Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 94

Full-Text Articles in Law

Law, Religion, And The Covid Crisis, Mark L. Movsesian Jan 2021

Law, Religion, And The Covid Crisis, Mark L. Movsesian

Faculty Publications

This essay explores judicial responses to legal restrictions on worship during the COVID pandemic and draws two lessons, one comparative and one relating specifically to US law. As a comparative matter, courts across the globe have approached the problem in essentially the same way, through intuition and balancing. This has been the case regardless of what formal test applies, the proportionality test outside the US, which expressly calls for judges to weigh the relative costs and benefits of a restriction, or the Employment Division v. Smith test inside the US, which rejects judicial line-drawing and balancing in favor of predictable ...


Toolkit Or Tinderbox? When Legal Systems Interface Conflict, Christie S. Warren Jul 2020

Toolkit Or Tinderbox? When Legal Systems Interface Conflict, Christie S. Warren

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Of Human Dignities, Mark L. Movsesian Jan 2016

Of Human Dignities, Mark L. Movsesian

Faculty Publications

This paper, written for a symposium on the 50th anniversary of Dignitatis Humanae, the Catholic Church’s declaration on religious freedom, explores the conception of human dignity in international human rights law. I argue that, notwithstanding a surface consensus, no generally accepted conception of human dignity exists in contemporary human rights law. Radically different understandings compete against one another and prevent agreement on crucial issues. For example, the Catholic Church, the Russian Orthodox Church, and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation favor objective understandings which, although they differ among themselves, all tie dignity to external factors beyond personal choice. By contrast ...


Religious Rights In Historical, Theoretical And International Context: Hobby Lobby As A Jurisprudential Anomaly, S. I. Strong May 2015

Religious Rights In Historical, Theoretical And International Context: Hobby Lobby As A Jurisprudential Anomaly, S. I. Strong

Faculty Publications

The United States has a long and complicated history concerning religious rights, and the U.S. Supreme Court’s recent decision in Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., has done little to clear up the jurisprudence in this field. Although the decision will doubtless generate a great deal of commentary as a matter of constitutional and statutory law, the better approach is to consider whether and to what extent the majority and dissenting opinions reflect the fundamental principles of religious liberty. Only in that context can the merits of such a novel decision be evaluated free from political and other ...


Book Review: Private International Law In English Courts, S. I. Strong Apr 2015

Book Review: Private International Law In English Courts, S. I. Strong

Faculty Publications

Although debates about cooperation versus competition make for good scholarly fodder, this issue actually has an important practical component, as demonstrated by Professor Adrian Briggs of the University of Oxford in his masterful new book, Private International Law in English Courts. Like all truly superlative texts, Professor Briggs's book is deceptively accessible. The prose is not only elegant and eloquent, it is peppered with the dry wit one would expect from an Oxford don.


The Pond Betwixt: Differences In The U.S.-Eu Data Protection/Safe Harbor Negotiation, Richard J. Peltz-Steele Jan 2015

The Pond Betwixt: Differences In The U.S.-Eu Data Protection/Safe Harbor Negotiation, Richard J. Peltz-Steele

Faculty Publications

This article analyzes the differing perspectives that animate US and EU conceptions of privacy in the context of data protection. It begins by briefly reviewing the two continental approaches to data protection and then explains how the two approaches arise in a context of disparate cultural traditions with respect to the role of law in society. In light of those disparities, Underpinning contemporary data protection regulation is the normative value that both US and EU societies place on personal privacy. Both cultures attribute modern privacy to the famous Warren-Brandeis article in 1890, outlining a "right to be let alone." But ...


Limits Of Procedural Choice Of Law, S. I. Strong Jan 2014

Limits Of Procedural Choice Of Law, S. I. Strong

Faculty Publications

Commercial parties have long enjoyed significant autonomy in questions of substantive law. However, litigants do not have anywhere near the same amount of freedom to decide procedural matters. Instead, parties in litigation are generally considered to be subject to the procedural law of the forum court.

Although this particular conflict of laws rule has been in place for many years, a number of recent developments have challenged courts and commentators to consider whether and to what extent procedural rules should be considered mandatory in nature. If procedural rules are not mandatory but are instead merely “sticky” defaults, then it may ...


The New American Privacy, Richard J. Peltz-Steele Jan 2014

The New American Privacy, Richard J. Peltz-Steele

Faculty Publications

The European Union sparked an intercontinental furor last year with proposed legislation to supersede the 1995 Data Protection Directive (DPD). The EU Parliament approved legislation in a 49-3 committee vote in October. The text, which is not yet published in its current draft at the time of this writing, may yet be amended before being accepted by the union’s 28 member states. The legislation is billed a money saver because it would harmonize EU member states’ data protection laws, which have diverged under the DPD umbrella. The business community is not convinced, fearful that costly new demands will strain ...


The Age Of Constitutions In The Americas, M C. Mirow Jan 2014

The Age Of Constitutions In The Americas, M C. Mirow

Faculty Publications

The late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries have been aptly called the “Age of Codifications.” The same period was also the Age of Constitutions. Although a great deal is known about the migration of prenational and transnational legal sources and ideas that led to national codes of civil and criminal law in Europe and the Americas, much less is known about similar processes on the constitutional level. Constitutional historians have been more parochial than their private law counterparts, most likely because of the relationship between constitutions and nations. In the light of independence, nations immediately needed constitutions to solidify gains and ...


Inter-Country Adoption And The Special Rights Fallacy, James G. Dwyer Oct 2013

Inter-Country Adoption And The Special Rights Fallacy, James G. Dwyer

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Judges Talking To Jurors In Criminal Cases: Why U.S. Judges Do It So Differently From Just About Everyone Else, Paul Marcus Apr 2013

Judges Talking To Jurors In Criminal Cases: Why U.S. Judges Do It So Differently From Just About Everyone Else, Paul Marcus

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Legal Latin Americanism, Jorge L. Esquirol Jan 2013

Legal Latin Americanism, Jorge L. Esquirol

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Discovery Under 28 U.S.C. §1782: Distinguishing International Commercial Arbitration And International Investment Arbitration, S. I. Strong Jan 2013

Discovery Under 28 U.S.C. §1782: Distinguishing International Commercial Arbitration And International Investment Arbitration, S. I. Strong

Faculty Publications

For many years, courts, commentators and counsel agreed that 28 U.S.C. §1782 – a somewhat extraordinary procedural device that allows U.S. courts to order discovery in the United States “for use in a proceeding in a foreign or international tribunal” – did not apply to disputes involving international arbitration. However, that presumption has come under challenge in recent years, particularly in the realm of investment arbitration, where the Chevron-Ecuador dispute has made Section 1782 requests a commonplace procedure. This Article takes a rigorous look at both the history and the future of Section 1782 in international arbitration, taking care ...


The Global Chase: Seeking The Recognition And Enforcement Of The Lago Agrio Judgment Outside Of Ecuador, Manuel A. Gómez Jan 2013

The Global Chase: Seeking The Recognition And Enforcement Of The Lago Agrio Judgment Outside Of Ecuador, Manuel A. Gómez

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


State-Sponsored Religious Displays In The U.S. And Europe: Introduction, Mark L. Movsesian Jan 2013

State-Sponsored Religious Displays In The U.S. And Europe: Introduction, Mark L. Movsesian

Faculty Publications

On June 22, 2012, the Center for Law and Religion proudly hosted, together with the Department of Law at Libera Universita Maria SS. Assunta (LUMSA), an international conference, State-Sponsored Religious Displays in the U.S. and Europe. Held at LUMSA's campus in Rome, Italy, the conference brought together leading American and European scholars, judges, and government officials to address the legality of public religious displays in different nations. Professor Silvio Ferrari of the University of Milan delivered the Conference Introduction. Panels included Cultural or Religious? Understanding Symbols in Public Places; The Lautsi Case and the Margin of Appreciation; and ...


Resolving Mass Legal Disputes Through Class Arbitration: The United States And Canada Compared, S. I. Strong Jul 2012

Resolving Mass Legal Disputes Through Class Arbitration: The United States And Canada Compared, S. I. Strong

Faculty Publications

This article compares three issues that have arisen as a result of recent Supreme Court decisions in both countries: the circumstances in which class arbitration is available; the procedures that must or may be used; and the nature of the right to proceed as a class. In so doing, the article not only offers valuable lessons to parties in the U.S. and Canada, but also provides observers from other countries with a useful framework for considering issues relating to the intersection between collective relief and arbitration.


Regulatory Litigation In The European Union: Does The U.S. Class Action Have A New Analogue?, S. I. Strong Jan 2012

Regulatory Litigation In The European Union: Does The U.S. Class Action Have A New Analogue?, S. I. Strong

Faculty Publications

This article is the first to consider the European resolution from a regulatory perspective, using a combination of new governance theory and equivalence functionalism to determine whether the European Union has adopted or is in the process of adopting a form of regulatory litigation. In so doing, the article considers a number of issues, including the basic definition of regulatory litigation, how class and collective relief can act as a regulatory mechanism and the special problems that arise when regulatory litigation is used in the transnational context. The article also includes a normative element, providing a number of suggestions on ...


A Modest Experiment In Pedagogy: Lessons On Comparative Constitutional Law, Thomas E. Baker Jan 2012

A Modest Experiment In Pedagogy: Lessons On Comparative Constitutional Law, Thomas E. Baker

Faculty Publications

This article describes how the author integrated comparative and international law lessons into a first year course on U.S. Constitutional Law. This version of a paper originally submitted to the International Association of Law Schools Conference on Comparative Constitutional Law in 2009, has been enriched by adding citations and references to relevant papers of other conference participants. The article includes a review of the literature on teaching comparative constitutional law, basic pedagogical theory, a bibliography, some practical advice and a set of four lessons on the themes of judicial review, transnational interpretation, affirmative action and reproductive rights, complete with ...


Corporate Governance: The Swedish Solution, George W. Dent Jr. Jan 2012

Corporate Governance: The Swedish Solution, George W. Dent Jr.

Faculty Publications

Sweden has changed its corporate governance system by delegating the nomination of corporate directors (and thus, in effect, ultimate control) to committees typically comprising representatives of each company’s largest shareholders. This system gives shareholders a degree of power “that only the most daring corporate governance initiatives in the rest of the world could even imagine.” By all accounts the change has been successful; no one is complaining about it.

In the United States investors have long been kept weak in corporate governance for fear that giving them a major role would damage corporations in numerous ways. The Swedish experience ...


Crosses And Culture: State-Sponsored Religious Displays In The Us And Europe, Mark L. Movsesian Jan 2012

Crosses And Culture: State-Sponsored Religious Displays In The Us And Europe, Mark L. Movsesian

Faculty Publications

This article compares the recent jurisprudence of the US Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights on the question of state-sponsored religious displays. Both tribunals insist that states have a duty of religious “neutrality,” but each defines that term differently. For the Supreme Court, neutrality means that government may not proselytize, even indirectly, or appear to favor a particular church; neutrality may even mean that government must not endorse religion generally. For the ECtHR, by contrast, neutrality means only that government must avoid active religious indoctrination; the ECtHR allows government to give “preponderant visibility” to the symbols of ...


The Turn To Legal Interpretation In Latin America, Jorge L. Esquirol Jan 2011

The Turn To Legal Interpretation In Latin America, Jorge L. Esquirol

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Latin American Tradition Of Legal Failure, Jorge L. Esquirol Jan 2011

The Latin American Tradition Of Legal Failure, Jorge L. Esquirol

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Insular Minorities: International Law’S Challenge To Japan’S Ethnic Homogeneity, Timothy Webster Jan 2011

Insular Minorities: International Law’S Challenge To Japan’S Ethnic Homogeneity, Timothy Webster

Faculty Publications

The Japanese state has long promoted a view of itself, and the country, as ethnically homogeneous. Borrowing on critical race theory as developed in the United States, this paper first traces the numerous laws and policies that Japan has implemented to privilege ethnically Japanese people, and prejudice ethnic others. Next, the paper examines the role of international human rights law in challenging various edifices of the ethno-state, including amendments to legislation, and individual lawsuits. I conclude that international law has played a meaningful role in diversifying the protective ambit of Japanese law, but cannot provide all of the solutions that ...


Ambivalence & Activism: Employment Discrimination In China, Timothy Webster Jan 2011

Ambivalence & Activism: Employment Discrimination In China, Timothy Webster

Faculty Publications

Chinese courts do not vigorously enforce many human rights, but a recent string of employment discrimination lawsuits suggests that, given the appropriate conditions, advocacy strategies, signals from above, and rights at issue, courts can help victims vindicate their constitutional and statutory rights to equality. Since 28, carriers of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) have used the Employment Promotion Law to challenge hiring discrimination. Their high success rate suggests official support for making one potent form of discrimination illegal. Central to these lawsuits is a broad network of lawyers, activists and scholars who have advocated for protecting the rights of HBV ...


Taking Stock: China's First Decade Of Free Trade, Jun Zhao, Timothy Webster Jan 2011

Taking Stock: China's First Decade Of Free Trade, Jun Zhao, Timothy Webster

Faculty Publications

China has established itself as a global economic presence in the past ten years. This article explains one important but overlooked aspect of this rise, China’s newfound interest in free trade agreements (FTAs). This paper situates the FTA boom within a framework of international political economy and China’s recent regional rise. This paper probes the question of how China selects its FTA partners, referencing US trade practice and policy as a framework by which to analyze China’s own preferences. This paper then explores the main features of China’s FTAs, finding that it has adopted a flexible ...


Religious Legal Theory Symposium: Introduction, Mark L. Movsesian Jan 2011

Religious Legal Theory Symposium: Introduction, Mark L. Movsesian

Faculty Publications

On November 5, 2010, the St. John's Center for Law and Religion proudly hosted the annual Religious Legal Theory Conference. The event, now in its second year and to be shared among different universities, brought together scholars from around the world to discuss this year's theme, "Religion in Law, Law in Religion." The Center chose this theme in order to include papers on traditional church-state issues—“Religion in Law"—as well as papers addressing the role that law plays in various religious traditions—“Law in Religion." In addition, because contemporary law and religion scholarship has moved beyond strictly ...


Australia And The United States: Two Common Criminal Justice Systems Uncommonly At Odds, Part 2, Paul Marcus, Vicki Waye Apr 2010

Australia And The United States: Two Common Criminal Justice Systems Uncommonly At Odds, Part 2, Paul Marcus, Vicki Waye

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Social-Obligation Norm Of Property: Duguit, Hayem, And Others, M C. Mirow Jan 2010

The Social-Obligation Norm Of Property: Duguit, Hayem, And Others, M C. Mirow

Faculty Publications

This article discusses and analyzes the sources and methods used by Leon Duguit in constructing the social-obligation or social-function norm of property as set out in an influential series of lectures in Buenos Aires published in 1912. The work of Henri Hayem has been underappreciated in the development of Duguit's ideas. Hayem should be restored as a central influence on Duguit's thought and as one of the main and earliest proponents of the idea of the social-function norm. The article also examines the influence of Charmont, Comte, Durkheim, Gide, Hauriou, Landry, and Saleilles in Duguit's thought on ...


Why Did China Reform Its Death Penalty?, Kandis Scott Jan 2010

Why Did China Reform Its Death Penalty?, Kandis Scott

Faculty Publications

China recently reformed its death penalty laws, and as a result the government has executed fewer prisoners. The author explores possible reasons and policy concerns behind China's legal reform. These influences include international forces and domestic factors, such as the media, changed circumstances, compassion, and politics. Although hardly transparent, the underlying motivations for the revisions suggest that eventually China may abolish capital punishment, perhaps even before the United States does so.


From Kosovo To Catalonia: Separatism And Integration In Europe, Christopher J. Borgen Jan 2010

From Kosovo To Catalonia: Separatism And Integration In Europe, Christopher J. Borgen

Faculty Publications

In July 2010 the International Court of Justice rendered its Advisory Opinion on the legality of Kosovo's declaration of independence and the Constitutional Court of Spain rendered an opinion concerning the autonomy of Catalonia. Two very different cases, from very different places, decided by very different courts. Nonetheless, they each provide insights on the issue of separatism in the midst of European integration. Does the Kosovo opinion open the door for other separatist groups? Does the process of European integration increase or undercut separatism? In addressing these questions, this article proceeds in three main parts. Part A briefly recaps ...