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Full-Text Articles in Law

Pennsylvania Gas: Trusts, Takings, And Judicial Temperaments, Joshua Ulan Galperin Nov 2018

Pennsylvania Gas: Trusts, Takings, And Judicial Temperaments, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Perhaps it is their role in our survival, or our economic growth, or the environment. Whatever the reason, energy and natural resource conflicts seems to be unique in the way they can drive significant doctrinal change even outside of energy and natural resource law. Pennsylvania has been a fountainhead of these conflicts. In 1921, Pennsylvania’s Kohler Act and lesser known Fowler Act, which sought to protect surface owners from anthracite coal mine subsidence and to increase tax revenue from anthracite mining, ignited the legal wrangling that eventually led to Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon. That U.S. Supreme Court decision transformed …


Life Cycle Costing And Food Systems: Concepts, Trends, And Challenges Of Impact Valuation, Jason J. Czarnezki Oct 2018

Life Cycle Costing And Food Systems: Concepts, Trends, And Challenges Of Impact Valuation, Jason J. Czarnezki

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Our global food systems create pervasive environmental, social, and health impacts. Impact valuation is an emerging concept that aims to quantify all environmental, social, and health costs of food systems in an attempt to make the true cost of food more transparent. It also is designed to facilitate the transformation of global food systems. The concept of impact valuation is emerging at the same time as, and partly as a response to, calls for the development of legal mechanisms to address environmental, social, and health concerns. Information has long been understood both as a necessary precursor for regulation and as …


Shadowing Lenders And Consumers: The Rise, Regulation, And Risks Of Non-Banks, Shelby D. Green Sep 2018

Shadowing Lenders And Consumers: The Rise, Regulation, And Risks Of Non-Banks, Shelby D. Green

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Since the financial crisis of 2008, “shadow banking” or financial transactions by “non-banks,” has skyrocketed. Non-banks are not depositary institutions and as such, they roam free, largely outside the purview of the bank regulators. They occupy all parts of the credit markets, from mortgage loan origination to payday lenders. Untethered, they operate without government guarantees, such as deposit insurance and have no access to emergency government lending facilities, such as the Federal Reserve's discount window.

There are both positives and negatives in the rise of non-banks. On the positive side is market liquidity and greater diversity of funding sources for …


Nurturing A More Just And Sustainable Food System: The First Year Of Pace Law's Food And Beverage Law Clinic, Jonathan Brown Jul 2018

Nurturing A More Just And Sustainable Food System: The First Year Of Pace Law's Food And Beverage Law Clinic, Jonathan Brown

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article looks back at the Clinic's first year and explores lessons learned in putting the theory behind the Clinic's model into practice. Launching the Clinic required a leap of faith. Was there in fact a client demand for its services? Was there sufficient interest from law students in the intersection of transactional law and food systems? Was the scope of legal matters too broad? Was the client focus too narrow? The early returns from the first year have given us valuable insights and experience from which to draw. First, this article discusses the unmet legal need the Clinic seeks …


No Farms No Food? A Response To Baylen Linnekin, Joshua Ulan Galperin May 2018

No Farms No Food? A Response To Baylen Linnekin, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

You have likely seen the bumper sticker, bold white text on a green background, reading “No Farms No Food.” The sticker is a product of, and in fact a tagline for, the American Farmland Trust. On the one hand, the point is obvious: As American Farmland Trust puts it, “[e]very meal on our plates [c]ontains ingredients grown on a farm. We all need farms to survive.” On the other hand, what seems like a plain statement on its face, “no farms no food,” is not so simple. Farms produce affordable food, they produce vast quantities of food, they produce healthy …


The State Of American Juvenile Justice, Merril Sobie Apr 2018

The State Of American Juvenile Justice, Merril Sobie

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article will summarize the major twenty-first century state legislative and case law developments. It will also briefly note the expansion of state and local initiatives limiting the prosecution of youthful offenders, such as diversion and restorative justice programs.

The state of American juvenile justice has improved significantly in the past several years. However, the reforms are best viewed as a work in progress. Much has been accomplished, but much remains to be accomplished. Crucially, after a generation of “tough on kids” measures, we are on the road toward a true “justice” system for children.


Foreword: Private, Environmental, Governance, Joshua Ulan Galperin Apr 2018

Foreword: Private, Environmental, Governance, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This essay is the invited foreword to the 2017 J.B & Maurice C. Shapiro Environmental Law Symposium issue of the George Washington Journal of Energy and Environmental Law. The 2017 symposium was dedicated to the issue of private environmental governance. This essay recognizes the incredible growth of private environmental governance as an area of study in the legal academy. In addition to introducing the various contributions to the symposium issue, this essay proposes that rather than merely studying "private environmental governance" as an independent concept, scholars should look closely at the individual components, "private," "environmental," and "governance," to better understand …


Food Localization: Empowering Community Food Systems Through The Farm Bill, Joshua Ulan Galperin, Brian Fink, Alexandra Schluntz Apr 2018

Food Localization: Empowering Community Food Systems Through The Farm Bill, Joshua Ulan Galperin, Brian Fink, Alexandra Schluntz

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Our intent in this Article is not to delineate foods that are local or not local, nor is it to lionize one agricultural production method over another. Rather, we hope to build on the literature that for many decades has documented how local communities have emerged as influential actors on the American food system through establishing control over local supply chains often alongside national and global supply chains. We begin with Part I, which explores how some food-system scholars have conceptualized these democratic changes occurring. We look to Thomas Lyson’s concept of civic agriculture, which attempts to move corporation-oriented communities …


Pragmatism, Pragtivism, And Private Environmental Governance, Joshua Ulan Galperin Apr 2018

Pragmatism, Pragtivism, And Private Environmental Governance, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This essay is an edited version of a talk presented at the 2017 J.B. & Maurice C. Shapiro Environmental Law Symposium on Private Environmental Governance at the George Washington University. It is adapted from a longer article entitled Trust Me, I’m A Pragmatist: A Partially Pragmatic Critique of Pragmatic Activism, in 42 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 425 (2017).


From Little Acorns, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 2018

From Little Acorns, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Inaugurating Writing Nature: A Seasonal Program of Readings of Nature Writings, under the shared auspices of the Teatown Lake Reservation and the Hudson Valley Writers Center. Presented at the Hudson Valley Writers Center, Sleepy Hollow, New York.


Change Is Constant In Estate Planning: Reflections Of An Actec Law Journal Editor, Bridget J. Crawford Jan 2018

Change Is Constant In Estate Planning: Reflections Of An Actec Law Journal Editor, Bridget J. Crawford

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Change is the only constant in the life of a trusts and estates professional. The law changes; the needs of clients change; the methods for achieving certain results change; technology and modes of communication change. So, too, it can be said that change is the only constant running through more than forty years of our organization's flagship publication.


Hogan Vs. Gawker Ii: A Statutory Solution To Fraudulent Joinder, Michelle S. Simon Jan 2018

Hogan Vs. Gawker Ii: A Statutory Solution To Fraudulent Joinder, Michelle S. Simon

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article will first review the intersection of federal jurisdiction and litigation strategy by examining the requirements for diversity jurisdiction in federal court as well as the circumstances that must be present to allow a defendant to remove a case from state court to federal court. The Article will then review the history of the court-created doctrine of fraudulent joinder, and will examine the various tests currently in use by the lower federal courts. The Article will then address whether it makes more sense to create a statutory solution, and will examine and analyze the Fraudulent Joinder Prevention Act of …


A Penal Colony For Bad Lawyers, Bennett L. Gershman Jan 2018

A Penal Colony For Bad Lawyers, Bennett L. Gershman

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In this article I set out what I believe is an extreme and unconventional way to discipline egregiously bad lawyers. For starters, I think it might be useful to survey briefly the kinds of lawyering conduct currently subject to disciplinary sanctions. Regulation of the conduct of defense lawyers in the U.S. is hedged by various legal and professional rules that are enforced by courts and disciplinary bodies essentially to ensure a minimum level of competent and ethical representation. The Sixth Amendment right to counsel--the so-called “sacred” right--seeks to ensure at least a reasonable degree of lawyering skill. Also, professional codes …


Feminist Judging Matters: How Feminist Theory And Methods Affect The Process Of Judgment, Bridget J. Crawford Jan 2018

Feminist Judging Matters: How Feminist Theory And Methods Affect The Process Of Judgment, Bridget J. Crawford

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The word “feminism” means different things to its many supporters (and undoubtedly, to its detractors). For some, it refers to the historic struggle: first to realize the right of women to vote and then to eliminate explicit discrimination against women from the nation's laws. For others, it is a political movement, the purpose of which is to raise awareness about and to overcome past and present oppression faced by women. For still others, it is a philosophy--a system of thought--and a community of belief centering on attaining political, social, and economic equality for women, men, and people of any gender. …


Board Rooms And Jail Cells- Assessing Ngo Approaches To Private Environmental Governance, Joshua Ulan Galperin Jan 2018

Board Rooms And Jail Cells- Assessing Ngo Approaches To Private Environmental Governance, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Staff of the Nature Conservancy often find themselves in corporate board rooms. Staff of Greenpeace often find themselves in jail cells. The Nature Conservancy (TNC) prides itself on its non-confrontational, collaborative deal making, partnering closely with corporations like chemical giant Dow and agricultural lightning rod Monsanto. Both Dow and Monsanto, in fact, are members of TNC’s Business Council along with the likes of BP, Shell, and Cargill. Greenpeace, on the other hand, prides itself on direct action, civil disobedience, and non-violent confrontation. Greenpeace has launched combative operations against Dow, Monsanto, and other TNC collaborators. While business partners praise TNC’s cooperative …


Targeted Capture, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt Jan 2018

Targeted Capture, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article confronts one of the most difficult and contested questions in the debate about targeted killing that has raged in academic and policy circles over the last decade. Suppose that, in wartime, the target of a military strike may readily be neutralized through nonlethal means such as capture. Do the attacking forces have an obligation to pursue that nonlethal alternative? The Article defends the duty to employ less restrictive means (“LRM”) in wartime, and it advances several novel arguments in defense of that obligation. In contrast to those who look to external restraints--such as those imposed by international human …


Testing Fannie Mae's And Freddie Mac's Post-Crisis Self-Preservation Policies Under The Fair Housing Act, Shelby D. Green Jan 2018

Testing Fannie Mae's And Freddie Mac's Post-Crisis Self-Preservation Policies Under The Fair Housing Act, Shelby D. Green

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Beginning in the 1930s, the federal government adopted programs and policies toward safe and decent housing for all. The initiatives included the creation of the Federal Housing Administration that, among other things, spurred mortgage lending by guaranteeing mortgage loans to low- and moderate-income borrowers. The creation of the secondary mortgage market by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (“GSEs”) helped provide more liquidity for loan originators. However, somewhere along the way, these GSEs lost their way, as they pursued profitability without regard to risk and heedlessly bought mortgages without considering quality.

The overabundance of poor quality mortgages led to the housing …


How Is Sex Harassment Discriminatory?, Noa Ben-Asher Jan 2018

How Is Sex Harassment Discriminatory?, Noa Ben-Asher

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

What is sexual harassment, and what is its actual harm? Since the 1980s, these two questions have perplexed lawmakers, policymakers, feminists, and the public. Today, with the rise of #MeToo, and with increased national attention to Title IX claims regarding sexual violence on college campuses, these questions are once again in the spotlight. As some commentators have observed, in the last several years lawmakers and policymakers have been increasingly influenced by a feminist antisubordination approach to sexual harassment and assault. This growing influence is currently reflected in more strict standards of consent (“affirmative consent”) to sex, in higher procedural and …


Rewriting Judicial Opinions And The Feminist Scholarly Project, Bridget J. Crawford Jan 2018

Rewriting Judicial Opinions And The Feminist Scholarly Project, Bridget J. Crawford

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In 1995, the authors of a law review article examining “feminist judging” focused on the existing social science data concerning women judges and compared the voting records and opinions of the only female Justices on the U.S. Supreme Court: Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Sandra Day O'Connor. Based on this review, the authors concluded that appointing more women as judges would make little difference to judicial outcomes or processes. The authors accused those who advocated for more women on the bench of having a hidden feminist agenda and bluntly concluded that “[b]y any measure, feminist judges fit very uneasily in most …


Bluebooking Environmental Resources, Deborah Heller Jan 2018

Bluebooking Environmental Resources, Deborah Heller

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Five-page tip sheet presented as a table covers how to properly cite environmental material according to the Bluebook. It includes federal and state bills, legislation, and regulations, federal and state administrative adjudications and other administrative material.


The Preferred Preferences In Employment Discrimination Law, Emily Gold Waldman Jan 2018

The Preferred Preferences In Employment Discrimination Law, Emily Gold Waldman

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In theory, customer preferences cannot justify discriminatory treatment by employers. The reality is more complicated. Built into the structure of federal employment discrimination law are several openings for customer preferences to provide employer defenses to what would otherwise likely be actionable discrimination.

This Article explores when and which customer preferences can enter those openings. It focuses on what I deem the “preferred preferences”: the customer preferences that have formed the basis of successful employer defenses to discrimination claims. This Article identifies and evaluates six such preferences: (1) aesthetic appeal; (2) physical privacy from employees of the opposite sex; (3) psychological …


One Parcel Plus One Parcel Equals A "Parcel As A Whole" Murr V. Wisconsin's Fluid Calculations For Regulatory Takings, Shelby D. Green Jan 2018

One Parcel Plus One Parcel Equals A "Parcel As A Whole" Murr V. Wisconsin's Fluid Calculations For Regulatory Takings, Shelby D. Green

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The Court's most recent major property law case, Murr v. Wisconsin, 137 S. Ct. 1933 (2017), tackles one of the thorny, recurring issues in regulatory takings jurisprudence: what is the proper “denominator” to use in determining whether a government regulation has so greatly diminished the economic value of a parcel of land that it effects a taking? More specifically, Murr looked at what constitutes the “parcel as a whole” when a landowner holds title to two contiguous lots. Should a court assess the economic impact on the value of each lot separately or the impact on the value of the …


If War Is Everywhere, Then Must The Law Be Nowhere?, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt Jan 2018

If War Is Everywhere, Then Must The Law Be Nowhere?, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This response focuses on one of the most difficult questions posed by Rosa Brooks's How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything: How should the erosion of the war / peace dichotomy impact the justifications for the use of lethal force by the United States government and what, if any, role is there for law in this context? While Brooks is unambiguously critical of Bush administration legal policies that asserted expansive executive war powers, she is less certain about the Obama administration's own reliance on the war paradigm to justify its targeted killing policies. While describing these policies as …


Beyond Corporate Form: A Response To Dan Depasquale, Surbhi Sarang, And Natalie Bump Vena’S Forging Food Justice Through Cooperatives In New York City, Jonathan Brown Jan 2018

Beyond Corporate Form: A Response To Dan Depasquale, Surbhi Sarang, And Natalie Bump Vena’S Forging Food Justice Through Cooperatives In New York City, Jonathan Brown

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In their article, Forging Food Justice Through Cooperatives in New York City, Dan DePasquale, Surbhi Sarang, and Natalie Bump Vena (the “Authors”) argue that consumer-owned and worker-owned cooperatives hold promise as a means for advancing policy objectives associated with “food justice,” namely building community wealth and power and providing more affordable access to healthy food in low-income and minority communities. Looking to examples of legislation and policies in other jurisdictions, they advocate for a wide range of policies to promote the viability of cooperatives in New York City, including reforms to cooperative corporation laws and strategies for better allocating funding …


The Missing Element Of Environmental Cost-Benefit Analysis: Compensation For The Loss Of Regulatory Benefits, Karl S. Coplan Jan 2018

The Missing Element Of Environmental Cost-Benefit Analysis: Compensation For The Loss Of Regulatory Benefits, Karl S. Coplan

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Despite its critics, cost-benefit analysis remains a fixture of the environmental regulation calculus. Most criticisms of cost-benefit analysis focus on the impossibility of monetizing environmental and health amenities protected by regulations. Less attention has been paid to the regressive wealth-transfer effects of regulations foregone based on cost-benefit analysis. This regressive effect occurs as long as downwind communities that suffer health and harms from environmental contamination are generally less wealthy than the owners of pollution sources that avoid regulatory-compliance costs. The availability of compensation to pollution-victims has the potential to ameliorate this regressive effect. This Article recommends that the availability of …


Low Carbon Land Use: Paris, Pittsburgh, And The Ipcc, John R. Nolon Jan 2018

Low Carbon Land Use: Paris, Pittsburgh, And The Ipcc, John R. Nolon

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article describes strategies that local governments are employing to both mitigate and adapt to climate change, using their state-given powers to plan community development and to regulate private building. Local governments have significant legal authority to shape human settlements and, in so doing, lower CO2 emissions from buildings and vehicles, increase the sequestration of carbon by the natural environment, and promote distributed energy systems and renewable energy facilities that lower fossil fuel consumption. Local elected leaders are highly motivated to avoid the on-the-ground consequences of our changing climate. The effects of climate change manifest themselves at the local level, …


Crafting Next Generation Eco-Label Policy, Jason J. Czarnezki, Katrina F. Kuh Jan 2018

Crafting Next Generation Eco-Label Policy, Jason J. Czarnezki, Katrina F. Kuh

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Eco-labels present a promising policy tool in the effort to achieve sustainable consumption. Many questions remain, however, about the extent to which eco-labels can contribute to sustainability efforts and how to maximize their effectiveness. This Article deploys research from evolutionary psychology, behavioral law and economics, and norm theory to offer specific insights for the design and implementation of eco-labels to enhance their influence on sustainable consumer choice. Notably, this research suggests possibilities for eco-labels to shape or expand consumer preferences for green goods, and thereby enhance eco-label influence on consumer behavior by extending it beyond eco-minded consumers. We suggest that …


Faith-Based Emergency Powers, Noa Ben-Asher Jan 2018

Faith-Based Emergency Powers, Noa Ben-Asher

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article explores an expanding phenomenon that it calls Faith-Based Emergency Powers. In the twenty-first century, conservatives have come to rely heavily on Faith-Based Emergency Powers as a legal strategy in the culture wars. This typically involves carving faith-based exceptions to rights of women and LGBT people. The novel concept of Faith-Based Emergency Powers is developed in this Article through an analogy to “traditional” emergency powers. In the war-on-terror, conservatives have argued that judges, legislators and the public must defer to the President and the executive branch in matters involving national security. As scholars have shown, this position has three …


Under The Radar: The Cost And Benefits Of Wind Energy Through The Lens Of National Security, David N. Cassuto Jan 2018

Under The Radar: The Cost And Benefits Of Wind Energy Through The Lens Of National Security, David N. Cassuto

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article examines wind energy through the lens of national security. The benefit resides with helping the United States become energy independent. National-security concerns also present a cost because wind energy interferes with military radar, posing a potential threat to the systems that monitor possible attacks. This Article attempts to analyze the overall impact of wind energy while noting the inherent difficulties when so much uncertainty is involved in the process.

Part I of this Article discusses the benefits of wind energy. Part II examines its costs, specifically its interference with radar, and what that means for national security. This …