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Full-Text Articles in Law

Hospital Mergers And Public Accountability: Tennessee And Virginia Employ A Certificate Of Public Advantage, Erin C. Fuse Brown Sep 2018

Hospital Mergers And Public Accountability: Tennessee And Virginia Employ A Certificate Of Public Advantage, Erin C. Fuse Brown

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No abstract provided.


Implementing A Public Health Perspective In Fda Drug Regulation, Patricia J. Zettler, Margaret Foster Riley, Aaron S. Kesselheim Jan 2018

Implementing A Public Health Perspective In Fda Drug Regulation, Patricia J. Zettler, Margaret Foster Riley, Aaron S. Kesselheim

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There is, without question, a public health crisis in the United States arising from both illicit and prescription opioid misuse, addiction, and overdose. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is one regulator with an important role to play in minimizing the harms associated with prescription opioids, while also ensuring that prescription opioids are available for the evidence-based management of pain. One question, however, is to what extent the agency can consider in its decisions to approve opioids and keep existing ones on the market the provider and patient behaviors contributing to the epidemic. This is, in part, because FDA’s ...


Pharmaceutical Federalism, Patricia J. Zettler Jul 2017

Pharmaceutical Federalism, Patricia J. Zettler

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There is growing interest in states regulating pharmaceuticals in ways that challenge the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) federal oversight. For example, in 2013 Maine enacted a law to permit the importation of unapproved drugs, reflecting concerns that federal requirements are too restrictive, while in 2014 Massachusetts banned an FDA-approved painkiller, reflecting concerns that federal requirements are too lax. This Article provides an account of this recent state interest in regulating drugs and considers its consequences. It argues that these state regulatory efforts, and the nascent litigation about them, demonstrate that the preemptive reach of the FDA ...


Consumer Financial Protection In Health Care, Erin C. Fuse Brown Jan 2017

Consumer Financial Protection In Health Care, Erin C. Fuse Brown

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There are inadequate consumer protections from harmful medical billing practices that result in unavoidable, unexpected, and often financially devastating medical bills. The problem stems from the increasing costs shifting to patients in American health care and the inordinate complexity that makes health care transactions nearly impossible for consumers to navigate. A particularly outrageous example is the phenomenon of surprise medical bills, which refers to unanticipated and involuntary out-of-network bills in emergencies or from out-of-network providers at in-network facilities. Other damaging medical billing practices include the opaque and à la carte nature of medical bills, epitomized by added “facility fees,” as ...


The Indirect Consequences Of Expanded Off-Label Promotion, Patricia J. Zettler Jan 2017

The Indirect Consequences Of Expanded Off-Label Promotion, Patricia J. Zettler

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The U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) policies have been a battleground for litigation about First Amendment protections for commercial speech. In the last five years, the FDA’s position that “off-label” promotion of approved prescription drugs—when a manufacturer promotes a drug for a use for which the FDA has not approved it—leads to violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act has been subject to successful legal challenges. Although the merits of these off-label promotion decisions are well traversed in the literature, this Article explores the potential indirect consequences of recently-recognized protections for off-label ...


The Double-Edged Sword Of Health Care Integration: Consolidation And Cost Control, Erin C. Fuse Brown, Jaime S. King Jan 2016

The Double-Edged Sword Of Health Care Integration: Consolidation And Cost Control, Erin C. Fuse Brown, Jaime S. King

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The average family of four in the United States spends $25,826 per year on health care. American health care costs so much because we both overuse and overpay for health care goods and services. The Affordable Care Act's cost control policies focus on curbing overutilization by encouraging health care providers to integrate to promote efficiency and eliminate waste, but the the cost control policies largely ignore prices. This article examines this overlooked half of health care cost control policy: rising prices and the policy levers held by the states to address them. We challenge the conventional wisdom that ...


Resurrecting Health Care Rate Regulation, Erin C. Fuse Brown Dec 2015

Resurrecting Health Care Rate Regulation, Erin C. Fuse Brown

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Our excess health care spending in the United States is driven largely by our high health care prices. Our prices are so high because they are undisciplined by market forces, in a health care system rife with market failures, which include information asymmetries, noncompetitive levels of provider market concentration, moral hazard created by health insurance, multiple principal-agent relationships with misaligned incentives, and externalities from unwarranted price variation and discrimination. These health care market failures invite a regulatory solution. An array of legal and policy solutions are typically advanced to control our health care prices and spending, including: (1) market solutions ...


Regulating Drug Promotion To Promote The Public Health: A Response To Bennett, Et Al., Patricia J. Zettler Nov 2015

Regulating Drug Promotion To Promote The Public Health: A Response To Bennett, Et Al., Patricia J. Zettler

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No abstract provided.


Compassionate Use Of Experimental Therapies: Who Should Decide?, Patricia J. Zettler Jul 2015

Compassionate Use Of Experimental Therapies: Who Should Decide?, Patricia J. Zettler

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In addition to being an example of unsubstantiated hype about regenerative medicine, the controversy around the Italy-based Stamina Foundation's unproven stem cell therapy represents another chapter in a continuing debate about how to balance patients' requests for early access to experimental medicines with requirements for demonstrating safety and effectiveness. Compassionate use of the Stamina therapy arguably should not have been permitted under Italy's laws, but public pressure was intense and judges ultimately granted access. One lesson from these events is that expert regulatory agencies may be the institutions most competent to make compassionate use decisions and that policies ...


The Impact Of Disability: A Comparative Approach To Medical Resource Allocation In Public Health Emergencies, Katie Hanschke, Leslie E. Wolf, Wendy F. Hensel Jan 2015

The Impact Of Disability: A Comparative Approach To Medical Resource Allocation In Public Health Emergencies, Katie Hanschke, Leslie E. Wolf, Wendy F. Hensel

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It is a matter of time before the next widespread pandemic or natural disaster hits the United States (U.S.). The international response to the 2009 H1N1 influenza stands as a cautionary tale about how prepared the world is for such an emergency. Although the pandemic fortunately proved to be less severe than initially anticipated, it nevertheless resulted in shortages of medical equipment, overburdened hospitals, and preventable patient deaths, particularly among young people.

A pandemic will inevitably lead to difficult decisions about the allocation of medical resources, such as who will have priority access to ventilators and critical care beds ...


Toward Coherent Federal Oversight Of Medicine, Patricia J. Zettler Jan 2015

Toward Coherent Federal Oversight Of Medicine, Patricia J. Zettler

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The conventional wisdom in U.S. health law and policy holds that states regulate medical practice – the activities of physicians and other health care professionals – while the federal government regulates medical products. But relying on states as the principal regulators of medical practice has, at times, driven law and policy in directions that are problematic from a public health perspective, as demonstrated by a deadly 2012 outbreak of fungal meningitis that was linked to a state-regulated practice known as drug compounding. This Article argues that the federalism concerns underlying the conventional wisdom are misplaced. It demonstrates that, contrary to the ...


When Harvard Said No To Eugenics: The J. Ewing Mears Bequest, 1927, Paul A. Lombardo Jul 2014

When Harvard Said No To Eugenics: The J. Ewing Mears Bequest, 1927, Paul A. Lombardo

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James Ewing Mears (1838-1919) was a founding member of the Philadelphia Academy of Surgery. His 1910 book, The Problem of Race Betterment, laid the groundwork for later authors to explore the uses of surgical sterilization as a eugenic measure. Mears left $60,000 in his will to Harvard University to support the teaching of eugenics. Although numerous eugenic activists were on the Harvard faculty, and who of its Presidents were also associated with the eugenics movement, Harvard refused the Mears gift. The bequest was eventually awarded to Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. This article explains why Harvard turned its back ...


From A Constitutional Right To A Policy Of Exceptions: Abigail Alliance And The Future Of Access To Experimental Therapy, Patricia J. Zettler, Seema K. Shah Jan 2010

From A Constitutional Right To A Policy Of Exceptions: Abigail Alliance And The Future Of Access To Experimental Therapy, Patricia J. Zettler, Seema K. Shah

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Although there has been considerable attention to the plight of terminally ill patients with highly sympathetic constitutional and contractual claims that they should be permitted access to unapproved drugs, courts have been appropriately reluctant to grant such claims. Congress and administrative agencies have the requisite institutional competence to decide complex policy issues related to science and health care such as those involved in establishing an expanded access program. Congress and FDA should allow only limited access to unapproved therapies because there are significant concerns about the safety and efficacy of unapproved drugs. Moreover, many of the proposals to widen access ...


The Implications Of Post-Phase 1 And "Off-Label" Treatment Use Of Experimental Drugs: How Expansive Should Expanded Access Be?, Patricia J. Zettler Jan 2009

The Implications Of Post-Phase 1 And "Off-Label" Treatment Use Of Experimental Drugs: How Expansive Should Expanded Access Be?, Patricia J. Zettler

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No abstract provided.