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A Natural Right To Copy, Glynn Lunney Dec 2019

A Natural Right To Copy, Glynn Lunney

Faculty Scholarship

In this symposium, we gather to celebrate the work of Wendy Gordon. In this essay, I revisit her article, A Property Right in Self-Expression: Equality and Individualism in the Natural Law of Intellectual Property. In the article, Professor Gordon first used the "no-harm" principle of John Locke to justify copyright as natural right and then used his “enough-and-as-good” proviso to limit that right. Her second step turned natural rights approaches to copyright on its head. Through it, she showed that even if we accept copyright as natural right, that acceptance does not necessarily lead to a copyright of undue breadth …


Death Of Copyright, Paul Gugliuzza Dec 2019

Death Of Copyright, Paul Gugliuzza

Faculty Scholarship

The four primary bodies of intellectual property law—patent law, copyright law, trademark law, and the law of trade secrets—address the question of duration in different ways. Trade secrets have no fixed duration; the law protects against misappropriation as long as the relevant information remains secret. Trademark protection lasts as long as the mark retains its capacity to distinguish the goods or services it is attached to. In patent law—my primary area of scholarship—duration is fixed, finite, and generally straightforward to determine: you get twenty years from the date you file your patent application. Copyright duration, by contrast, varies depending on …


Right Of Repair In The Digital Economy, Jessica Silbey Nov 2019

Right Of Repair In The Digital Economy, Jessica Silbey

Faculty Scholarship

We have long understood that people have a right to repair what they own, but this right to repair is under siege. A new article by Leah Chan Grinvald and Ofer Tur-Sinai explains how IP rules are inhibiting these repair rights and why laws protecting the right to repair are necessary and justifiable. As I explain below, authors Grinvald and Tur-Sinai describe the growing right to repair movement pushing for legislation to protect the right to repair and show how intellectual property laws should facilitate not interfere with consumers rights to repair what they own. The authors also propose a …


Disguised Patent Policymaking, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Oct 2019

Disguised Patent Policymaking, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Faculty Scholarship

Patent Office power has grown immensely in this decade, and the agency is wielding its power in predictably troubling ways. Like other agencies, it injects politics into its decisions while relying on technocratic justifications. It also reads grants of authority expansively to aggrandize its power, especially to the detriment of judicial checks on agency action. However, this story of Patent Office ascendancy differs from that of other agencies in two important respects. One is that the U.S. patent system still remains primarily a means for allocating property rights, not a comprehensive regime of industrial regulation. Thus, the Patent Office cannot …


Letter To Council Members Regarding Council Draft 3, Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek Oct 2019

Letter To Council Members Regarding Council Draft 3, Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek

Faculty Scholarship

We understand that the ALI Council will consider Council Draft 3 (CD3) of the Restatement of the Law, Copyright (Copyright Restatement) project at its meeting on October 17-18, 2019. The Council may not appreciate how controversial a project this is: the U.S. Copyright Office, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, the American Bar Association’s Section of Intellectual Property Law, the New York City Bar Association’s Committee on Copyright and Literary Property, academics and other Advisers and Liaisons have expressed serious concerns about this and previous Council Drafts and Preliminary Drafts; indeed, the Register of Copyrights deplored the project as a …


A Tale Of Two Copyrights, Glynn Lunney Jul 2019

A Tale Of Two Copyrights, Glynn Lunney

Faculty Scholarship

This essay explores two possible copyright regimes. The first uses costless and perfect price discrimination to enable copyright owners to capture the full market or exchange value of their work. The second also uses costless and perfect price discrimination, but allows copyright owners to capture only the persuasion cost for authoring and distributing a work. We can call the first regime, costless copyright maximalism, and the second, costless copyright minimalism. The choice between these two regimes is primarily distributional: Should we design copyright to allocate the surplus associated with copyrighted works to copyright owners or to copyright consumers? This essay …


Elite Patent Law, Paul Gugliuzza Jul 2019

Elite Patent Law, Paul Gugliuzza

Faculty Scholarship

Over the last twenty years, one of the most significant developments in intellectual property law has been the dramatic increase in the number of patent cases decided by the U.S. Supreme Court. That same time period has also seen the emergence of a small, elite group of lawyers specializing not in any particular area of substantive law but in litigation before the Supreme Court. In recent empirical work, I linked the Court’s growing interest in patent law to the more frequent participation of elite Supreme Court lawyers in patent cases, particularly at the cert. stage. Among other things, I found …


Renewed Efficiency In Administrative Patent Revocation, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Jul 2019

Renewed Efficiency In Administrative Patent Revocation, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Faculty Scholarship

Administrative patent revocation in the U.S. is poised to enter a new period of efficiency, though ironically it will be an efficiency that the America Invents Act originally put in place. The Court’s recent approval of the constitutionality of Patent Trial and Appeal Board ("PTAB") proceedings was blunted by the Court’s accompanying rejection of partial institution. This Patent Office practice of accepting and denying validity review petitions piecemeal had been a key part of the agency’s procedural structure from the start. As a result, the Court’s decision in SAS Institute v. Iancu to require a binary choice — either fully …


United States Response To Questionnaire Concerning Managing Copyright, June M. Besek, Jane C. Ginsburg, Philippa Loengard, Ralph Peer Jul 2019

United States Response To Questionnaire Concerning Managing Copyright, June M. Besek, Jane C. Ginsburg, Philippa Loengard, Ralph Peer

Faculty Scholarship

ALAI-USA is the U.S. branch of ALAI (Association Littèraire et Artistique Internationale). ALAI-USA was started in the 1980's by the late Professor Melville B. Nimmer, and was later expanded by Professor John M. Kernochan.


The Mixed Case For A Ptab Off-Ramp, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Jun 2019

The Mixed Case For A Ptab Off-Ramp, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Faculty Scholarship

This Essay begins from the emerging agenda in the political branches for reforming various aspects of the USPTO Patent Trial and Appeal Board, and focuses on a particular reform: the creation of a PTAB off-ramp whereby a patent being challenged in an administrative revocation proceeding could be removed into a system primarily aimed at amending its claims and preserving its validity. To put the proposal into perspective, the Essay presents specific empirical trends, largely unexplored until now, that implicate patent reliance interests to which the PTAB has done injury. Ultimately, because the benefits and costs from a PTAB off-ramp are …


Building Intellectual Property Infrastructure Along China’S Belt And Road, Peter K. Yu May 2019

Building Intellectual Property Infrastructure Along China’S Belt And Road, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

In the past decade, China has played pivotal roles in developing initiatives such as the BRICS Summit, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, the New Development Bank and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. China has also negotiated a number of bilateral and regional free trade agreements, connecting the country to markets in Asia, Australasia, Europe, South America and other parts of the world. Many of these agreements include provisions or chapters on intellectual property protection and enforcement.

One new initiative that has not received much scholarly and policy attention from intellectual property commentators concerns the slowly emerging "One Belt, One Road" …


The Asean Way Or No Way? A Closer Look At The Absence Of A Common Rule On Intellectual Property Exhaustion In Asean And The Impact On The Asean Market, Irene Calboli May 2019

The Asean Way Or No Way? A Closer Look At The Absence Of A Common Rule On Intellectual Property Exhaustion In Asean And The Impact On The Asean Market, Irene Calboli

Faculty Scholarship

The Symposium in which this essay is published features recent developments in the law of intellectual property (IP) in Asia. In this essay, I focus on the Association of South East-Asian Nations (ASEAN), a region that I have had the opportunity to visit extensively in the past several years. In particular, I analyze the enforcement of IP rights in the context of the application of the principle of IP exhaustion in individual ASEAN Members, and the relationship between this principle and free movement of goods within the ASEAN region. In the past, I have addressed the same topic with respect …


Spill-Over Reputation: Comparative Study Of India & The United States, Srividhya Ragavan May 2019

Spill-Over Reputation: Comparative Study Of India & The United States, Srividhya Ragavan

Faculty Scholarship

This paper compares India’s position with that of the US on the question of protection of well-known marks in the light of applicable international legal prescriptions. The discussion in this paper compares protection for famous foreign marks (as opposed to a famous mark). Famous foreign marks are those that have acquired fame in one country and hence, well-known in another country.


Intellectual Property And Human Rights 2.0, Peter K. Yu May 2019

Intellectual Property And Human Rights 2.0, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Written in celebration of the seventieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, this article calls for greater methodological engagement to refine existing human rights approaches to intellectual property and to devise new approaches to advance the promotion and protection of human rights in the intellectual property area.

This article begins by briefly recapturing the past two decades of scholarship on intellectual property and human rights. It documents the progress scholars have made in this intersectional area. The article then draws on the latest research on human rights methods and methodology to explore whether and how we can take …


Data Producer's Right And The Protection Of Machine-Generated Data, Peter K. Yu Apr 2019

Data Producer's Right And The Protection Of Machine-Generated Data, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

In October 2017, the European Commission advanced a proposal for the creation of a new data producer's right for non-personal, anonymized machine-generated data. Driven in large part by the automotive industry, this proposal has thus far attracted considerable criticisms. While commentators have questioned whether the proposed right is needed in the first place, the EU proposal has also generated more questions than answers.

Written for a special issue on the "Legal Implications of the Platform Economy," this essay begins by revisiting the debate on sui generis database protection in both the Europe Union and the United States. It then discusses …


Fair Use And Its Global Paradigm Evolution, Peter K. Yu Mar 2019

Fair Use And Its Global Paradigm Evolution, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

This Article closely examines the transplant of the fair use model in US. copyright law on to foreign soil. It begins by reviewing the literature concerning paradigm shift, in particular Thomas Kuhn's seminal work. The Article then documents a growing trend toward the worldwide adoption of the U.S. fair use model and a countertrend toward the retention of the status quo. The juxtaposition of these two trends explain why jurisdictions that set out to transplant U.S. -style fair use ended up adopting a hybrid model. The second half of this Article interrogates the different primary causes behind such a paradigm …


Data Exclusivities And The Limits To Trips Harmonization, Peter K. Yu Mar 2019

Data Exclusivities And The Limits To Trips Harmonization, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

2019 marks the silver anniversary of the WTO TRIPS Agreement. Policymakers and commentators remain deeply divided about the strengths and limitations of this agreement. On the one hand, they marvel at its success in establishing international minimum standards for the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. On the other hand, they widely criticize the agreement for imposing high "one size fits all" standards upon developing countries.

Regardless of one's perspective, the harmonization project advanced by the TRIPS Agreement, and continued through TRIPS-plus bilateral, regional and plurilateral agreements, has been at the forefront of the international intellectual property debate. While …


A Hater's Guide To Geoblocking, Peter K. Yu Mar 2019

A Hater's Guide To Geoblocking, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Geoblocking restricts access to online content based on the user's geographical location. Territorially based access control is strongly disliked, if not passionately hated, by those who travel abroad frequently as well as those who consume a considerable amount of foreign content. While the past has seen the use of geoblocking as technological self-help, such a technique has now received growing support from policymakers and judges.

Commissioned for a symposium on "Intellectual Property in a Globalized Economy: United States Extraterritoriality in International Business," this article begins by briefly recounting five sets of arguments against geoblocking. The article then draws on the …


Comments On Preliminary Draft 4 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek Mar 2019

Comments On Preliminary Draft 4 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek

Faculty Scholarship

In many respects, PD4 is a helpful synthesis of the law, likely to provoke less controversy than drafts of earlier Chapters. Nevertheless, we remain concerned about this draft’s, like its predecessors’, inconsistent treatment of legal issues. As in earlier drafts, this one sometimes traverses the line between restating positive law and “improving” it. In several instances, these departures from positive law adopt policy positions we would endorse in a different kind of endeavor, such as a “Principles” project, or an acknowledged advocacy piece. But we do not believe it accurate to characterize these departures, however substantively desirable, as “restating” the …


The Supreme Court Bar At The Bar Of Patents, Paul Gugliuzza Mar 2019

The Supreme Court Bar At The Bar Of Patents, Paul Gugliuzza

Faculty Scholarship

Over the past two decades, a few dozen lawyers have come to dominate practice before the U.S. Supreme Court. By many accounts, these elite lawyers—whose clients are often among the largest corporations in the world—have spurred the Court to hear more cases that businesses care about and to decide those cases in favor of their clients. The Supreme Court’s recent case law on antitrust, arbitration, punitive damages, class actions, and more provides copious examples.

Though it is often overlooked in discussions of the emergent Supreme Court bar, patent law is another area in which the Court’s agenda has changed significantly …


The Non-Doctrine Of Redundancy, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Feb 2019

The Non-Doctrine Of Redundancy, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Faculty Scholarship

This Article explores and evaluates a controversial practice that the Patent Office undertook beginning early in the post-AIA regime, the practice of denying otherwise meritorious requests for review because of what the Office termed "redundant" grounds. The controversy over redundancy-based rejections had several sources. One was that making such rejections required the Patent Office to decide petitions piecemeal—and, indeed, the agency claimed that power for itself—even though it was not clear that this power lay within the statute. Another source was that the Patent Office persistently declined to explain what, in the agency's view, did or did not constitute redundancy. …


The Intricate Relationship Between Intellectual Property Exhaustion And Free Movement Of Goods In Regional Organizations: Comparing The Eu/Eea, Nafta, And Asean, Irene Calboli Feb 2019

The Intricate Relationship Between Intellectual Property Exhaustion And Free Movement Of Goods In Regional Organizations: Comparing The Eu/Eea, Nafta, And Asean, Irene Calboli

Faculty Scholarship

This article explores the relationship between national rules on the exhaustion of intellectual property (IP) rights and cross-border trade within regional organizations. In particular, this article compares three distinct approaches adopted by: the European Union (EU); the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA); and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Based on this comparison, this article concludes that in order to effectively promote the free movement of goods, members of regional organizations need to consistently adopt national policies on IP exhaustion that support, at least, a system of regional exhaustion such as currently found in the EU. However, …


The Procedure Of Patent Eligibility, Paul Gugliuzza Feb 2019

The Procedure Of Patent Eligibility, Paul Gugliuzza

Faculty Scholarship

A decade ago, the patent-eligible subject matter requirement was defunct. Several recent Supreme Court decisions, however, have made eligibility the most important issue in many patent cases. To date, debates over the resurgent doctrine have focused mainly on its substance. Critics contend that the Supreme Court’s case law makes patents too easy to invalidate and discourages innovation. Supporters emphasize that the Court’s decisions help eradicate the overly broad patents often asserted by so-called patent trolls.

Yet one important consequence of eligibility’s revival has been procedural. Because district courts often view eligibility to present a pure question of law, they are—for …


Diffusing New Technology Without Dissipating Rents: Some Historical Case Studies Of Knowledge Sharing, James Bessen, Alessandro Nuvolari Jan 2019

Diffusing New Technology Without Dissipating Rents: Some Historical Case Studies Of Knowledge Sharing, James Bessen, Alessandro Nuvolari

Faculty Scholarship

The diffusion of innovations is supposed to dissipate inventors’ rents. Yet in many documented cases, inventors freely shared knowledge with their competitors. Using a model and case studies, this article explores why sharing did not eliminate inventors’ incentives. Each new technology coexisted with an alternative for one or more decades. This allowed inventors to earn rents while sharing knowledge, attaining major productivity gains. The technology diffusion literature suggests that such circumstances are common during the early stages of a new technology.


Brief Of Public Law Scholars As Amici Curiae In Support Of Petitioners, Chris Dove, Ernest A. Young Jan 2019

Brief Of Public Law Scholars As Amici Curiae In Support Of Petitioners, Chris Dove, Ernest A. Young

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Design Patent Bar: An Occupational Licensing Failure, Christopher Buccafusco, Jeanne C. Curtis Jan 2019

The Design Patent Bar: An Occupational Licensing Failure, Christopher Buccafusco, Jeanne C. Curtis

Faculty Scholarship

Although any attorney can represent clients with complex property, tax, or administrative issues, only a certain class of attorneys can assist with obtaining and challenging patents before the United States Patent & Trademark Office (PTO). Only those who are members of the PTO 's patent bar can prosecute patents, and eligibility for the patent bar is only available to people with substantial scientific or engineering credentials. However much sense the eligibility rules make for utility patents-those based on novel scientific or technical inventions-they are completely irrational when applied to design patents-those based on ornamental or aesthetic industrial design. Nevertheless, the …


Control Over Contemporary Photography: A Tangle Of Copyright, Right Of Publicity, And The First Amendment, Jessica Silbey Jan 2019

Control Over Contemporary Photography: A Tangle Of Copyright, Right Of Publicity, And The First Amendment, Jessica Silbey

Faculty Scholarship

Professional photographers who make photographs of people negotiate a tense relationship between their own creative freedoms and the right of their subjects to control their images. This negotiation formally takes place over the terrain of copyright, right of publicity, and the First Amendment. Informally, photographers describe implied understandings and practice norms guiding their relationship with subjects, infrequently memorialized in short, boilerplate contractual releases. This short essay explores these formal and informal practices described by contemporary professional photographers. Although the evidence for this essay comes from professional photographic practice culled from interviews with contemporary photographers, the analysis of the evidence speaks …


Intellectual Property Harms: A Paradigm For The Twenty-First Century, Jessica Silbey Jan 2019

Intellectual Property Harms: A Paradigm For The Twenty-First Century, Jessica Silbey

Faculty Scholarship

This short essay is part of a larger book project that investigates how contemporary intellectual property debates, especially in the digital age, are taking place over less familiar terrain: fundamental rights and values. Its argument draws from the diverse, personal accounts of interviews from everyday creators and innovators and focuses on descriptions of harms and, as some say “abuses,” they suffer within their practicing communities. The harms are not described are the usual harms that intellectual property law is understood to prevent. Typically, intellectual property injuries are conceived in individual terms and as economic injuries. An infringer is a thief. …


Justifying Copyright In The Age Of Digital Reproduction: The Case Of Photographers, Jessica Silbey Jan 2019

Justifying Copyright In The Age Of Digital Reproduction: The Case Of Photographers, Jessica Silbey

Faculty Scholarship

This Article explores the justification for copyright from two sources: seminal court cases and accounts from photographic authors. It takes as its premise that copyright protection requires justification, not only because creative work is frequently made and disseminated without reliance on copyright, but because, in the age of digital technology, practices of creative production and dissemination have sufficiently changed to question the existing contours of the forty-year-old Copyright Act. Why read the photographers’ stories alongside the court cases? Each present contested views of copyright’s relation to creativity. At times, the photographers’ accounts and the case law strengthen and reinforce each …


Copyright’S Memory Hole, Jessica Silbey, Eric Goldman Jan 2019

Copyright’S Memory Hole, Jessica Silbey, Eric Goldman

Faculty Scholarship

There is growing interest in using copyright to protect the privacy and reputation of people depicted in copyrighted works. This pressure is driven by heightened concerns about privacy and reputation on the Internet, plus copyright’s plaintiff-favorable attributes compared to traditional privacy and reputation torts.

The Constitution authorizes copyright law because its exclusive rights benefit society by increasing our knowledge. Counterproductively, to advance privacy and reputation interests, copyright law is being misdeployed to suppress socially valuable works. This results in “memory holes” in society’s knowledge, analogous to those discussed in George Orwell’s dystopian novel 1984.

By referencing Constitutional considerations, the Article …