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Humanizing Virtual Dispute Resolution, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2023

Humanizing Virtual Dispute Resolution, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

How might neutrals and advocates foster interpersonal dynamics when conducting arbitrations and mediations virtually, consistent with the ethical obligations of each profession and the ethical underpinnings of each process?

Virtual dispute resolution for commercial dispute resolution has become the new normal. Yet, the dispute resolution listserves are still peppered with posts from mediators and arbitrators who, although publicly extolling their own commitments to their impartiality and neutrality, are also simultaneously voicing their strong preferences for conducting their dispute resolution processes in person. According to these neutrals, they are unable to attain the same results when the process is conducted …


High Anxiety: Racism, The Law, And Legal Education, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2023

High Anxiety: Racism, The Law, And Legal Education, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

Conspicuously absent from the United States’ ongoing discourse about its racist history is a more honest discussion about the individual and personal stressors that are evoked in people when they talk about racism. What if they got it wrong? The fear of being cancelled - the public shaming for remarks that are deemed racist - has had a chilling effect on having meaningful conversations about racism. What lost opportunities!

This paper moves this discussion into the law school context. How might law schools rethink their law school curricula to more accurately represent the role systemic racism has played in shaping …


Hats For Sale: Efficiency, Economics, And Process Integrity, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2023

Hats For Sale: Efficiency, Economics, And Process Integrity, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

What are the ethical considerations for a mediator when a neutral is asked to be both the mediator and arbitrator on the same case? Some parties and their lawyers opt to select one neutral to serve as both the mediator and arbitrator on the same case, believing it will be a more efficient and cost-effective way to resolve their dispute. After all, the mediator already knows the facts of the case. Why waste time and money getting another neutral up to speed? This design choice, however, may collide with the mediator ethical mandates of party self-determination, neutral impartiality, confidentiality, …


Blinding Justice And Video Conferencing?, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2022

Blinding Justice And Video Conferencing?, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

How might dispute resolution processes for civil matters conducted on video conferencing be designed to reduce racial justice inequities and increase Black participants’ sense of procedural justice? In March 2020, responding to Covid-19 pandemic health concerns, all in-person, court-connected, and private dispute resolution processes shifted to video conferencing. Proponents of video conferencing have long touted how video conferencing would increase access to justice by providing an efficient, cost-effective, and time-saving alternative to in-person appearances. An unexplored question in March 2020 was how video conferencing would affect racial justice inequities. Black individuals and other marginalized groups were already disproportionately suffering …


The Unintended Consequence Of Settlement Fever And The Rule Of Law, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2022

The Unintended Consequence Of Settlement Fever And The Rule Of Law, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

Welcome to the final column of a three-part series about how settlement fever has influenced our justice system as it evolves into settlement-centric culture. This column will focus on how the rule of law, once touted as the primary benchmark of justice, has now taken a secondary role to private ordering when shaping some negotiated and mediated settlements.


Zooming In On Neutrals’ Implicit ‘Isms, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2022

Zooming In On Neutrals’ Implicit ‘Isms, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

Video conferencing, extolled for its economic and efficiency benefits, has now become an accepted option in the “new normal” of dispute resolution practice. Consequently, our professional discussions about video conferencing have advanced from sharing the mechanics of “how to” conduct an arbitration or mediation on Zoom to more nuanced explorations about the appropriate use of video conferencing. This column contributes to this exploration by questioning how dispute resolution processes conducted via video conferencing might trigger the implicit biases of arbitrators and mediators and compromise a neutral’s ethical obligation to be impartial. When a neutral conducts their dispute resolution processes …


Settlement Fever: Lawyers, Have You Updated Your Philosophical Map?, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2021

Settlement Fever: Lawyers, Have You Updated Your Philosophical Map?, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

This column is the second in my three-part series about settlement fever. The focus of this column is on how settlement fever is incentivizing you, an ethical lawyer, to expand your legal mindset when you engage with your clients to help resolve their disputes. Have you updated your philosophical map lately?


Ethical Compass: Three Different Judicial Treatments For Settlement Fever, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2021

Ethical Compass: Three Different Judicial Treatments For Settlement Fever, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

This is the first of a three-part series that examines different aspects of the settlement fever that has stricken our justice system. What can we learn from judicial decisions about how individual judges assess the settlement means that lawyers, in consultation with their clients, have chosen to resolve their case?


Ethical Compass: Celebration, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2020

Ethical Compass: Celebration, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

Let’s raise our glasses to toast our esteemed Chief Judge, the Honorable Janet DiFiore, for making Presumptive ADR a central part of the New York Office of Court Administration’s civil case management. In her February 26, 2019 State of the Judiciary Address, Chief Judge Janet DiFiore announced that the New York Office of Court Administration is formally adopting Presumptive ADR. Although all ADR processes such as settlement conferences, negotiations, arbitration and early neutral evaluation may be used to help settle cases, a focus will be on mediation. Presumptive ADR will apply to almost all civil cases filed in New …


What Dinosaurs Can Teach Lawyers About How To Avoid Extinction In The Odr Evolution, Elayne E. Greenberg, Noam Ebner Jan 2019

What Dinosaurs Can Teach Lawyers About How To Avoid Extinction In The Odr Evolution, Elayne E. Greenberg, Noam Ebner

Faculty Publications

This paper is a wake-up call for the legal profession: Heed the justice changes that are upon us or risk extinction. Online dispute resolution (hereinafter ODR) is currently being incorporated into U.S and international court systems, re-shaping and re-defining justice as we know it today. Courts and clients, two stakeholders in our justice system, are increasingly receptive to ODR as a viable option to help provide and access justice efficiently and affordably. The legal profession, the third stakeholder in our justice system, however, has been slower to react. As ODR plays an increasingly prominent role in the court system, it …


The Changed Batna, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2019

The Changed Batna, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

This column invites readers to consider whether the adjudicated outcome should be relied on as a realistic benchmark for advocates and mediators. In everyday dispute resolution practice, advocates and mediators regularly consider an adjudicated decision to be a realistic point of comparison to a negotiated or mediated outcome. For example, when assessing the merits of settlement, lawyers preparing for a legal negotiation and mediation frequently consider the likely adjudicated outcome as their best alternative to a negotiated agreement (hereinafter BATNA). In mediation, mediators often focus parties and their lawyers on the cost, time and likelihood of a favorable adjudicated …


Up Close And Personal: Whether Or Not You Decide To Report A Confidentiality Exception, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2019

Up Close And Personal: Whether Or Not You Decide To Report A Confidentiality Exception, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

In your role as lawyer or neutral, have you ever reported an otherwise confidential communication because it was one of these permissible confidentiality exceptions? Why? This column will discuss how our ethical and personal considerations shape our decisions as advocates and dispute resolution professionals about whether to report ethically permissible exceptions to confidentiality. Readers, you are invited to rethink your ethical reporting obligations and develop more self-awareness about your personal rationales for your reporting choices.


Hey, Big Spender: Ethical Guidelines For Dispute Resolution Professionals When Parties Are Backed By Third-Party Funders, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2019

Hey, Big Spender: Ethical Guidelines For Dispute Resolution Professionals When Parties Are Backed By Third-Party Funders, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

This first-of-its-kind paper introduces ethical guidelines and suggested practices for dispute resolution providers and neutrals when third-party funders provide financial backing for parties in U.S. domestic arbitrations and mediations. Sophisticated third-party funders have realized that litigation and dispute resolution are fast-growing, unregulated investment opportunities. Seizing these opportunities, third-party funders are now making billions of dollars in profits through their strategic investments in domestic and global litigation and dispute resolution with few ethical rules or regulations to curtail their investment behavior.3 Preferring to be secretive about the terms of their funding contracts and invisible in their work, third- party funders are …


Acts Like A Lawyer, Talks Like A Lawyer…Non-Lawyer Advocates Representing Parties In Dispute Resolution, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2018

Acts Like A Lawyer, Talks Like A Lawyer…Non-Lawyer Advocates Representing Parties In Dispute Resolution, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

What are the ethical implications for lawyer mediators, arbitrators and dispute resolution providers when the lines between the roles of lawyers and the non-lawyers who are representing clients in dispute resolution become blurry? Traditionally, non-lawyer advocates (hereinafter NARs) have represented clients in the negotiations, mediation and arbitration of legal matters without cause for concern. Yes, labor union representatives, sports agents, and special education advocates are three familiar examples of non-lawyers who represent clients in negotiations, mediations and arbitrations, informing clients of their legal rights. Routinely, the lawyers and neutrals presiding over the dispute resolution procedure have warmly welcomed these …


Ethics Meets The “O” In Dr, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2018

Ethics Meets The “O” In Dr, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

Lawyers, the menu of justice options available to resolve your clients’ legal disputes has now expanded to include online dispute resolution processes. Online dispute resolution (ODR) is an umbrella term that may be used to describe the use of technology to help expedite legal case management, replicate existing dispute resolution processes online, such as by utilizing video conferencing for arbitration and mediation (“replication ODR”); or to help streamline or even resolve legal claims through the use of algorithms (“algorithm ODR” or “algorithm- based ODR”). Even though ODR is fast becoming a regular part of legal practice, generally, and dispute …


... Because "Yes" Actually Means "No": A Personalized Prescriptive To Reactualize Informed Consent In Dispute Resolution, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2018

... Because "Yes" Actually Means "No": A Personalized Prescriptive To Reactualize Informed Consent In Dispute Resolution, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

This paper proposes a radical departure from the status quo approach to securing a client’s informed consent about settlement options and refocuses informed consent practice back to what informed consent is about, the client. As it exists today, the status quo approach to securing a client’s informed consent about whether or not to use an alternative dispute resolution procedure to resolve the client’s case is inadequate. It thwarts a client’s right to exercise party self- determination and stymies a client’s ability to make informed justice choices. Lawyers, courts, ADR providers and neutrals routinely provide litigants with generic information about the …


When The Empty Adr Chair Is Occupied By A Litigation Funder, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2017

When The Empty Adr Chair Is Occupied By A Litigation Funder, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

The discussion about the $140 million jury verdict against Gawker media for posting a sex video of Terry Bollea, professionally known as Hulk Hogan, having sex with his best friend’s wife, quickly shifted to a conversation about the ethics of litigation funding when it was finally disclosed that Peter Thiel had funded Bollea’s litigation. The backstory reveals that Gawker outed Thiel, revealing his homosexuality ten years earlier in a more conservative time when such a revelation might have impacted Thiel’s earning capacity. Thiel, an icon in Silicone Valley and a co-founder of PayPal, promised revenge. Thiel got his revenge, …


When Worldviews Collide—Strategic Advocacy V. A Mediator’S Ethical Obligations, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2017

When Worldviews Collide—Strategic Advocacy V. A Mediator’S Ethical Obligations, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

The provocative headline “Judge Orders Preservation of Mediation Notes In Gender Bias Suit Against Proskauer” sparks the topic of this Ethical Compass discussion. What should be done when a lawyer’s litigation strategy collides with a mediator’s ethical standards of practice? There is growing concern by dispute professionals, including this author, that this collision is diluting the benefits of mediation and re-shaping mediation into quasi-adjudicative dispute resolution procedure. Others hear this as a clarion call from litigators to the mediation community to realize that mediation ideals are just that, and will not deflate litigation advocacy strategies. These polarized perspectives present …


...Because It’S Not Just About Money, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2016

...Because It’S Not Just About Money, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

When lawyers represent their clients in party-decided dispute resolution processes such as negotiation or mediation, lawyers have a unique opportunity to work with their clients to help shape a comprehensive settlement beyond just a monetary settlement. This is an opportunity to address the client’s human and core concerns and to help their client secure their personalized sense of justice. However, lawyers and mediators who myopically seek to resolve every legal conflict by just monetary resolution are akin to the carpenter who sees everything as a nail because the only tool available is a hammer. This column invites you to …


The Power Of Empathy, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2016

The Power Of Empathy, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

As colleagues in the dispute resolution field, we have likely participated in the ongoing, often heated debate about the role, if any, of empathy in dispute resolution. There are those colleagues who believe that empathy will only muck up what is really important, the bottom-line number and your evaluation about how to get there. On the other side of this controversy, there are seasoned colleagues who regularly use empathy as dispute resolution currency, often at the risk of being marginalized as “touchy feely” by those who don’t understand its value. To help us get past each other’s anecdotal justifications …


Federal Civil Litigation At The Crossroads: Reshaping The Role Of The Federal Courts In Twenty-First Century Dispute Resolution, Edward D. Cavanagh Jan 2015

Federal Civil Litigation At The Crossroads: Reshaping The Role Of The Federal Courts In Twenty-First Century Dispute Resolution, Edward D. Cavanagh

Faculty Publications

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure were promulgated in 1938 to provide the “just, speedy, and inexpensive determination” of all civil actions. The underlying theme of the Federal Rules is that meritorious litigants should have their day in court. To that end, the Federal Rules eliminated procedural pitfalls, including highly technical forms of action inherited from common law, that rewarded mastery of pleading techniques over the substantive merits of claims. The Federal Rules also introduced a simplified pleading system, commonly denominated as “notice pleading,” thereby easing the heavy burden imposed on the parties. The factual details of the case could …


When “Yes” May Actually Mean “No”: Rethinking Informed Consent To Adr Processes, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2015

When “Yes” May Actually Mean “No”: Rethinking Informed Consent To Adr Processes, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

It is time for us to rethink how to achieve meaningful party consent to ADR processes such as mediation and arbitration. I, along with my colleagues Professors Jeff Sovern, Paul F. Kirgis and Yuxiang Liu, recently contributed to the growing body of research finding that a party’s consent to use an ADR process rather than utilizing a court to resolve the dispute is too often neither informed nor consensual. In our empirical study “’Whimsy Little Contracts’ With Unexpected Consequences: An Empirical Analysis of Consumer Understanding of Arbitration Agreements,” we found a paucity of consumer awareness and understanding of arbitration …


The Smith Case: Is The Glass Half Full?, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2015

The Smith Case: Is The Glass Half Full?, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

Many in our ADR community have already chosen to side with one of the choruses of polarized voices that are either supportive of or critical of the recent judicial decision In re Cody W. Smith. In that decision, Chief United States Bankruptcy Judge Jeff Bohm disallowed the trustee’s appointment of a mediator, because, inter alia, the trustee didn’t first secure the approval of the presiding bankruptcy judge. A cursory read of Judge Bohm’s decision mistakenly leads us to believe that the case is just about a bankruptcy trustee’s obligation to follow section 327(a) of the Bankruptcy Code, …


Has Expungement Broken Brokercheck?, Christine Lazaro Jan 2014

Has Expungement Broken Brokercheck?, Christine Lazaro

Faculty Publications

Stockbrokers are subject to one of the most comprehensive public disclosure regimes. They must disclose substantial information about their backgrounds, their employment history, and their disciplinary history. FINRA, the self-regulatory organization that regulates the brokerage industry, also requires that brokers disclose customer complaints and makes much of this information available to the public through an online database called BrokerCheck. The allegations of wrongdoing remain on the broker’s record permanently, unless the broker succeeds at having customer dispute information expunged. The broker is able to accomplish this by requesting that the arbitration panel that hears the customer dispute grant expungement, and …


When The Price Of Settlement Is Ethically Prohibitive: Non-Disparagement Clauses That Apply To Lawyers, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2014

When The Price Of Settlement Is Ethically Prohibitive: Non-Disparagement Clauses That Apply To Lawyers, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

At last! You have lived with this case for many years, and you are now on the verge of finalizing the terms of a settlement agreement. All the contentious issues have finally been resolved, so you thought, when the defendant leans over the table and says, “Just one more thing. We want you and your client to sign a non-disparagement clause as part of the settlement.” Yes, non-disparagement clauses have been frequently used as a controversial reputational shield in high-conflict divorces, sensitive employee terminations and contentious consumer actions. However, barely discussed is whether lawyers are ethically able to suggest …


The Cheater’S “High”— Harmonize Ethics, Research And Negation Behavior, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2014

The Cheater’S “High”— Harmonize Ethics, Research And Negation Behavior, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

In the context of negotiations, how does “cheater’s high” influence our ethical behavior, decision-making and negotiation strategy? “Cheater’s high” is the term coined by behavioral ethics researchers to describe the positive feeling we experience when we cheat. Rather than feel guilty for these ethical transgressions as was previously believed, those who cheat actually experience a positive effect that further incentivizes the unethical behavior to continue. Even though some who are perched on their ivory tower may feel immune from “cheater’s high,” social scientists remind us that at times we all cheat to varying degrees. This cheating reality is problematic …


Confidentiality: The Illusion And The Reality— Affirmative Steps For Lawyers And Mediators To Help Safeguard Their Mediation Communications, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2013

Confidentiality: The Illusion And The Reality— Affirmative Steps For Lawyers And Mediators To Help Safeguard Their Mediation Communications, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

Confidentiality is one promise of mediation that is increasingly broken, even though judges, lawyers and mediators frequently extol the sacredness of mediation confidentiality as a primary benefit for considering mediation as a settlement forum. We observe that legal challenges to any aspect of the mediation have caused judges to scrutinize mediation communications in a way that renders mediation confidentiality vulnerable at a minimum and violated at the worst. We are finding it a chronic challenge to decipher the precise and appropriate boundaries of mediation confidentiality. Moreover, we are increasingly discomforted to see that even unsuccessful legal challenges to mediation …


What Sally Soprano Teaches Lawyers About Hitting The Right Ethical Note In Adr Advocacy, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2013

What Sally Soprano Teaches Lawyers About Hitting The Right Ethical Note In Adr Advocacy, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

Paradoxically, when lawyers opt to mediate or arbitrate, lawyers may still wind up selecting, shaping and advocating in these dispute resolution processes to resemble the very litigation process they have sought to avoid. After all, litigation likely comports with the lawyer’s own conflict style, comfort level and concepts of justice. As a consequence of this litigation bias, we see that the metaphorical doors of a multi-door courthouse that once offered a menu of dispute resolution choices are increasingly leading us back to one choice: a variation of the litigation door. Even though the Model Rules of Professional Conduct confirm …


Overcoming Our Global Disability In The Workforce: Mediating The Dream, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2012

Overcoming Our Global Disability In The Workforce: Mediating The Dream, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

The unparalleled global support for the 2008 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities ("CRPD") highlights the global schism between the public extolling of human rights for individuals with disabilities and the private castigating of such individuals in their daily lives and in the workforce. The CRPD explicitly mandates that work is a right accorded to individuals with disabilities, and global employers are now being challenged to implement that right. Yet, in order to ensure meaningful, universal compliance with its directives, the CRPD imposes affirmative duties on Supporting States to develop a customized, workable plan that effectively …


Show Me The Money: Part Two, Monetizing The “Value Added” Of Attorneys Who Serve As Mediators And Arbitrators, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2012

Show Me The Money: Part Two, Monetizing The “Value Added” Of Attorneys Who Serve As Mediators And Arbitrators, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

In the oft-told fable “The Emperor’s New Clothes,” the candid, uncensored observations of a young child that the Emperor’s “new clothes” weren’t clothes at all but actually the emperor’s nudity, freed the rest of the townspeople to finally acknowledge the jarring reality that their the emperor was naked. And so, “The Emperor’s New Clothes” has become a metaphor for having the courage to see things as they actually are, not for what we are incorrectly told they are. In Part One of this column, I began the discussion of how settlement-savvy lawyers might realistically use alternative fee paradigms instead …