B. Seaman Jan 2017

Toward A Federal Jurisprudence Of Trade Secret Law, Sharon Sandeen, Christopher B. Seaman

Faculty Scholarship

The May 2016 enactment of the Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2016 (DTSA), which created a new federal civil cause of action for trade secret misappropriation, raises a host of issues that federal courts will have to consider under their original subject matter jurisdiction, rather than applying state law through the courts’ diversity jurisdiction. This means that for the first time, an extensive body of federal jurisprudence will be developed to govern the civil protection and enforcement of trade secrets in the United States. In addition, due to the DTSA’s changes to the existing federal criminal law governing trade secrets, …


Revising Racial Patents In An Era Of Precision Medicine, Jonathan Kahn Jan 2017

Revising Racial Patents In An Era Of Precision Medicine, Jonathan Kahn

Faculty Scholarship

In 2006, I published an article examining the rising use of racial categories in biomedical patents in the aftermath of the successful completion of the Human Genome Project and the production of the first draft of a complete human genome. Ten years on, it now seems time to revisit the issue and consider it in light of the current era of “Precision Medicine” so prominently promoted by President Obama in his 2015 State of the Union address where he announced a $215 million proposal for the Precision Medicine Initiative as “a bold new research effort to revolutionize how we improve …


The Myth Of Uniformity In Ip Laws, Sharon Sandeen Jan 2017

The Myth Of Uniformity In Ip Laws, Sharon Sandeen

Faculty Scholarship

When Congress enacts federal laws, it is often because of the asserted benefits of a “uniform” law and the, often unspoken, assumption that federal laws are somehow more uniform than uniform state laws. In fact, the uniformity argument was a primary justification for the enactment of both the Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2016 and the EU Trade Secret Directive.

The quest for uniformity, particularly with respect to laws that relate to intellectual property rights, is an old story in the United States. During the drafting of the U.S. Constitution, the existence of inconsistent state laws was a central reason …


The Commodification Of Trademarks: Some Final Thoughts On Trademark Dilution, Kenneth L. Port Jan 2017

The Commodification Of Trademarks: Some Final Thoughts On Trademark Dilution, Kenneth L. Port

Faculty Scholarship

This article is an explication of the trend toward commodification of famous or putatively famous trademarks and the resultant urging that the FTDA be repealed. This article starts with a literature review showing that the vast majority of commentators have been severely critical of the FTDA. This has been ignored by Congress. The article next pursues Congress's blind support of the FTDA and suggests that more thought and analysis from Congress is still required. The article next explains the data regarding FTDA claims. All reported cases from 1996 through 2015 are coded and examined. The conclusion, looking at the data, …


Crossfertilizing Isds With Trips, Peter K. Yu Jan 2017

Crossfertilizing Isds With Trips, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

In the past few years, investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) has garnered considerable scholarly, policy and media attention. Such attention can be partly attributed to the negotiation of the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). It can also be attributed the growing use of ISDS to address international disputes involving intellectual property investments. Recent examples include Philip Morris’s now-failed attempts to challenge the tobacco control measures in Australia and Uruguay and Eli Lilly's equally unsuccessful effort to invalidate the patentability requirements in Canada.

Written for a symposium on investor-state arbitration, this article focuses on the growing use …


Whither (Not Wither) Copyleft, Eben Moglen Jan 2017

Whither (Not Wither) Copyleft, Eben Moglen

Faculty Scholarship

This article contains an edited version of Professor Eben Moglen’s speech at the SFLC Fall Conference 2016. It explores the topic of Copyleft, enforcement and community engagement from the perspective of one of the key individuals in the rise of Free and Open Source Software from interesting idea to a central pillar of the global technology industry.


The Rcep And Intellectual Property Normsetting In The Asia-Pacific, Peter K. Yu Jan 2017

The Rcep And Intellectual Property Normsetting In The Asia-Pacific, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Commissioned for the CEIPI-ICTSD Series on Global Perspectives and Challenges for the Intellectual Property System, this article examines the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) with a focus on the intellectual property norms it seeks to develop. It begins by briefly discussing the partnership’s historical origins and ongoing negotiations. It then examines the latest leaked draft of the RCEP intellectual property chapter, highlighting the key provisions concerning copyright and related rights, trademarks, patents, trade secrets and undisclosed information, and intellectual property enforcement. This article concludes by exploring three scenarios concerning the future of this chapter--namely, the lack of an intellectual property …


Fair Use And Fair Dealing: Two Approaches To Limitations And Exceptions In Copyright Law, Shyamkrishna Balganesh, David Nimmer Jan 2017

Fair Use And Fair Dealing: Two Approaches To Limitations And Exceptions In Copyright Law, Shyamkrishna Balganesh, David Nimmer

Faculty Scholarship

Premised on realizing a balance between protection and access, ‘limitations and exceptions’ play an important role in the any copyright system. Jurisdictions around the world are generally thought to adopt one of two possible approaches to structuring limitations and exceptions: (a) the fair dealing approach, which delineates highly specific and carefully-worded exceptions with little room for judicial discretion, and (b) the fair use approach, which relies on more open-ended language and its contextual tailoring by courts. This chapter undertakes a comparative analysis of these two approaches using the Indian and US copyright systems as its focus. It shows that, although …


Clarifying The Clear Meaning Of Separability, Shyamkrishna Balganesh Jan 2017

Clarifying The Clear Meaning Of Separability, Shyamkrishna Balganesh

Faculty Scholarship

Speaking of the Copyright Act of 1909, noted copyright scholar Benjamin Kaplan had this to say about the role of judges therein:

[T]he statute, like its predecessors, leaves the development of fundamentals to the judges. Indeed the courts have had to be consulted at nearly every point, for the text of the statute has a maddeningly casual prolixity and imprecision throughout....

Judges, however, who in recent times have inclined against brutality, have run the risk of appearing slightly ridiculous in their tortuous interpretations.

The Copyright Act of 1976 was designed to avoid this imprecision and overt reliance on judicial creativity. …


3d Bioprinting Patentable Subject Matter Boundaries, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim Jan 2017

3d Bioprinting Patentable Subject Matter Boundaries, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim

Faculty Scholarship

3D bioprinting combines emerging 3D printing technologies with synthetic biology. The promise of 3D bioprinting technology is to fabricate organs for transplantation, treat burn victims with in vivo skin repair, and create wearable microbiomes. 3D bioprinting can successively build, repair, or reproduce living human cells. This capability challenges eligible subject matter doctrine in U.S. patent law because the law has no brightline standard for patent eligibility for nature-based products. As 3D bioprinting technologies mature, U.S. patent law will need to respond to situations where living and nonliving worlds merge. This Article proposes a "Mixed-Scanned-Transformed" standard to supplement U.S. patent law's …


Patent Pacifism, Clark D. Asay Jan 2017

Patent Pacifism, Clark D. Asay

Faculty Scholarship

Over the last decade, much of the patent law literature has focused on the problem of “patent trolls,” or patent owners who don’t make products, but sue others that do. The basic complaint against these types of entities is that they impose a tax on innovation without providing offsetting societal benefits. Furthermore, their patent assertions have been on the rise, with a significant percentage of patent suits now attributable to them. In short, the troll phenomenon suggests a problem of excessive patent assertions.

But despite the importance of the troll phenomenon, the fact remains that most patents are never asserted, …


The Role Of The Author In Copyright, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2017

The Role Of The Author In Copyright, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Two encroachments, one long-standing, the other a product of the digital era, cramp the author’s place in copyright today. First, most authors lack bargaining power; the real economic actors in the copyright system have long been the publishers and other exploiters to whom authors cede their rights. These actors may advance the figure of the author for the moral luster it lends their appeals to lawmakers, but then may promptly despoil the creators of whatever increased protections they may have garnered. Second, the advent of new technologies of creation and dissemination of works of authorship not only threatens traditional revenue …


Theft! A History Of Music, Keith Aoki, James Boyle, Jennifer Jenkins Jan 2017

Theft! A History Of Music, Keith Aoki, James Boyle, Jennifer Jenkins

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.