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International Trade Law

WTO

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Patent Political Economy - Indian Lessons On Pharmaceutical Patent, Julien L. Chaisse, Samira Guennif Dec 2006

Patent Political Economy - Indian Lessons On Pharmaceutical Patent, Julien L. Chaisse, Samira Guennif

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The Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) regime adopted by any country is essentially a tool that strives to ensure both the growth of the domestic pharmaceutical industry and people’s access to medicines. But, contrary to the very easily advanced theory, there is no paradox between the two. From this perspective, the Indian experience has shown that it is precisely the relaxation of its national IPR regime that promoted the growth of its domestic industry, thereby ensuring a better patient access to medicines. However, the globalisation process does not overlook any sector, which means that medicines too are submitted to the new …


The Wto Appellate Body Gambles On The Future Of The Gats: Analyzing The Internet Gambling Dispute Between Antigua And The United States Before The World Trade Organization, Kelly Ann M. Tran Sep 2006

The Wto Appellate Body Gambles On The Future Of The Gats: Analyzing The Internet Gambling Dispute Between Antigua And The United States Before The World Trade Organization, Kelly Ann M. Tran

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The World Trade Organization’s recent Appellate Body decision in the Antigua – United States dispute found that U.S. restrictions on Internet gambling qualified for an exception under Article XIV of the GATS. This paper criticizes the Appellate Body’s decision to overturn the WTO Panel on two grounds. First, it argues that the Appellate Body erred when it concluded that U.S. gambling restrictions are necessary to protect public morals or maintain public order. Second, it argues that the Appellate Body failed to adhere to previous WTO measures dealing with similar jurisprudence and both panels did not adequately explain the significance of …


Choice Of Jurisdiction In International Trade Disputes: Going Regional Or Global?, Rafael Leal-Arcas Sep 2006

Choice Of Jurisdiction In International Trade Disputes: Going Regional Or Global?, Rafael Leal-Arcas

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This article is a legal and policy analysis of two international trade disputes fora, namely the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), for countries that have standing in both jurisdictions, i.e., the United Mexican States, the United States of America, and Canada. Both fora are judicially compared from the perspective of the respondent and of the complainant, analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of each forum. The chosen time-frame of judicial analysis is between 1995 and 2001. The article concludes with two cases which may have been brought in either forum, Broomcorn and Canada – …


Is Ec Trade Policy Up To Par?: A Legal Analysis Over Time - Rome, Marrakesh, Amsterdam, Nice, And The Constitutional Treaty, Rafael Leal-Arcas Aug 2006

Is Ec Trade Policy Up To Par?: A Legal Analysis Over Time - Rome, Marrakesh, Amsterdam, Nice, And The Constitutional Treaty, Rafael Leal-Arcas

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This article is an attempt to a thorough chronological analysis of the European Community’s (EC) existing law and policy in the field of international trade law since the beginning of the European Economic Community. It deals with the evolution of the EC’s common commercial policy competence through the years, starting with the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), moving on to the necessary changes brought by the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, signed in Marrakesh in 1994, until the days of the European Union (EU) Constitutional Treaty, with a view to enabling the EC with a coherent trade policy in …


Evaluating The Wto's Two Step Test For Environmental Measures Under Article Xx, Nita Ghei Aug 2006

Evaluating The Wto's Two Step Test For Environmental Measures Under Article Xx, Nita Ghei

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There has been considerable dissatisfaction expressed by both free trade proponents and environment activists with respect to the WTO’s exercise of authority on the impact of environmental measures on international trade. The Article first sets out a analytical framework, based on public choice theory, which examines the incentives to implement measures to achieve environmental goals which function effectively as disguised barriers to trade. This is followed by a careful examination of the WTO’s jurisprudence in the area, which suggests that the WTO’s focus on the measure being implemented is correct. Furthermore, the two step test under Article XX, as conceived …


The Lack Of Dissent In Wto Dispute Settlement: Is There A “Unanimity” Problem?, Meredith Kolsky Lewis Apr 2006

The Lack Of Dissent In Wto Dispute Settlement: Is There A “Unanimity” Problem?, Meredith Kolsky Lewis

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This article is the first piece of scholarship to analyze in detail the fact that there has been almost no dissent in World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement reports. The article first examines the empirical data with respect to dissenting and concurring opinions at both the panel and Appellate Body levels. Fewer than five percent of panel reports and two percent of Appellate Body reports contain separate opinions of any kind. It second shows that the WTO is in fact actively discouraging dissents, and discusses why this might be the case. The article argues that dissents are valuable in general, …


Global Copyright, Local Speech, Michael Dan Birnhack Mar 2006

Global Copyright, Local Speech, Michael Dan Birnhack

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Copyright is no longer a matter of "promoting the progress of science" in the words of the U.S. Constitution. It is now more than ever before a matter of trade. Furthermore, under the WTO's TRIPS Agreement, we now have a global copyright (G©) regime.

The globalization of copyright law destabilized previous balances. The shift to a trade environment requires us to reevaluate the previous balance. The concern explored in this article is that the old foundations will collapse under the heavy weight of global forces. The concern is that local culture, access to information, research and free speech in general, …


Global Pharmaceutical Patent Law In Developing Countries- Amending Trips To Promote Access For All, Angela J. Anderson Mar 2006

Global Pharmaceutical Patent Law In Developing Countries- Amending Trips To Promote Access For All, Angela J. Anderson

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This comment will analyze the need to amend and revise the current global pharmaceutical patent system under TRIPS to take into account the needs of developing countries and overall public health. This comment will emphasize that the current international trade rules, which although administered by the WTO, are dictated by developed country governments and powerful pharmaceutical companies, and therefore, without reform will further diminish the access of poor people in developing countries to vital medicines. Part II of this comment will provide a general overview of the international trade law governing patents on pharmaceuticals focusing specifically on the development of …


Transparency In Global Merger Review: A Limited Role For The Wto?, Keith R. Fisher Nov 2005

Transparency In Global Merger Review: A Limited Role For The Wto?, Keith R. Fisher

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This article identifies certain problems faced by parties to transnational merger transactions in view of the global proliferation in recent years of competition (and, specifically, merger review) laws. After considering the pros and cons of merger remedies (both structural and behavioral) that may be offered to mitigate potentially anticompetitive effects and illustrating (through a case study of the GE/Honeywell transaction) the pitfalls of divergent market definition even as between two legal regimes employing substantially similar standards, the article reviews and critiques proposals for establishing a supranational competition authority under the aegis of the World Trade Organization. While rejecting the WTO …


Towards A Development-Oriented Multilateral Framework On Competition Policy, Jae Sung Lee Sep 2005

Towards A Development-Oriented Multilateral Framework On Competition Policy, Jae Sung Lee

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No abstract provided.


Hollywood's Disappearing Act: International Trade Remedies To Bring Hollywood Home, Claire Wright Sep 2005

Hollywood's Disappearing Act: International Trade Remedies To Bring Hollywood Home, Claire Wright

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No abstract provided.


The Wto Constitution: Tertiary Rules For Intertwined Elephants, Joel P. Trachtman Sep 2005

The Wto Constitution: Tertiary Rules For Intertwined Elephants, Joel P. Trachtman

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Constitutions have many dimensions. These dimensions include at least the following:

• an economic constitution in the sense of a set of rules for exchange of value and authority,

• an interfunctional constitution that allows for the integration of various social values,

• a political constitution that reflects the cultural and democratic integrity of a group of people,

• a legal and judicial constitution that provides rules for the making of other rules, and for determining supremacy and the scope of judicial application of rules,

• a human rights constitution that limits the sphere of governmental authority, and

• a …


Ubi Remedium, Ibi Ius At The Wto, Joel P. Trachtman Sep 2005

Ubi Remedium, Ibi Ius At The Wto, Joel P. Trachtman

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The WTO law of remedies for violation appears incoherent. States that fail to comply with their obligations are subject to WTO-authorized retaliation. First, this retaliation takes the inefficient form of blocked trade by the complaining state. This remedy is unlikely to be useful to developing countries. Second, the amount of trade blocked by the violation is often used as the measure of authorized retaliation. This measure is not necessarily incentive compatible, as it is not necessarily linked to welfare. Thus, its use may result in inefficient breach, or inefficient compliance, with WTO law. Third, only states that engage in dispute …


An Analysis Of The Duties And Obligations Of The International Legal Community To The Eradication Of Poverty And Growth Of Sustainable Development In Light Of The Jus Cogens Nature Of The Declaration Of The Right To Development, Freda R. Murray-Bruce Aug 2005

An Analysis Of The Duties And Obligations Of The International Legal Community To The Eradication Of Poverty And Growth Of Sustainable Development In Light Of The Jus Cogens Nature Of The Declaration Of The Right To Development, Freda R. Murray-Bruce

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This paper examines the copious problem of world poverty affecting half of the world’s population in the South and assesses the international legal obligations of the international legal community, viz., developed states, transnational corporations and the international financial institutions of the IMF, World Bank and WTO to the eradication of poverty and the growth of sustainable development, in view of the inviolability and peremptory nature of the Charter of the UN, and the international human rights provisions arising therefrom. To this extent, we examine the 1986 General Assembly Declaration on the Right to Development, along with the other International Bill …


Bilateralism Under The World Trade Organization, Y.S. Lee Jul 2005

Bilateralism Under The World Trade Organization, Y.S. Lee

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This paper addresses fundamental issues in the legal framework for international trade today, namely the proliferation of bilateralism under the multilateral framework of the GATT/WTO system. The GATT/WTO system requires non-discriminatory treatment in trade relations among all nations, but bilateral/regional trade arrangements that provide exclusive trade preferences have increased in recent years. This paper examines the consistency of these bilateral/regional arrangements with the requirements of WTO disciplines and explores the ways to achieve convergence between bilateralism and multilateralism in international trade today.


Western Institution Building: The War, Hayek’S Cosmos And The Wto, M. Ulric Killion Feb 2005

Western Institution Building: The War, Hayek’S Cosmos And The Wto, M. Ulric Killion

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Despite the shortcomings of Hayek’s spontaneous order, there is a positive side, perhaps even a positive feedback. Hayek left us with a “what if” question and returns us to that initial opening of Pandora’s Box, or perhaps the initial onset of neo-realism, neo-liberalism, developmentalism, globalism, transnationalism and other concepts, precepts and adjectives justifying institution building by bargaining and military force. In terms of new world order, institution building by necessity requires fundamental changes in governmental structures in non-western cultures and nation-states such as China, Afghanistan and Iraq. Such changes are being prompted by means of political, economic and military powers …


The Law In Action At The Wto, Spencer Weber Waller Sep 2004

The Law In Action At The Wto, Spencer Weber Waller

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This review of Gregory Shaffer's new book "Defending Interests: Private-Public Partnerships in WTO Litigation" argues that Shaffer has made an important contribution to the field of international economic law. Shaffer does this by using the insights of legal realism and strong empirical work to illustrate "the law in action" rather than "the law on the books" in terms of how international trade cases in the WTO are actually generated and resolved.


Test Of Multilateralism In International Trade: U.S. Steel Safeguards, Y.S. Lee Apr 2004

Test Of Multilateralism In International Trade: U.S. Steel Safeguards, Y.S. Lee

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The highly publicized safeguard measures applied by the United States to an array of steel products in 2002 became one of the biggest and the most controversial trade disputes in recent history. Virtually all major trading nations in the world, including European Communities, Japan, China, Brazil, Korea, New Zealand, Switzerland and Norway were the direct parties to this dispute with the United States. The contentious legal grounds of the U.S. safeguard measures as well as the lack of adequate consultations between the United States and its trading counterparts have brought the international community close to a full-scale trade war. This …


Beggar-Thy-Neighbor? Why The Wto Appellate Body’S Enforcement Of A Rigorous “Parallelism Requirement” Limits The Exemption Of Regional Trade Agreement Partners From The Application Of Safeguard Measures, Jordan Taylor Jan 2004

Beggar-Thy-Neighbor? Why The Wto Appellate Body’S Enforcement Of A Rigorous “Parallelism Requirement” Limits The Exemption Of Regional Trade Agreement Partners From The Application Of Safeguard Measures, Jordan Taylor

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The recent WTO Appellate Body decision in U.S. – Steel Safeguards provided a new wrinkle in the AB’s treatment of Regional Trade Agreement members who seek to exempt each other from the application of safeguard measures. Previously, the AB had supported a rigorous “parallelism requirement” compelling Members to equate the scope of the countries investigated with the scope of the countries upon which the safeguard measures would be applied before it would consider whether Article XXIV provided an affirmative defense permitting the exclusion of RTA partners from the application of such measures. Where there was an impermissible “gap” as between …


Developing Internationally Uniform Liability Principles For Harms From Genetically Modified Organisms , Ryan C. Hansen Nov 2003

Developing Internationally Uniform Liability Principles For Harms From Genetically Modified Organisms , Ryan C. Hansen

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This paper analyzes the current legal principles regarding liabillity for harms from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the U.S. and E.U., as well as the various international policies and mechanisms affecting GMOs