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Full-Text Articles in Law

Sharing Potential And The Potential For Sharing: Open Source Licensing As A Legal And Economic Modality For The Dissemination Of Renewable Energy Technology, Jason Wiener May 2005

Sharing Potential And The Potential For Sharing: Open Source Licensing As A Legal And Economic Modality For The Dissemination Of Renewable Energy Technology, Jason Wiener

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


An Economic Theory Of Infrastructure And Commons Management, Brett M. Frischmann Apr 2005

An Economic Theory Of Infrastructure And Commons Management, Brett M. Frischmann

ExpressO

In this article, Professor Frischmann combines a number of current debates across many disciplinary lines, all of which examine from different perspectives whether certain resources should be managed through a regime of private property or through a regime of open access. Frischmann develops and applies a theory that demonstrates there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining openly accessible infrastructure. The approach he takes differs from conventional analyses in that he focuses extensively on demand-side considerations and fully explores how infrastructure resources generate value for consumers and society. As a result, the theory brings into focus the social value …


Public Agencies As Lobbyists, Jody Freeman Mar 2005

Public Agencies As Lobbyists, Jody Freeman

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Water Justice In South Africa: Natural Resources Policy At The Intersection Of Human Rights, Economics, & Political Power, Rose Francis Mar 2005

Water Justice In South Africa: Natural Resources Policy At The Intersection Of Human Rights, Economics, & Political Power, Rose Francis

ExpressO

This paper analyzes water as a social justice issue in South Africa, a nation that has undergone tremendous political and legal transformations over the last fifteen years, but whose population nonetheless continues to suffer from severe inequities in access to freshwater resources. In light of growing water scarcity worldwide, this paper highlights that legal treatment of water resources has significant socioeconomic and distributive justice impacts, even in progressive constitutional democracies that have embraced principles of human rights and international legal norms. The paper explores historical changes in South African water law and evaluates the current political and legal status of …


Management-Based Strategies For Improving Private Sector Environmental Performance, Cary Coglianese, Jennifer Nash Mar 2005

Management-Based Strategies For Improving Private Sector Environmental Performance, Cary Coglianese, Jennifer Nash

ExpressO

Improvements in environmental quality depend in large measure on changes in private sector management. In recognition of this fact, government and industry have begun in recent years to focus directly on shaping the internal management practices of private firms. New management-based strategies can take many forms, but unlike conventional regulatory approaches they are linked by their distinctive focus on management practices, rather than on environmental technologies or emissions targets. This article offers the first sustained analysis of both public and private sector initiatives designed specifically to improve firms’ environmental management. Synthesizing the results of a conference of leading scholars and …


Organizational Misconduct: Beyond The Principal-Agent Model, Kimberly D. Krawiec Feb 2005

Organizational Misconduct: Beyond The Principal-Agent Model, Kimberly D. Krawiec

ExpressO

This article demonstrates that, at least since the adoption of the Organizational Sentencing Guidelines in 1991, the United States legal regime has been moving away from a system of strict vicarious liability toward a system of duty-based organizational liability. Under this system, organizational liability for agent misconduct is dependant on whether or not the organization has exercised due care to avoid the harm in question, rather than under traditional agency principles of respondeat superior. Courts and agencies typically evaluate the level of care exercised by the organization by inquiring whether the organization had in place internal compliance structures ostensibly designed …


“Ua Koe Ke Kuleana O Na Kanaka” (Reserving The Rights Of Native Tenants): Integrating Kuleana Rights And Land Trust Priorities In Hawai`I, Jocelyn B. Garovoy Sep 2004

“Ua Koe Ke Kuleana O Na Kanaka” (Reserving The Rights Of Native Tenants): Integrating Kuleana Rights And Land Trust Priorities In Hawai`I, Jocelyn B. Garovoy

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Responsible Corporate Officers And Section 113(C)(6) Of The Clean Air Act: The Dormant Provision With A Useful Function, Peter C. White Sep 2004

Responsible Corporate Officers And Section 113(C)(6) Of The Clean Air Act: The Dormant Provision With A Useful Function, Peter C. White

ExpressO

The flurry of criticism over the addition of the responsible corporate officer provision to the Clean Air Act has focused on its application of strict liability and the mens rea requirement. Dotterweich and Park both applied what appeared to be strict liability for violations of the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. The fear was that non-culpable corporate officers would be held strictly liable, face not misdemeanor sanctions but the most severe felony penalties.

This fear was unfounded. No corporate officer was held strictly liable; public welfare offenses evolved as the courts conscientiously applied the “knowing” requirement to environmental statutes and …


Wireless Telecommunications, Infrastructure Security, And The Nimby Problem, Steven J. Eagle Sep 2004

Wireless Telecommunications, Infrastructure Security, And The Nimby Problem, Steven J. Eagle

ExpressO

This article explores the clash between federal policies encouraging wireless communications services and the application of local land use regulations to the siting of telecommunications towers. It concludes that Congress’s effort to strike a balance in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 between local concerns on one hand and national commerce and homeland security on the other has proved vague in content and susceptible to procedural thickets that might make local parochialism impervious to challenge. The article suggests statutory changes, including time limitations and the creation of presumptions and safe harbor rules, that might better balance infrastructure development needs with local …


Suburban Sprawl, Jewish Law, And Jewish Values, Michael E. Lewyn Aug 2004

Suburban Sprawl, Jewish Law, And Jewish Values, Michael E. Lewyn

ExpressO

The article explains how automobile-dependent suburban sprawl is in conflict with Jewish law and Jewish values. This is so in three ways. First, Jewish law requires Jews to make the poor self-supporting- but suburban sprawl creates welfare dependency by making it impossible for poor people without cars to reach jobs in auto-dependent suburbs. Second, Jewish law requires Jews to walk rather than ride to services on holy days- but in most low-density suburbs, very few people can live within walking distance of a synagogue (or anything else for that matter). Third, Jewish law has traditionally discouraged development of rural land …


Cap And Trade: How The Sulfur Dioxide Allowance Market Works, And How It Could Work Better, Jacob R. Kreutzer Aug 2004

Cap And Trade: How The Sulfur Dioxide Allowance Market Works, And How It Could Work Better, Jacob R. Kreutzer

ExpressO

This Article provides an overview of the sulfur dioxide allowances market, and identifies ways in which could be improved. This information can be used to improve the performance of the sulfur dioxide allowances market, and incorporated into new emissions allowance markets to improve their operation. Part I of this Article provides background information on the creation and operation of the sulfur dioxide allowances market. Part II reports and analyzes data regarding the actual behavior of the market from 1995 to 2003. Part III engages in an economic analysis of the interaction between the allowances market and the power industry. Part …


Fuel Efficiency: The Disconnect Between Environmental Policy And Tax Policy, John J. Marciano May 2004

Fuel Efficiency: The Disconnect Between Environmental Policy And Tax Policy, John J. Marciano

ExpressO

The recent high gas prices in America have intensified the debate over oil and gas efficiency, use, and reserves. As the national average for a gallon tops $2.10, Congress and the President strive to find a common position to foster energy independence, protect the environment, and bolster the struggling economy.

President Bush’s energy policy and recent Senate and House bills have not contemplated their effects on the environmental state of our nation or its impact on the internal revenue code. In this time of uncertainty, energy independence and measured use of resources may be at odds, but must we stray …


Federal Permitting Issues Related To Offshore Wind Energy, Using The Cape Wind Project In Massachusetts As An Illustration, Thomas A. Utzinger May 2004

Federal Permitting Issues Related To Offshore Wind Energy, Using The Cape Wind Project In Massachusetts As An Illustration, Thomas A. Utzinger

ExpressO

Cape Wind Associates, LLC in Massachusetts intends to build a 130-turbine wind park off of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in federal waters. The wind park would generate an average output great enough to power about three-quarters of the Cape’s energy needs.

Construction of this project required two permits from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: one for a single data tower, and one for the overall wind park. To date, the Corps has granted the data tower permit. This has been the subject of litigation in Massachusetts state and federal courts. The Corps is also conducting a lengthy environmental review of …


Caught Between Action And Inaction: Public Participation In Voluntary Approaches To Environmental Policy Under The Administrative Procedure Act, Janice D. Gorin May 2004

Caught Between Action And Inaction: Public Participation In Voluntary Approaches To Environmental Policy Under The Administrative Procedure Act, Janice D. Gorin

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Assessing The Options For Designing A Mandatory U.S. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program, Robert R. Nordhaus, Kyle W. Danish Apr 2004

Assessing The Options For Designing A Mandatory U.S. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program, Robert R. Nordhaus, Kyle W. Danish

ExpressO

The United States faces growing pressure – both from domestic and international sources – to adopt a mandatory greenhouse gas reduction program to address the risk of global climate change. If policy-makers decide to establish such a program, they could end up creating an environmental regulatory regime of potentially unprecedented scope and impacts. A domestic greenhouse gas program could break ground in other ways too. Many policy-makers are considering innovative market-based approaches to regulation, including a multi-billion dollar economy-wide “cap-and-trade” program. In this paper, we: (1) set forth criteria for evaluating program options; (2) analyze the leading design options and …


Securing Truth For Power: Informational Strategy And Regulatory Policy Making, Cary Coglianese Apr 2004

Securing Truth For Power: Informational Strategy And Regulatory Policy Making, Cary Coglianese

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Analysis Of The Stockholm Convention On Persistent Organic Pollutants, Dru Stevenson Apr 2004

Book Review: Analysis Of The Stockholm Convention On Persistent Organic Pollutants, Dru Stevenson

ExpressO

First book review of Marco Olsen's treatise, "Analysis of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants"


Innovation, Regulation And The Selection Environment, Timothy F. Malloy, Peter Sinsheimer Apr 2004

Innovation, Regulation And The Selection Environment, Timothy F. Malloy, Peter Sinsheimer

ExpressO

This article focuses on the question of how regulation can be best designed to encourage technological innovation. Most scholarship in this area applies standard economic analysis to evaluate the impact of various forms of regulation on technological innovation. We reject that approach as too narrow, drawing instead upon principles of evolutionary economics. The basic premise of the article is that a firm’s technology choices—and its response to regulation intended to shape those choices—are influenced by other actors (such as suppliers and competitors), by external social and legal institutions (e.g., industry standards and norms) and by the firms' internal structure (such …


Will The Wto Turn Green? The Implications Of Extending Observer Status To Multilateral Environmental Agreements, Richard L. Skeen Feb 2004

Will The Wto Turn Green? The Implications Of Extending Observer Status To Multilateral Environmental Agreements, Richard L. Skeen

ExpressO

This article addresses whether the WTO should extend permanent observer status to multilateral environmental agreements and analyzes the impact of injecting environmental issues into the multilateral trading system. The paper begins with a chronological analysis of the transition from the GATT governance of international trade to the formation of the WTO and will also examine influences upon the formation and the agenda of the Committee on Trade and the Environment. The discussion continues with a look at the Committee on Trade and the Environment’s first year of progress and discussion of the critical report entitled Special Studies 4: Trade and …


Invasion Of The Clones: Animal Cloning And The Potential Implications On The Future Of Human Cloning And Cloning Legislation In The United States, The United Kingdom, And Internationally, Adrienne N. Calhoun Feb 2004

Invasion Of The Clones: Animal Cloning And The Potential Implications On The Future Of Human Cloning And Cloning Legislation In The United States, The United Kingdom, And Internationally, Adrienne N. Calhoun

ExpressO

Cloning is an area of science that changes daily; with advances being made constantly. This technology has caused great controversy in the United States and across the world. The issue has raised religious, ethical, technical and legal concerns. This paper is broken into four parts in order to best address the complex area of cloning technology. Part one will be a review of the history of the science of cloning and the history of animal cloning. Part two will be a discussion of the risks and benefits of cloning. Part three will address ethical and religious concerns surrounding human cloning. …


The Right To Trial By Jury In Environmental Cost-Recovery And Contribution Actions: United States V. England, Jonathan L. Mayes Jan 2004

The Right To Trial By Jury In Environmental Cost-Recovery And Contribution Actions: United States V. England, Jonathan L. Mayes

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


International Marine Environment Law: A Case Study In The Wider Caribbean Region, Benedict C. Sheehy Dec 2003

International Marine Environment Law: A Case Study In The Wider Caribbean Region, Benedict C. Sheehy

ExpressO

Abstract: This study examines the effectiveness of international marine environment law in controlling and abating contamination of the marine environment in the Wider Caribbean Region. The main international agreement covering the region is the Cartagena Convention which came into force in 1983. This convention, initiated by the UNEP under its Regional Seas Program, is considered one of the most successful of the programs. The study examines that claim in light of events since the adoption of the Cartagena Convention by the majority of nations bordering on the region. Mexico, because of its stature as a leading Latin American nation, is …


Developing Internationally Uniform Liability Principles For Harms From Genetically Modified Organisms , Ryan C. Hansen Nov 2003

Developing Internationally Uniform Liability Principles For Harms From Genetically Modified Organisms , Ryan C. Hansen

ExpressO

This paper analyzes the current legal principles regarding liabillity for harms from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the U.S. and E.U., as well as the various international policies and mechanisms affecting GMOs


Mass Toxic Tort Litigation And Class Action Rule Reform In The United States, Jason L. Betts Sep 2003

Mass Toxic Tort Litigation And Class Action Rule Reform In The United States, Jason L. Betts

ExpressO

The paper advances the proposition that mass toxic tort litigation has been the predominant driver of class action rule reform in the Unites States. Through three distinct phases of proposals to reform Rule 23 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, the judicial and academic attitude to the certification of mass toxic torts has influenced the reform debate in radically different ways – initially by providing the catalyst for efforts to reform Rule 23; then as a dampener against significant reforms to Rule 23 in the wake of mass toxic tort “settlement-only” classes; and ultimately as an explanation for the …


Multilateral Environmental Agreements And The Compliance Continuum, Teall E. Crossen Aug 2003

Multilateral Environmental Agreements And The Compliance Continuum, Teall E. Crossen

ExpressO

This paper responds to the observation that despite the high number of multilateral environment agreements (“MEAs”), and relatively high compliance rate, the global commons are continuing to deteriorate. I review the contemporary literature addressing the question: "why nations comply with international law," focusing specifically on MEAs. The competing schools of thought are organized along a "compliance continuum," – bordered at one end by the Chayesian approach advocating managing compliance, and the Downsian view at the other, arguing for enforcement when there are high incentives to defect.

In sum, my conclusions are (1) adequately responding to global environmental problems requires increasing …


Ecocide And Genocide In Iraq: International Law, The Marsh Arabs And Environmental Damage In Non-International Conflicts, Aaron Schwabach Aug 2003

Ecocide And Genocide In Iraq: International Law, The Marsh Arabs And Environmental Damage In Non-International Conflicts, Aaron Schwabach

ExpressO

In 1991, after the first Gulf War, the Marsh Arabs of southern Iraq rose up against the Hussein government, with U.S. encouragement. The rebellion failed; in retaliation the government embarked on a massive water diversion project to drain the wetlands. In 1970 the wetlands covered nearly 11,000 square kilometers; today they cover fewer than a thousand. The Marsh Arabs whose ancestors had lived in the wetlands for five thousand years were forced to flee; many died. The drainage of the wetlands was a deliberate and calculated act of genocide and ecocide. At the time, Iraq was a party to several …


Takings Formalism And Regulatory Formulas: Exactions And The Consequences Of Clarity, Mark Fenster Aug 2003

Takings Formalism And Regulatory Formulas: Exactions And The Consequences Of Clarity, Mark Fenster

ExpressO

A vocal minority of the U.S. Supreme Court recently announced its suspicion that lower courts and state and local administrative agencies are systematically ignoring constitutional rules intended to limit, through heightened judicial review, exactions as a land use regulatory tool. Exactions are the concessions local governments require of property owners as conditions for the issuance of the entitlements that enable the intensified use of real property. In two cases decided over the past two decades, Nollan v. California Coastal Commission (1987) and Dolan v. City of Tigard (1994), the Court has established under the Takings Clause a logic and metrics …


Difused Surface Water: Reasonable Use Has Become The Common Enemy, Wendy B. Davis Aug 2003

Difused Surface Water: Reasonable Use Has Become The Common Enemy, Wendy B. Davis

ExpressO

Diffused surface water, caused by precipitation, should be treated as a necessary asset to replenish aquifers used for drinking water, and not as waste to be disposed of by landowners. Groundwater aquifers were created, and can only be replenished, by precipitation that is allowed to seep underground. Ninety-nine percent of the drinking water for people in rural areas of America comes from groundwater aquifers. These aquifers are in danger of being contaminated or depleted, which could result in severe water shortages very soon. Legislators have failed to enact a comprehensive system to regulate the use of aquifers, relying instead on …