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Playing Monopoly With The Neighborhood: Impact Of Series Limited Liability Companies On Nuisance Abatement Actions And Housing Code Enforcement, Lauren Williams Apr 2023

Playing Monopoly With The Neighborhood: Impact Of Series Limited Liability Companies On Nuisance Abatement Actions And Housing Code Enforcement, Lauren Williams

Cleveland State Law Review

The City of Cleveland has been one of the most active cities in combating the negative effects of the 2008 financial crisis, utilizing nuisance abatement actions in combination with municipal programs aimed at assisting homeowners and renters. However, the Ohio Revised Limited Liability Company Act ("ORLLCA"), passed in 2021, may reverse the progress made in cities like Cleveland by enabling real estate investors to conceal assets in several series under the same limited liability company, resulting in rising vacancy rates and unstable communities. This will negatively impact the effectiveness of nuisance abatement actions and traditional housing code enforcement in curbing …


Changing The Rule That Changes Nothing: Protecting Evicted Tenants By Amending Cleveland Housing Court Rule 6.13, James J. Scherer Apr 2021

Changing The Rule That Changes Nothing: Protecting Evicted Tenants By Amending Cleveland Housing Court Rule 6.13, James J. Scherer

Cleveland State Law Review

Renting is on the rise, with all households seeing an increase in the prevalence of renting a home versus owning one from 2006 to 2016. As rental rates rise, so too do the rates of eviction. The detrimental effects of eviction are numerous and can be self-reinforcing, with a single eviction decreasing one’s chances of securing decent and affordable housing, escaping disadvantaged neighborhoods, and benefiting from affordable housing programs. All this was before the coronavirus pandemic that devastated jobs and savings accounts across the nation.

One of the biggest impacts that eviction has on renters is a public court record. …


Testing Fannie Mae's And Freddie Mac's Post-Crisis Self-Preservation Policies Under The Fair Housing Act, Shelby D. Green May 2018

Testing Fannie Mae's And Freddie Mac's Post-Crisis Self-Preservation Policies Under The Fair Housing Act, Shelby D. Green

Cleveland State Law Review

Beginning in the 1930s, the federal government adopted programs and policies toward safe and decent housing for all. The initiatives included the creation of the Federal Housing Administration that, among other things, spurred mortgage lending by guaranteeing mortgage loans to low- and moderate-income borrowers. The creation of the secondary mortgage market by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (GSEs) helped provide more liquidity for loan originators. However, somewhere along the way, these GSEs lost their way, as they pursued profitability without regard to risk and heedlessly bought mortgages without considering quality.

The overabundance of poor quality mortgages led to the housing …


Municipal Predatory Lending Regulation In Ohio: The Disproportionate Impact Of Preemption In Ohio's Cities, Brett Altier Jan 2011

Municipal Predatory Lending Regulation In Ohio: The Disproportionate Impact Of Preemption In Ohio's Cities, Brett Altier

Cleveland State Law Review

Whether in the case of predatory lending or other issues that will differ from location to location, municipalities should continue to protect their cities by exercising their power under the Home Rule Amendment to enforce regulations not in direct conflict with Ohio law. Even though the Framers of the Home Rule Amendment intended to protect municipal power by ensuring that only those ordinances in actual conflict would be voided, Ohio courts have denied municipalities their Home Rule police power by applying a conflict by implication test, contributing to the housing crisis still plaguing Ohio's cities. While Ohio courts have made …


The Need To Prioritize The Affirmative Furthering Of Fair Housing: A Case Statement, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, James Robert Breymaier Jan 2009

The Need To Prioritize The Affirmative Furthering Of Fair Housing: A Case Statement, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, James Robert Breymaier

Cleveland State Law Review

The affirmative furthering of fair housing involves racially and economically pro-integrative policies and programs to produce structural changes that expand housing choices and improve individual opportunities.


The Future Of Fair Housing And Fair Credit: From Crisis To Opportunity, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, John A. Powell, Jason Reece Jan 2009

The Future Of Fair Housing And Fair Credit: From Crisis To Opportunity, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, John A. Powell, Jason Reece

Cleveland State Law Review

The following paper provides an assessment of the current housing and credit crisis from a racial justice lens. The paper explores how race was interwoven into the current crisis and demonstrates the racialized impacts of the housing and credit crisis. We also explore some of the current challenges facing fair housing in our society, presenting concepts and models of reform to promote true integration with opportunity. We close with a new paradigm for addressing fair housing in the future and utilizing the opportunities presented by this crisis to produce a fair housing opportunity and a just society for all.


New Strategies For Old Problems: The Fair Housing Act At 40, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, Jeffrey D. Dillman Jan 2009

New Strategies For Old Problems: The Fair Housing Act At 40, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, Jeffrey D. Dillman

Cleveland State Law Review

This article discusses the advances in fair housing since 1968 while analyzing the evidence of persistent discrimination and segregation. It looks at past strategies of the enforcement of the FHA by fair housing groups and the education and outreach performed by the groups. Additionally, the author provides commentary on the future of fair housing.


Jones V. Mayer Revisited, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, Mira Tanna Jan 2009

Jones V. Mayer Revisited, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, Mira Tanna

Cleveland State Law Review

This article revisits Jones v. Mayer. Jones v. Mayer, decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1968, was the first Supreme Court case to rule that the Civil Rights Act of 1866--which guarantees the same right of all citizens to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property as is enjoyed by white citizens--applies not only to actions of the state but also to private parties.


Substantial Equivalency And The Future Of Fair Housing In Ohio, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, G. Michael Payton, Matthew D. Miko Jan 2009

Substantial Equivalency And The Future Of Fair Housing In Ohio, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, G. Michael Payton, Matthew D. Miko

Cleveland State Law Review

This article reviews recent Ohio court decisions and discusses their potential impact on the continued certification of the state's fair housing law as “substantially equivalent.” It also addresses several responsive steps being taken by the Ohio Civil Rights Commission in order to re-establish the rights and responsibilities under the state's fair housing law.


Judicial Remedies In Pattern And Practice Suits Under The Fair Housing Act Of 1968: United States V. City Of Parma, Karen E. Rubin Jan 1984

Judicial Remedies In Pattern And Practice Suits Under The Fair Housing Act Of 1968: United States V. City Of Parma, Karen E. Rubin

Cleveland State Law Review

The elimination of racially segregated housing is a national goal of high priority. This goal is reflected in the pronouncements of law-makers and policy shapers, in decisional law, and in the existence of federal and state legislation designed to eradicate ghettos and replace them with "truly integrated and balanced" communities. Yet segregated housing patterns persist, often finding their source and legitimization in the policies and practices of local governments. This Note will examine an Ohio decision, United States v. City of Parma, and its impact on two issues: the bringing of a "pattern and practice" suit under Title VII of …


Maintaining Residential Integration: Municipal Practices And Law, Kermit J. Lind Jan 1982

Maintaining Residential Integration: Municipal Practices And Law, Kermit J. Lind

Cleveland State Law Review

This Article focuses on the policies and programs that can be established to sustain racial diversity in housing. It reviews the circumstances that give rise to such policies and programs, describes the legal framework within which they must be fit, and examines some of them in light of the needs and interests of policy makers in communities that are open to minority groups. Since effective housing integration policies and programs can vary significantly from one place to another, each municipality must consider its options in view of its circumstances and the changing conditions in its housing market. In response to …


Reforming The Mobile Home Tenant-Landlord Relationship: The Ohio Experience, Edward G. Kramer, James Buchanan, Marilyn Tobocman Sobol Jan 1981

Reforming The Mobile Home Tenant-Landlord Relationship: The Ohio Experience, Edward G. Kramer, James Buchanan, Marilyn Tobocman Sobol

Cleveland State Law Review

Ohio ranks among the top ten states for the total number of existing mobile homes. In addition, the sale of new and used mobile homes in Ohio has grown into a multi-million dollar business. Ohio has been slow, however, to respond to the needs of housing consumers who choose to live in mobile homes. Not until late 1977 was there a landlord-tenant law for mobile home residents. This article will review the development of the Ohio mobile home landlord-tenant law and the rights and obligations of mobile homeowners and park operators under this law.


Conversion Condominium Development: An Issue Of Tenants' Rights, Amy R. Goldstein Jan 1981

Conversion Condominium Development: An Issue Of Tenants' Rights, Amy R. Goldstein

Cleveland State Law Review

It is against the backdrop of burgeoning condominium conversion activity, rental housing shortages and diverse legislative controls that this Note will examine the issue of tenant protection as it has developed in Ohio. The consideration given to conversion condominium development in the 1978 amendments to the Ohio Condominium Property Act creates minimal, if any, protection for either tenants or the rental housing market. This Note will critically examine the pertinent provision of the Ohio Act, outline the municipal tenant protection laws which have subsequently been enacted in metropolitan Cleveland communities and consider the issue of whether these local conversion regulations …


The Cleveland Housing Court Act: New Answer To An Old Problem, Frederic P. White Jan 1981

The Cleveland Housing Court Act: New Answer To An Old Problem, Frederic P. White

Cleveland State Law Review

This Article will critically examine the Housing Court's historical setting, constitutional foundation and jurisdictional powers. In addition, comparison with systems established in other states provides possible alternative suggestions for successful operation. Finally, an in-depth analysis of current problems, including inadequate funds and staff, political manipulation and protracted procedural delays, seeks to answer the question of whether the Housing Court will become a meaningful and positive force for change, or simply an "indecisive, inefficient and interminable" bureaucratic nightmare.


Implied Warranties In Ohio Home Sales, Susan B. Brooks Jan 1981

Implied Warranties In Ohio Home Sales, Susan B. Brooks

Cleveland State Law Review

The majority of states other than Ohio have rejected the caveat emptor doctrine and adopted an implied warranty of habitability in the sale of new homes, but the irony of this situation is that it was an Ohio case, Vanderschrier v. Aaron, that first recognized implied warranties in the sale of a home. This Note will demonstrate that Ohio should adopt an implied warranty of habitability in the sale of new homes by builder-vendors.


Urban Housing Finance And The Redlining Controversy, Daniel F. Reidy Jan 1976

Urban Housing Finance And The Redlining Controversy, Daniel F. Reidy

Cleveland State Law Review

This note will focus upon three basic issues raised by the redlining controversy: first, whether or not redlining is in fact occurring; second, the role of government through legislation and regulatory agencies; third, emerging areas of litigation.


Pioneering Approaches To Confront Sex Bias In Housing, Betsey Friedman Jan 1975

Pioneering Approaches To Confront Sex Bias In Housing, Betsey Friedman

Cleveland State Law Review

This Note will be a national review of the past experiences with and potential action in the area of sex discrimination in residential real estate transactions. Emphasis will be on sex discrimination in the rental of real property, with a brief review of the more commonly acknowledged problem of credit discrimination in home sale financing. The present suitability of available state remedies will be discussed, with an analysis of the charges filed. And, the emergence of Fair Housing Act racial litigation will be explored, with a view towards its application in sex discrimination housing cases.


Compulsory Home Repair Laws, Maynard L. Graft Jr. Jan 1971

Compulsory Home Repair Laws, Maynard L. Graft Jr.

Cleveland State Law Review

In recent years legislative bodies at various levels of government have recognized the need for legally requiring the maintenance of housing at certain minimum standards. Such regulation has been deemed necessary because of the deterioration experienced by practically every major city in America. This deterioration causes a downward spiral usually resulting in complete blight in the deteriorating area. The first step toward blight is slight deterioration followed by neglect of repairs by owners and landlords (the latter neglect is an attempt to maintain a high return on investment, the former because of loss of faith in the quality of the …


Impact Of A Community Association On Integrated Suburban Housing Patterns, Stephen J. Alfred, Charles R. Marcoux Jan 1970

Impact Of A Community Association On Integrated Suburban Housing Patterns, Stephen J. Alfred, Charles R. Marcoux

Cleveland State Law Review

Community associations-neighbors who join together in recognition of common interests and sometimes in pursuit of greater political influence-appear and disappear with the ebb and flow of local issues. Home community organizations have concerned themselves with installation of improvements, such as sidewalks and sewers; others, with the quality of municipal services, property maintenance, and compliance with building and zoning laws. More recently, however, such community organizations have sprung into life for the purpose of dealing with the emotionally-charged issue of racial integration in their neighborhoods. This paper will explore the development of The Lomond Association, a community organization committed to a …


Damages In Housing Discrimination Cases, James A. Ciocia Jan 1970

Damages In Housing Discrimination Cases, James A. Ciocia

Cleveland State Law Review

The existance of a shortage of adequate housing in the United States has further intensified the problems of those who suffer most when there is a shortage of anything-the minority groups. ... Contributing to the awareness of the public is the salient fact that within the last ten years there has been a consistent increase in the number of court cases dealing with housing discrimination. The scope of these cases has expanded from what had been a broad interpretation of public accommodation statutes to the award of damages, both compensatory and punitive, for private acts of discrimination which allegedly precipitated …


Effects Of Fair Housing Laws On Single Family Homes, Joseph C. Hunter Jan 1970

Effects Of Fair Housing Laws On Single Family Homes, Joseph C. Hunter

Cleveland State Law Review

In 1965 the 106th Ohio General Assembly passed Ohio's first fair housing law effective October 30, 1965. Doing so, the Ohio legislature extended the jurisdiction of the existing Ohio Civil Rights Commission to the field of housing. By excluding single and double owner-occupied residential dwellings, the 1965 law had a limited effect upon approximately fifty per cent of the housing in the state of Ohio. This paper will not deal with the unlawful practices involving lending institutions, restrictive covenants or blockbusting. Instead it will address itself to the administration of that portion of Chapter 4112 of the Ohio Revised Code …


State Legislative Response To The Housing Crisis, Richard E. Streeter, David G. Davies, Arthur V. N. Brooks Jan 1970

State Legislative Response To The Housing Crisis, Richard E. Streeter, David G. Davies, Arthur V. N. Brooks

Cleveland State Law Review

Great public attention has recently been focused on the crisis in housing facing all major urban areas in this country. This article has been prepared to bring close attention to one segment of the hoped for solution-legislative action needed on the state level.


Effect Of Usury Laws On Home Ownership Needs, Richard S. Stoddart, Earl R. Hoover Jan 1970

Effect Of Usury Laws On Home Ownership Needs, Richard S. Stoddart, Earl R. Hoover

Cleveland State Law Review

In this paper we examine usury laws which thwart the thrift industry, particularly savings and loan associations, from entering fully into the needed home financing picture of the 1970's. If there is virtue in owning a home, be it a normal house, mobile home, condominium or a 99-year leasehold, (and the very basis of American life suggests that there is), and if the predicted housing boom is actually to occur, substantial changes should be made in laws which frustrate home financing.


Hidden Risks In Real Estate Title Transactions, Sherman Hollander Jan 1970

Hidden Risks In Real Estate Title Transactions, Sherman Hollander

Cleveland State Law Review

No amount of care can avoid certain of the title hazards which a real estate transaction may encounter. The most careful attorney can do little or nothing, in such situations, to sidestep the pitfalls. In at least some such cases the legislature could provide relief by reducing the risk to innocent parties. To do so requires perceptive review of some timehonored concepts. A number of types of other problems exist where a careful attorney may reduce the risk faced by his client. Even here perhaps the legislature could consider statutory improvements. It would be more fair and equitable if extraordinary …


Aesthetics And The Police Power, Robert J. Dicello Jan 1969

Aesthetics And The Police Power, Robert J. Dicello

Cleveland State Law Review

Under the Ohio Constitution municipalities have the authority to exercise all powers of local self-government. This authority is exercised through police power which is sufficient to support the enactment and enforcement of a wide variety of regulations which serve the public welfare. The police power, then, is the means whereby there is delegated by the state to the municipality effective power to promote and protect the general welfare. The purpose of any enforceable ordinance established under the police power must be directly related to the general welfare of the community wherein it operates.


Housing Code Enforcement - A New Approach, Richard J. Marco, James P. Mancino Jan 1969

Housing Code Enforcement - A New Approach, Richard J. Marco, James P. Mancino

Cleveland State Law Review

Recognizing the national housing crises and the inadequate progress toward solutions through the utilization of either present code enforcement techniques or the ponderous urban renewal processes, new methods, techniques and approaches for the enforcement of housing code standards were sought.


Tenant Unions: Legal Rights Of Members, Volodymyr O. Bazarko Jan 1969

Tenant Unions: Legal Rights Of Members, Volodymyr O. Bazarko

Cleveland State Law Review

Various articles have been written about the sociological aspects of tenant unions. This paper will consider, however, only the following tenant union problems: 1. the right of a tenant union to provide an attorney to represent its members in the litigation of personal causes against the landlord; 2. the right of a tenant union, acting as an entity, to bargain collectively with the landlord, sign a contract with him, and then enforce the contract; 3. the right of a tenant union to sue the landlord on behalf of its members.