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Full-Text Articles in Law

Law And The Future Of Organized Labor In America, Keith N. Hylton Oct 2003

Law And The Future Of Organized Labor In America, Keith N. Hylton

Faculty Scholarship

This paper, prepared for "The Future of Organized Labor in America" symposium at Wayne State University Law School, examines two questions: 1) what are the implications of the decline of unions for the future of labor law, and 2) what are the implications of labor law for the decline of unions? After documenting the recent trends (decline in the private sector coupled with slight growth in the public sector), I argue that the change in the public-versus-private composition will lead unions to pursue legislative strategies that will further reduce the share of the private sector workforce in unions. A law …


The Supreme Court's Labor And Employment Decisions: 2002-2003 Term, Maria O'Brien Oct 2003

The Supreme Court's Labor And Employment Decisions: 2002-2003 Term, Maria O'Brien

Faculty Scholarship

This article summarizes U.S. Supreme Court cases from the October 2002 term that related directly or indirectly to labor or employment law or have implications for labor and employment practitioners. Of particular interest are the University of Michigan affirmative action cases' and the Texas criminal sodomy case. 2 Although not nominally "labor and employment" cases, these cases will profoundly affect labor and employment issues. Lawrence v. Texas has already altered the lenses through which society views homosexuality and altered public discourse related to homosexuality and same-sex relationships. 3 The reasoning of the Court shows how far issues of sexuality have …


The Specificity Of International Arbitration: The Case For Faa Reform, William W. Park Oct 2003

The Specificity Of International Arbitration: The Case For Faa Reform, William W. Park

Faculty Scholarship

If a pollster asked a random selection of Americans for a one-line verbal portrait of arbitration, common responses might include the following: (i) private litigation arising for construction and business disputes; (ii) a mechanism to resolve workplace tensions between management and labor; (iii) a process by which finance companies and stock brokers shield themselves from customer complaints; (iv) a way to level the playing field in deciding commercial controversies among companies from different parts of the world; (v) the way big corporations use NAFTA to escape regulation. To some extent all would be correct.'

Unfortunately, these different varieties of arbitration …


A Miscarriage Of Justice In Massachusetts: Eyewitness Identification Procedures, Unrecorded Admissions, And A Comparison With English Law, Stanley Z. Fisher, Ian K. Mckenzie Oct 2003

A Miscarriage Of Justice In Massachusetts: Eyewitness Identification Procedures, Unrecorded Admissions, And A Comparison With English Law, Stanley Z. Fisher, Ian K. Mckenzie

Faculty Scholarship

Like many other states, Massachusetts has recently known a number of acknowledged miscarriages of justice. This article examines one of them, the Marvin Mitchell case, in order to ask two questions: "What went wrong?" and "What systemic reforms might have prevented this injustice?" In seeking ideas for reform, we look to English law.

In 1990 Marvin Mitchell was convicted of rape in Massachusetts. Seven years later he became the first Massachusetts prisoner to be exonerated by DNA testing. In this article we describe the two key factors leading to Mitchell's wrongful conviction: faulty eyewitness identification procedures, and inadequate safeguards surrounding …


Archetypal Trials And The Management Of Dissent: Some Insights From Marketing Theory, Pnina Lahav Jul 2003

Archetypal Trials And The Management Of Dissent: Some Insights From Marketing Theory, Pnina Lahav

Faculty Scholarship

Recent marketing theory uses the Jungian concept of the archetype to design strategies for the improvement of product selling. Mark and Pearson propose that archetypes such as the ruler, the hero, the outlaw, and the sage are useful in promoting a product. This article suggests that the concept of archetypes as well as myths such as the Prometheus myth and the myth of the expulsion from Paradise, when combined with the insights offered by Mark and Pearson, may help in understanding the management of trials of dissent as well. The article presents seven motifs that recur in trials of dissent …


Interpretative Equality As A Structural Imperative (Or 'Pucker Up And Settle This!'), Gary S. Lawson Jul 2003

Interpretative Equality As A Structural Imperative (Or 'Pucker Up And Settle This!'), Gary S. Lawson

Faculty Scholarship

To serious students of the Constitution, Chief Justice Marshall's discussion of judicial review in Marbury v. Madisont was about judicial equality-the power of the courts, co-equal to the similar powers of the legislative and executive departments, to construe and apply the Constitution in the course of their duties. To less serious students of the Constitution, Marbury was about judicial supremacy-the supposedly paramount power of courts to interpret and apply the Constitution in a fashion that binds other legal actors, including the legislative and executive departments and state officials.


When The Hurlyburly's Done: The Bar's Struggle With The Sec, Susan P. Koniak Jun 2003

When The Hurlyburly's Done: The Bar's Struggle With The Sec, Susan P. Koniak

Faculty Scholarship

Enron went bust. Global Crossing went bust. WorldCom went bust. And underneath all their apparent gold we found, not mere mistakes, but rot and more rot and more rot still. And the rot had to be named, and it was: accounting scandal. The name stuck, and names matter. Arthur Andersen knows.


The Economics Of Litigation And Arbitration: An Application To Franchise Contracts, Keith N. Hylton, Christopher R. Drahozal Jun 2003

The Economics Of Litigation And Arbitration: An Application To Franchise Contracts, Keith N. Hylton, Christopher R. Drahozal

Faculty Scholarship

If we define the deterrence benefits from contract enforcement as avoided harms net of avoidance costs, we should expect contracting parties to choose the dispute resolution forum that provides the greatest difference between deterrence benefits and dispute resolution costs for every type of dispute. We apply this general framework to franchise contracts and conduct an empirical analysis of the determinants of arbitration agreements among franchising parties. Although it is obvious that contracting parties have an incentive to choose arbitration in order to reduce dispute-resolution costs, there have been no studies of the importance of deterrence concerns. We examine the deterrence …


Bodily Integrity And Informed Choice In Times Of War And Terror, George J. Annas Apr 2003

Bodily Integrity And Informed Choice In Times Of War And Terror, George J. Annas

Faculty Scholarship

Law is the dominant force behind American medical ethics, and has been for at least the past half-century. That ' lawyers and judges, rather than physicians, have set the agenda for medical ethics in the United States is a bit surprising to many in the field of medical ethics, but it should not be. Medicine has historically been based on paternalism. The Hippocratic physician was obligated to act in the best interests of the patient-as the physician judged those interests-and to "do no harm." American law, on the other hand, is based on liberty and justice, principles that, among other …


A Six-Three Rule: Reviving Consensus And Deference On The Supreme Court, Jed Handelsman Shugerman Apr 2003

A Six-Three Rule: Reviving Consensus And Deference On The Supreme Court, Jed Handelsman Shugerman

Faculty Scholarship

Over the past three decades, the Supreme Court has struck down federal statutes by a bare majority with unprecedented frequency. This Article shows that five-four decisions regularly overturning acts of Congress are a relatively recent phenomenon, whereas earlier Courts generally exercised judicial review by supermajority voting.

One option is to establish the following rule: The Supreme Court may not declare an act of Congress unconstitutional without a two-thirds majority. The Supreme Court itself could establish this rule internally, just as it has created its nonmajority rules for granting certiorari and holds, or one Justice who would otherwise be the fifth …


The Missing Selves In Constitutional Self-Government, James E. Fleming Apr 2003

The Missing Selves In Constitutional Self-Government, James E. Fleming

Faculty Scholarship

Both Christopher Eisgruber and Jed Rubenfeld have written important books developing sophisticated theories of constitutional self-government. Eisgruber's Constitutional Self-Government' and Rubenfeld's Freedom and Time: A Theory of Constitutional SelfGovernment2 join issue in significant ways, and therefore a dialogue concerning them should prove illuminating. Rubenfeld says his book and Eisgruber's book are somewhat similar, but very different.' Eisgruber says his book and Rubenfeld's book are fairly similar, yet also somewhat different-and where they differ, they sometimes complement one another, or perhaps supply the deficiencies in the other.4 I say the books are very similar-more similar than either recognizes or concedes-and that …


Technology And Learning By Factory Workers: The Stretch-Out At Lowell, 1842, James Bessen Mar 2003

Technology And Learning By Factory Workers: The Stretch-Out At Lowell, 1842, James Bessen

Faculty Scholarship

In 1842 Lowell textile firms increased weaving productivity by assigning three looms per worker instead of two. This marked a turning point. Before, weavers at Lowell were temporary and mostly literate Yankee farm girls; afterwards, firms increasingly hired local residents, including illiterate and Irish workers. An important factor was on-the-job learning. Literate workers learned new technology faster, but local workers stayed longer. These changes were unprofitable before 1842, and the advantages of literacy declined over time. Firm policy and social institutions slowly changed to permit deeper human-capital investment and more productive implementation of technology


Advisory Fees: Evolving Theories, Tamar Frankel Feb 2003

Advisory Fees: Evolving Theories, Tamar Frankel

Faculty Scholarship

The theories on which mutual fund advisers' fiduciary and advisory fees are based have evolved over time. They were changed to justify different public policy approaches and reflect different perceptions of the relationships between advisers and investors. Three theories have developed on the subject and yet another is percolating currently. The familiar context in which these theories arose is revisited to clarify their development.


Darwin, Design, And Disestablishment: Teaching The Evolution Controversy In Public Schools, Jay D. Wexler Jan 2003

Darwin, Design, And Disestablishment: Teaching The Evolution Controversy In Public Schools, Jay D. Wexler

Faculty Scholarship

The controversy over teaching evolution in public schools is once again hot news. Ever since the Supreme Court decided in 1987 that Louisiana could not constitutionally require teachers to give equal time to teaching creation science and evolution, critics of evolution have adopted a variety of new strategies to change the way in which public schools present the subject to their students. These strategies have included teaching evolution as a "theory" rather than as a fact, disclaiming the truth of evolutionary theory, teaching arguments against evolution, teaching the allegedly nontheistic theory of intelligent design instead of creationism, removing evolution from …


Does Punishment For 'Culpable Indifference' Simply Punish For 'Bad Character'? Examining The Requisite Connection Between Mens Rea And Actus Reus, Kenneth Simons Jan 2003

Does Punishment For 'Culpable Indifference' Simply Punish For 'Bad Character'? Examining The Requisite Connection Between Mens Rea And Actus Reus, Kenneth Simons

Faculty Scholarship

The conventional mental state or culpability categories recognized in the criminal law are purpose, knowledge, recklessness, and negligence. Should the law also recognize as an additional category some version of "culpable indifference"? Yes, according to a number of scholars; and some courts have also recognized this category, especially in the context of depraved heart murder. Culpable indifference can describe a modestly culpable mental state, sufficient for manslaughter liability (or, with respect to a circumstance element, roughly equivalent in seriousness to cognitive recklessness). It can also identify a more aggravated form of culpability, sufficient for murder (or, with respect to a …


Limits Of The Classic Method: Positive Action In The European Union After The New Equality Directives, Daniela Caruso Jan 2003

Limits Of The Classic Method: Positive Action In The European Union After The New Equality Directives, Daniela Caruso

Faculty Scholarship

The European Union's member states are currently implementing two new directives, prohibiting discrimination on such grounds as race, ethnicity and religion. Both directives allow for positive action - a European version of affirmative action confined to "soft," non-quota measures arguably reconcilable with the canon of individual equality. Based on time-honored EC provisions on gender discrimination, the European Court of Justice has already scrutinized, and occasionally prohibited as in breach of EC individual rights, states' positive action in favor of women. The Court is now likely to extend the same mode of scrutiny to the forms of discrimination contemplated by the …


Race, Civil Rights, And Immigration Law After September 11, 2001, Susan M. Akram Jan 2003

Race, Civil Rights, And Immigration Law After September 11, 2001, Susan M. Akram

Faculty Scholarship

This article is part of a symposium on "Migration Regulation Goes Local: The Role of States in U.S. Immigration Policy." Although only time will tell, September 11, 2001 promises to be a watershed in thehistory of the United States. Not long after the tragedy, supporters and critics alike saw the federal government as "pushing the envelope" in restricting civil liberties in the name of national security. This article analyzes the nation's response to the horrific loss of life of September 11 and shows how the centralization ofimmigration power in the hands of the federal government, may exacerbate the civil rights …


Presidential Power In Transitions, Jack M. Beermann Jan 2003

Presidential Power In Transitions, Jack M. Beermann

Faculty Scholarship

The transition between presidencies has long created controversies. Whether the issue is "midnight judges" or "midnight regulations," presidential action at the end of a term has long provoked scrutiny and criticism. Presidents have also raised eyebrows at the beginning of their terms when they assert their authority and try to undo what their predecessor in office left behind. More than one president has taken action aimed specifically at "midnight regulations," such as ordering a freeze on the issuance of new regulations, a review of regulations issued at the end of the prior administration and other similar action. This article looks …


Arbitrage, Bioethics, And Cloning: The Abcs Ofgestating A United National Cloning Convention, George J. Annas Jan 2003

Arbitrage, Bioethics, And Cloning: The Abcs Ofgestating A United National Cloning Convention, George J. Annas

Faculty Scholarship

America's inability to craft a regulatory ethics of abortion has led to a
wild west of unregulated research with human embryos and pregnant
women by our private infertility industry. Because of an "all or nothing"
research mentality, it is becoming increasingly impossible to suggest
outlandish and reckless reproductive research possibilities without seeing
them actually pursued. And if even the wild west seems a bit inhospitable
to particular research goals, such as cloning to produce the genetic duplicate
of an existing person, media darlings like Severino Antinori and Zavos
Panos, and even members of the Raelian cult, clone press conferences
(since …


Reexamining The Posse Comitatus Act: Toward A Right To Civil Law Enforcement, Sean J. Kealy Jan 2003

Reexamining The Posse Comitatus Act: Toward A Right To Civil Law Enforcement, Sean J. Kealy

Faculty Scholarship

The military is currently prohibited by federal statute from participating in domestic law enforcement. The Posse Comitatus Act of 1878 ("PCA") establishes criminal penalties for people who willfully use members of the Army or the Air Force to execute the laws. Although a product of the Reconstruction Era, this law reflects a strong American tradition against the domestic use of the military that stretches back before the founding of the nation.


Patent Thickets: Strategic Patenting Of Complex Technologies, James Bessen Jan 2003

Patent Thickets: Strategic Patenting Of Complex Technologies, James Bessen

Faculty Scholarship

Patent race models assume that an innovator wins the only patent covering a product. But when technologies are complex, this property right is defective: ownership of a product's technology is shared, not exclusive. In that case I show that if patent standards are low, firms build "thickets" of patents, especially incumbent firms in mature industries. When they assert these patents, innovators are forced to share rents under cross-licenses, making R&D incentives sub-optimal. On the other hand, when lead time advantages are significant and patent standards are high, firms pursue strategies of "mutual non-aggression." Then R&D incentives are stronger, even optimal.


A Brief History Of Author-Publisher Relations And The Outlook For The 21st Century, Maureen A. O'Rourke Jan 2003

A Brief History Of Author-Publisher Relations And The Outlook For The 21st Century, Maureen A. O'Rourke

Faculty Scholarship

The Fiftieth Anniversary Edition of the Journal of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. provides a particularly appropriate forum in which to discuss the current state of the copyright system. By some accounts, U.S. copyright law has been fabulously successful, encouraging the growth of industries whose copyrighted products both enrich American culture and contribute significant value to the economy.


Proliferation, Katharine B. Silbaugh Jan 2003

Proliferation, Katharine B. Silbaugh

Faculty Scholarship

In the spirit of intellectual inquiry, the editors have chosen to hold a symposium asking how the unique mission of the journal is to be justified. Self-assessment is a courageous undertaking. Here we see exemplified one of the great benefits of journals with a well-defined perspective: student editors take the mission of the journal seriously. They are not self-satisfied. They have chosen this perspective, not fallen into it, and they are willing to investigate whether it is worth their commitment. From this comes the simple answer-as long as there are students dedicated to the mission of feminist law journals, authors …


An Empirical Test Of Justice Scalia's Commitment To The Rule Of Law, Gary S. Lawson Jan 2003

An Empirical Test Of Justice Scalia's Commitment To The Rule Of Law, Gary S. Lawson

Faculty Scholarship

On January 13, 2001, barely one month after the Supreme Court's decision in Bush v. Gore, a group of 554 legal academics calling themselves "Law Professors for the Rule of Law" took out a full-page ad in the New York Times that essentially accused the Court's majority of being faithless to the rule of law. In full, the advertisement read: BY STOPPING THE VOTE COUNT IN FLORIDA, THE U.S. SUPREME COURT USED ITS POWER To ACT AS POLITICAL PARTISANS, NOT JUDGES OF A COURT OF LAW We are Professors of Law at 120 American law schools, from every part of …


Code Versus The Common Law, Stacey Dogan Jan 2003

Code Versus The Common Law, Stacey Dogan

Faculty Scholarship

The explosion of peer-to-peer file sharing has forced a reexamination of the essential structure of copyright law in the United States. In a digital, interconnected world, the dispersion of copying and distribution activities makes it more difficult for copyright holders to identify users who derive value from their works. And at least theoretically, the inability to capture such value could ultimately jeopardize the incentive to produce and distribute creative expression.

There is widespread disagreement over what, if anything, should be done about these threats. While suggestions range from copyright abandonment to digital lockup, two of the principal proposals share an …


Hipaa Regulations: A New Era Of Medical-Record Privacy?, George J. Annas Jan 2003

Hipaa Regulations: A New Era Of Medical-Record Privacy?, George J. Annas

Faculty Scholarship

The new privacy regulations of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) become effective April 14, 2003. This article outlines the implications of the new policy for practicing physicians. The regulations will affect virtually every physician, because they apply to any health care provider who conducts any business electronically, including billing. The regulations require health care providers to provide patients with a privacy notice that informs them who will have access to their records without their explicit consent and about patients' rights to inspect and amend their own records.


Puppy Love: Bioterrorism, Civil Rights, And Public Health, George J. Annas Jan 2003

Puppy Love: Bioterrorism, Civil Rights, And Public Health, George J. Annas

Faculty Scholarship

Florida has been the state humorists most like to make fun of since the 2000 presidential election, especially when it comes to politics. And humorists are almost the only commentators who can be counted on to tell us the truth about the state of American politics today. When Californians decided to recall their Governor, for example, Conan O'Brien observed: "Yesterday Arnold Schwarzenegger announced he would run for governor of California. The announcement was good news for Florida residents, who now live in the second-flakiest state in the country."' And when more than 200 people filed to run for Governor, Jay …


The Right To Health And The Nevirapine Case In South Africa, George J. Annas Jan 2003

The Right To Health And The Nevirapine Case In South Africa, George J. Annas

Faculty Scholarship

Thanks to activists in South Africa, the right to health as a human right has returned to the international stage, just as it was being displaced by economists who see health through the prism of a globalized economy and by politicians who see it as an issue of national security or charity. The current post-apartheid debate in South Africa is not about race but about health, and in this context, the court victory by AIDS activists in the nevirapine case has been termed not only, as stated in one British newspaper, “the greatest defeat for [President Thabo] Mbeki's government” but …


Unpatriotic Acts: An Introduction, Sadiq Reza Jan 2003

Unpatriotic Acts: An Introduction, Sadiq Reza

Faculty Scholarship

John Walker Lindh. Zacarias Moussaoui. Jose Padilla. Richard Reid. Who reading these lines does not instantly recognize the names of these men? Or at least their assigned noms de guerre: American Taliban, 20th hijacker, dirty bomber, shoe bomber. For two and a half years these names and others have flitted through our daily copies of The New York Times like shadow characters in a play, along with black-and-white photographs underneath which black-and-white text tells us of their alleged (and sometimes proven) wrongdoing and the latest developments in their tribulations (and sometimes trials) with our government. But the men themselves are …


Copyright As Tort Law's Mirror Image: 'Harms', 'Benefits', And The Uses And Limits Of Analogy, Wendy J. Gordon Jan 2003

Copyright As Tort Law's Mirror Image: 'Harms', 'Benefits', And The Uses And Limits Of Analogy, Wendy J. Gordon

Faculty Scholarship

This pair of papers involves a reprinting of "Of Harms and Benefits: Torts, Restitution, and Intellectual Property," 21 J. LEGAL STUDIES 449 (1992), along with an introduction to that article for students, entitled "Copyright as Tort's Mirror Image". Both involve comparisons between statutory intellectual property law and common law doctrines.

"Copyright as Tort's Mirror" uses personal injury law to introduce students to copyright, making a link between the doctrines through the notion of "externalities". Just as tort law discourages wastefully harmful behavior by making perpetrators bear some of the costs inflicted, copyright law encourages beneficial behavior by enabling authors to …