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Full-Text Articles in Law

Thinking Outside The Border: Homeland Security And The Forward Deployment Of The U.S. Border, Gregory W. Bowman Aug 2006

Thinking Outside The Border: Homeland Security And The Forward Deployment Of The U.S. Border, Gregory W. Bowman

ExpressO

Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the U.S. government implemented a number of inbound cargo security programs it described as “pushing the border outward” or “expanding [the U.S.] perimeter of security.” Are these statements rhetorical flourish, or do these programs materially affect international cargo trade? This article argues that far from being mundane or rhetorical, these cargo security programs are transforming how U.S. borders operate from both a conceptual and practical perspective. Specifically, by moving certain aspects of border functionality to locations well-removed from the physical U.S. border, these programs make U.S. regulation of inbound trade significantly more extraterritorial. …


Imposing Conditions On Developing Countries’ Tariff Preferences, Jennifer S. Jones Jul 2006

Imposing Conditions On Developing Countries’ Tariff Preferences, Jennifer S. Jones

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Bond Repudiation, Tax Codes, The Appropriations Process And Restitution Post-Eminent Domain Reform, John H. Ryskamp Jun 2006

Bond Repudiation, Tax Codes, The Appropriations Process And Restitution Post-Eminent Domain Reform, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

This brief comment suggests where the anti-eminent domain movement might be heading next.


The (Intellectual Property Law &) Economics Of Innocent Fraud: The Ip & Development Debate, Peter Matthew Beattie Jun 2006

The (Intellectual Property Law &) Economics Of Innocent Fraud: The Ip & Development Debate, Peter Matthew Beattie

ExpressO

This note/essay examines the evidence on the effect of stronger IP laws introduced during the process of international IP law harmonization initiated by the TRIPS agreement, on the economic development of developing countries. It has been argued by proponents of harmonization that stronger IP laws will provide a needed boost to the economic development of developing (and even least-developed) countries. Critics of harmonization have argued that stronger IP laws will have the opposite effect. What has been largely overlooked in this debate is the strength of the evidentiary foundation upon which the arguments of both sides depend. Many of the …


Wto Dispute Settlement Remedies: Monetary Compensation As An Alternative For Developing Countries, Adebukola A. Eleso May 2006

Wto Dispute Settlement Remedies: Monetary Compensation As An Alternative For Developing Countries, Adebukola A. Eleso

ExpressO

When the WTO came into existence formally as an institution in 1995, it was a culmination of the process to institutionalize the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) which had been in operation since 1947. As an institution with Membership of 149 countries, the goal of the WTO is to facilitate the implementation, administration, and operation of the Multilateral Trade Agreements (MTAs); to provide a forum for negotiations among Member States; to administer the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes, amongst others.

The Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU) of …


The Lack Of Dissent In Wto Dispute Settlement: Is There A “Unanimity” Problem?, Meredith Kolsky Lewis Apr 2006

The Lack Of Dissent In Wto Dispute Settlement: Is There A “Unanimity” Problem?, Meredith Kolsky Lewis

ExpressO

This article is the first piece of scholarship to analyze in detail the fact that there has been almost no dissent in World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement reports. The article first examines the empirical data with respect to dissenting and concurring opinions at both the panel and Appellate Body levels. Fewer than five percent of panel reports and two percent of Appellate Body reports contain separate opinions of any kind. It second shows that the WTO is in fact actively discouraging dissents, and discusses why this might be the case. The article argues that dissents are valuable in general, …


Agricultural Biotechnology: Legal Liability From Comparative And International Law Perspectives, Drew L. Kershen, Stuart J. Smyth Apr 2006

Agricultural Biotechnology: Legal Liability From Comparative And International Law Perspectives, Drew L. Kershen, Stuart J. Smyth

ExpressO

Agricultural biotechnology has generated much discussion about possible legal liability for growing transgenic crops. In this article, the authors discuss how the legal regimes of four nations (Canada, Denmark, Germany, and the United States) would resolve various scenarios likely to raised liabilility issues. Building on this comparative discussion, the authors then discuss these likely scenarios as addressed in the on-going negotiations under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety Article 27 (Liability and Redress). The authors end the article with recommendations about an appropriate legal liabilty regime at the international level.


Don’T Get Bit: Addressing Icsid’S Inconsistent Application Of Most-Favored-Nation Clauses To Dispute Resolution Provisions, Gabriel Egli Apr 2006

Don’T Get Bit: Addressing Icsid’S Inconsistent Application Of Most-Favored-Nation Clauses To Dispute Resolution Provisions, Gabriel Egli

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Of Shrinking Sweatsuits And Poison Vine Wax: A Comparison Of Excuse For Nonperformance Under The Ucc And The Cisg, Carla Spivack Mar 2006

Of Shrinking Sweatsuits And Poison Vine Wax: A Comparison Of Excuse For Nonperformance Under The Ucc And The Cisg, Carla Spivack

ExpressO

This article compares the doctrine of excuse/exemption for nonperformance under UCC 2-615 and CISG Article 79 analyzing texts, commentary and cases, and the underlying policy concerns of both regimes. It argues that a narrow interpretation of Article 79's basis for excuse/exemption is the reading intended by the drafters and most likely to promote the CISG's goal of facilitating transborder transactions.


Sarbanes-Oxley Act Of 2002: Are Multi-National Corporations Unduly Burdened?, William Alan Nelson Mar 2006

Sarbanes-Oxley Act Of 2002: Are Multi-National Corporations Unduly Burdened?, William Alan Nelson

ExpressO

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was enacted by Congress in response to the frauds perpetrated by several large U.S. companies; Enron and WorldCom were the main catalysts for the swift regulatory response. Though the primary impetus of Sarbanes-Oxley was to deter corruption domestically, its impact has had multinational reach. Problems arise when foreign corporations domiciled outside the United States are subject to both U.S. securities law and the laws of their home country, particularly when the laws are in conflict. This five part comment examines the effect that the Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002 has had on multinational corporations. The comment begins by …


Exploring The Source Of Transatlantic Antitrust Divergence, Alan J. Devlin Mar 2006

Exploring The Source Of Transatlantic Antitrust Divergence, Alan J. Devlin

ExpressO

This paper seeks to explore the sources of substantive divergence between the antitrust regimes of the U.S. and EC and to present a framework upon which harmonization could potentially be achieved. While the rise of the Chicago School and post-Chicago theory have merged to ensure a central role for economics in dictating antitrust enforcement in the United States, no such clear standard has emerged in Europe. The consequences for firms operating on a transatlantic basis are potentially severe, as they have to formulate different business strategies depending on which jurisdiction they operate in. An assessment of EC law demonstrates an …


Global Pharmaceutical Patent Law In Developing Countries- Amending Trips To Promote Access For All, Angela J. Anderson Mar 2006

Global Pharmaceutical Patent Law In Developing Countries- Amending Trips To Promote Access For All, Angela J. Anderson

ExpressO

This comment will analyze the need to amend and revise the current global pharmaceutical patent system under TRIPS to take into account the needs of developing countries and overall public health. This comment will emphasize that the current international trade rules, which although administered by the WTO, are dictated by developed country governments and powerful pharmaceutical companies, and therefore, without reform will further diminish the access of poor people in developing countries to vital medicines. Part II of this comment will provide a general overview of the international trade law governing patents on pharmaceuticals focusing specifically on the development of …


Global Copyright, Local Speech, Michael Dan Birnhack Mar 2006

Global Copyright, Local Speech, Michael Dan Birnhack

ExpressO

Copyright is no longer a matter of "promoting the progress of science" in the words of the U.S. Constitution. It is now more than ever before a matter of trade. Furthermore, under the WTO's TRIPS Agreement, we now have a global copyright (G©) regime.

The globalization of copyright law destabilized previous balances. The shift to a trade environment requires us to reevaluate the previous balance. The concern explored in this article is that the old foundations will collapse under the heavy weight of global forces. The concern is that local culture, access to information, research and free speech in general, …


The Privacy Gambit: Toward A Game Theoretic Approach To International Data Protection, Horace E. Anderson Mar 2006

The Privacy Gambit: Toward A Game Theoretic Approach To International Data Protection, Horace E. Anderson

ExpressO

“Privacy” is one of the fastest growing areas of the law, due in part to the explosion of the Internet over the past decade. When we speak of privacy in the Internet age, we typically mean data protection, the regulation of the use of personal information about individuals by private interests, such as corporations. Unfortunately, much of the discourse on the subject adopts a framework more suitable to traditional privacy, an inviolable “right to be let alone” by the state. Rather than create a sacrosanct right against the government, the modern incarnation of privacy actually creates a quasi-property right, where …


Backlash To Globalization In The Form Of State Legislation: Constitutional Implications, John R. Weber Mar 2006

Backlash To Globalization In The Form Of State Legislation: Constitutional Implications, John R. Weber

ExpressO

This paper will examine the Constitutional issues raised by the influx of state anti-outsourcing legislation using a recently enacted New Jersey statute. The New Jersey statute is very similar to, and contains many of the same features as, many other bills introduced in legislatures across the nation. Moreover, the political impetus for the introduction and enactment of the legislation reflects the struggle over the outsourcing issue that is occurring in communities nationwide.


Global Pharmaceutical Patent Law In Developing Countries- Amending Trips To Promote Access For All, Angela J. Anderson Mar 2006

Global Pharmaceutical Patent Law In Developing Countries- Amending Trips To Promote Access For All, Angela J. Anderson

ExpressO

This comment will analyze the need to amend and revise the current global pharmaceutical patent system under TRIPS to take into account the needs of developing countries and overall public health. This comment will emphasize that the current international trade rules, which although administered by the WTO, are dictated by developed country governments and powerful pharmaceutical companies, and therefore, without reform will further diminish the access of poor people in developing countries to vital medicines. Part II of this comment will provide a general overview of the international trade law governing patents on pharmaceuticals focusing specifically on the development of …


Choice In Government Software Procurement: A Winning Combination, Mclean Sieverding Feb 2006

Choice In Government Software Procurement: A Winning Combination, Mclean Sieverding

ExpressO

Governments are such significant purchasers of IT products and services that their purchasing decisions have a substantial impact on the world’s IT marketplace. This fact calls into question the wisdom of decisions by a few policymakers (on national, state, and local levels) around the world that have sought to require that governmental procurement officials give varying degrees of preference to open source software (OSS) when evaluating competing software solutions, claiming, among other things, that such preferences are justified because OSS is cheaper and more interoperable than proprietary software and needs government handicapping in order to enter the market to compete …


Comparative Advantage And Labor Protections In Free Trade Agreements: Making Labor Protections In Trade Agreements Practical And Effective, Michael E. Aleo Feb 2006

Comparative Advantage And Labor Protections In Free Trade Agreements: Making Labor Protections In Trade Agreements Practical And Effective, Michael E. Aleo

ExpressO

The tension between competitiveness in international trade and the improvement of living standards has become a central controversy in negotiating trade agreements. Under pressure from the labor rights movement over the course of the last twenty-five years, the United States has regularly advocated for the inclusion of labor standards in trade relationships. Generally, governments in developing countries resist the incorporation of labor protections in trade agreements because of a belief that labor protections diminish a nation’s competitiveness in the international marketplace. Labor rights advocates, particularly in the United States, have fought for the inclusion of labor rights in trade agreements …


Comparative Corporate Governance: Irish, American, And European Responses To Corporate Scandals, Manish Gupta Feb 2006

Comparative Corporate Governance: Irish, American, And European Responses To Corporate Scandals, Manish Gupta

ExpressO

A comparative review of legislative reactions to corporate scandals such as Enron and WorldCom. This paper examines American, Irish, and European Union legislation meant to deal with regulating corporations.


Chicken Flu For The International Soul: Understanding And Applying International Infectious Disease Regulations, Timothy J. Miano Jan 2006

Chicken Flu For The International Soul: Understanding And Applying International Infectious Disease Regulations, Timothy J. Miano

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Principles Of Fairness For International Economic Treaties: Constructivism And Contractualism, John Linarelli Jan 2006

Principles Of Fairness For International Economic Treaties: Constructivism And Contractualism, John Linarelli

ExpressO

No legal system deserving of continued support can exist without an adequate theory of justice. This paper is about the elaboration of a theory of justice to underpin international economic law and international economic institutions. A world trade constitution cannot credibly exist without a clear notion of justice upon which to base a consensus. There is yet no consensus on the public reason underpinning the rules and the institutions. Economic efficiency concepts are widely used in the assessment of the welfare effects of world trade institutions and policies. Efficiency, however, is one of several standards that may be used, but …


The Dual Purpose Of The American Jobs Creation Act Of 2004, Dennis J. Kokenos Dec 2005

The Dual Purpose Of The American Jobs Creation Act Of 2004, Dennis J. Kokenos

ExpressO

The American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 claims to help bring offshore investments back to the United States. In reality, the AJCA does much more. The AJCA of 2004 makes adjustments to the U.S. tax code which helps bring the U.S. in line with existing international trade obligations as well as stimulating the U.S economy.


“The (Cisg) Road Less Travelled”: Case Comment On Grecon Dimter Inc. V. J.R. Normand Inc., Antonin I. Pribetic Dec 2005

“The (Cisg) Road Less Travelled”: Case Comment On Grecon Dimter Inc. V. J.R. Normand Inc., Antonin I. Pribetic

ExpressO

At first glance, the Supreme Court of Canada's recent decision in GreCon Dimter Inc. v. J.R. Normand Inc. appears to be a case upholding the primacy of international commercial arbitration, choice of forum and choice of law clauses. Upon closer scrutiny, however, the Supreme Court of Canada failed to consider the application of the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) to the overall dispute. Interestingly, the same choice of forum and choice of law clauses were considered by the United States Court of Appeals a year earlier in GreCon Dimter, Incorporated v. Horner Flooring Company, …


The Shari'a Factor In International Commercial Arbitration, Faisal M. Kutty Dec 2005

The Shari'a Factor In International Commercial Arbitration, Faisal M. Kutty

ExpressO

The world has witnessed a phenomenal growth in commercial disputes transcending national borders due to our increasingly interrelated and globalized world economy. In addition to issues in interpretation of commercial agreements and practices, differences in custom, language, culture and religion will continue to fuel conflicts and disagreements between commercial players. Over the last few decades there have been growing commercial interaction between Western companies and their Middle Eastern counterparts. Given this interaction and the great geo-political and economic importance of this region, it is imperative that Western lawyers and dispute resolution professionals have a reasonable grasp of the general principles …


Transparency In Global Merger Review: A Limited Role For The Wto?, Keith R. Fisher Nov 2005

Transparency In Global Merger Review: A Limited Role For The Wto?, Keith R. Fisher

ExpressO

This article identifies certain problems faced by parties to transnational merger transactions in view of the global proliferation in recent years of competition (and, specifically, merger review) laws. After considering the pros and cons of merger remedies (both structural and behavioral) that may be offered to mitigate potentially anticompetitive effects and illustrating (through a case study of the GE/Honeywell transaction) the pitfalls of divergent market definition even as between two legal regimes employing substantially similar standards, the article reviews and critiques proposals for establishing a supranational competition authority under the aegis of the World Trade Organization. While rejecting the WTO …


Deadly Discounts: How Reimportation Jeopardizes The Safety Of The U.S. Pharmaceutical Drug Supply Under The Federal Trade Commission Amendment, Nicole C. Bates Oct 2005

Deadly Discounts: How Reimportation Jeopardizes The Safety Of The U.S. Pharmaceutical Drug Supply Under The Federal Trade Commission Amendment, Nicole C. Bates

ExpressO

The amendment to a Federal Trade Commission (FTC) reauthorization bill, previously introduced as Senate Bill 334 (S.334) Pharmaceutical Market Access and Drug Safety Act of 2005 allows for the reimportation of prescription drugs into the United States from approximately 25 countries, including Canada via Internet pharmacies. There are no guarantees that the internet websites advertising as Canadian pharmacies are legitimate. The shipping of pharmaceutical drugs occurs through importation, which refers to drugs produced abroad then later shipped to the U.S., or re-importation, a term applied when drugs are produced in the U.S. and exported for sale to foreign countries and …


The Comparative Analysis On The Presumption Of Cartel Agreements Which Is Unique In The Korean Cartel Regulation Provision, Woo-Jong Jon Oct 2005

The Comparative Analysis On The Presumption Of Cartel Agreements Which Is Unique In The Korean Cartel Regulation Provision, Woo-Jong Jon

ExpressO

In terms of cartel regulation, Korea has a “presumption of agreement” provision that does not exist in the United States or in the European Union (EU). This provision is Article 19(5) of the Monopoly Regulation and Fair Trade Act (MRFTA). This provision was created for the convenience of enforcement because firms made cartel agreements by more sophisticated methods as the cartel regulation became more intense. Accordingly, in the continental law of Korea the approach of the courts in relation to cartel regulation is somewhat different to the United States. However, in terms of a standard for deciding specifically what to …


Up Against A Wall: Europe’S Options For Regulating Biotechnology Through Regulatory Anarchy, Aaron A. Ostrovsky Sep 2005

Up Against A Wall: Europe’S Options For Regulating Biotechnology Through Regulatory Anarchy, Aaron A. Ostrovsky

ExpressO

Based on the current state of EU law and the political sentiment surrounding Genetically Modified Organisms, this paper argues that the best approach to regulating the import and export of GMOs into the Community and between Member States is by what I will call for the purposes of this Paper “regulatory anarchy.” This system sits in opposition to a hierarchical regulatory approach which may be associated with traditional neo-functionalist theories of Community integration. Applied in the context of GMOs, regulatory anarchy envisions integration not coming solely from Community rules conceived by the Commission, but by Member State negotiated rules accomplished …


Towards A Development-Oriented Multilateral Framework On Competition Policy, Jae Sung Lee Sep 2005

Towards A Development-Oriented Multilateral Framework On Competition Policy, Jae Sung Lee

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Hollywood's Disappearing Act: International Trade Remedies To Bring Hollywood Home, Claire Wright Sep 2005

Hollywood's Disappearing Act: International Trade Remedies To Bring Hollywood Home, Claire Wright

ExpressO

No abstract provided.