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2017

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Educational Equality For Children With Disabilities: The 2016 Term Cases, Samuel R. Bagenstos Nov 2017

Educational Equality For Children With Disabilities: The 2016 Term Cases, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Book Chapters

One of the most longstanding debates in educational policy pits the goal of equality against the goal of adequacy: Should we aim to guarantee that all children receive an equal education? Or simply that they all receive an adequate education? The debate is vexing in part because there are many ways to specify “equality” and “adequacy.” Are we talking about equality of inputs (which inputs?), equality of opportunity (to achieve what?), or equality of results (which results?)? Douglas Rae and his colleagues famously argued that there are no fewer than 108 structurally distinct conceptions of equality. And how do we …


Defense Counsel And Public Defence, Eve Brensike Primus Nov 2017

Defense Counsel And Public Defence, Eve Brensike Primus

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Public-defense delivery systems nationwide are grossly inadequate. Public defenders are forced to handle caseloads that no one could effectively manage. They often have no funding for investigation or expert assistance. They aren’t adequately trained, and there is little to no oversight of their work. In many jurisdictions, the public-defense function is not sufficiently independent of the judiciary or the elected branches to allow for zealous representation. The result is an assembly line into prison, mostly for poor people of color, with little check on the reliability or fairness of the process. Innocent people are convicted, precious resources are wasted, and …


Prisoners With Disabilities, Margo Schlanger Nov 2017

Prisoners With Disabilities, Margo Schlanger

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A majority of American prisoners have at least one disability. So how jails and prisons deal with those prisoners’ needs is central to institutional safety and humaneness, and to reentry success or failure. In this chapter, I explain what current law requires of prison and jail officials, focusing on statutory and constitutional law mandating non-discrimination, accommodation, integration, and treatment. Jails and prisons have been very slow to learn the most general lesson of these strictures, which is that officials must individualize their assessment of and response to prisoners with disabilities. In addition, I look past current law to additional policies …


Understanding What The Vienna Convention Says About Identifying And Using 'Sources For Treaty Interpretation', Donald H. Regan Oct 2017

Understanding What The Vienna Convention Says About Identifying And Using 'Sources For Treaty Interpretation', Donald H. Regan

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International trade law is overwhelmingly treaty-based. In the traditional sense of ‘sources of law’, the World Trade Organization (WTO) treaty is the unique source of WTO law, for practical purposes. Customary law and general principles play (p. 1048) virtually no role as independent sources of substantive law. But the WTO treaty, like any treaty, requires interpretation, and there are vexed questions about what we might call the ‘sources for treaty interpretation’. What materials other than the treaty text may be used in interpreting the treaty? And how are they to be used? These questions arise both for materials internal to …


Joseph Weiler, Eric Stein, And The Transformation Of Constitutional Law, Daniel Halberstam Oct 2017

Joseph Weiler, Eric Stein, And The Transformation Of Constitutional Law, Daniel Halberstam

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This chapter pursues that idea in three parts. Part I reviews the key contributions of The Transformation of Europe. Part II takes us back for a critical analysis of the idea of ‘constitutionalism’ as first developed by Eric Stein and then deployed by Joseph Weiler. On closer inspection, we shall see here that The Transformation of Europe may have neglected a core element of constitutional law, something this chapter terms a ‘generative space’ for law and politics. As this part further explains, recognising this generative element of constitutionalism lies at the heart of the struggle to make sense both practically …


Enforcement Of Corporate And Securities Laws In India: The Arrival Of The Class Action?, Vikramaditya S. Khanna Sep 2017

Enforcement Of Corporate And Securities Laws In India: The Arrival Of The Class Action?, Vikramaditya S. Khanna

Book Chapters

Chapter from Enforcement of Corporate and Securities Law: China and the World. Howson, N.C. and Huang, R.H., eds.

Corporate governance in Asia has garnered a great deal of recent scholarly attention.1 One topic that permeates discussions across countries is the enforcement of corporate and securities laws – with some countries relying primarily on public enforcement (i.e. enforcement by government) while others rely on some combination of public and private enforcement (i.e. enforcement by private shareholders). Further, understanding how enforcement is operationalised and its concomitant strengths and weaknesses enables us to better appreciate the actual corporate governance situation in many …


Conclusion - Between "Law In Books" And "Law In Action", Nicholas C. Howson, H. Huang Sep 2017

Conclusion - Between "Law In Books" And "Law In Action", Nicholas C. Howson, H. Huang

Book Chapters

Any attempt to comprehensively analyse the enforcement of corporate law and securities regulation is difficult, not only because there are so many distinct national systems in play, but also because, we need to examine both formal enforcement mechanisms and the way in which such mechanisms are applied in practice. If nothing else, the expert analyses presented in the foregoing chapters of this book confirm that with respect to enforcement issues a rather large gap does exist between what Roscoe Pound memorably called 'law in books' and 'law in action'.


Private Enforcement Of Company Law And Securities Regulation In Korea, Hwa-Jin Kim Aug 2017

Private Enforcement Of Company Law And Securities Regulation In Korea, Hwa-Jin Kim

Book Chapters

This chapter offers a brief overview of the private enforcement of corporate law and securities regulation in Korea, with particular reference to the current legislative efforts in the Korean National Assembly and recent court cases. This chapter also talks about Korea’s ill-fated and misguided adoption of the fraud-on-the-market theory in securities fraud litigation.


Supervising Outsourcing: The Need For Better Design Of Blended Governance, Nina A. Mendelson Apr 2017

Supervising Outsourcing: The Need For Better Design Of Blended Governance, Nina A. Mendelson

Book Chapters

We are long past the “vending machine”-style privatization of government functions – where the government contracts to buy a discrete product or service at a set price, whether aircraft components or landscaping. Government is increasingly enlisting, or collaborating with, private entities for functions long perceived as distinctly public. Private entities may make policy explicitly (through standards that agencies later adopt) or implicitly (through the third party verification of compliance with regulatory objectives). For example, the Department of Health and Human Services relies on the recommendations of an American Medical Association committee of specialist physicians to establish Medicare physician payments, while …


Comment On 'Fundamental Tax Reform: A Comparison Of Three Options', James R. Hines Jr. Mar 2017

Comment On 'Fundamental Tax Reform: A Comparison Of Three Options', James R. Hines Jr.

Book Chapters

Alan Viard’s chapter, “Fundamental Tax Reform: A Comparison of Three Options” is a thoughtful, even-handed, and most worthwhile contribution to the analysis of major reforms that, if adopted, would move the tax system strongly in the direction of taxing consumption. The chapter nicely illustrates the complexity of the tax reform problem by exposing a range of available reform options, with an accompanying range of welfare implications. Even among tax reforms with common objectives, there can be strongly differing economic and distributional consequences. Furthermore, otherwise-similar reforms can and do appeal to very different political constituencies....


Public Policy And The Legislative Process, Sheila A. Leander, David F. Walz Jan 2017

Public Policy And The Legislative Process, Sheila A. Leander, David F. Walz

Book Chapters

No abstract provided.


Introduction To Feminist Judgments: Rewritten Tax Opinions, Anthony C. Infanti, Bridget J. Crawford Jan 2017

Introduction To Feminist Judgments: Rewritten Tax Opinions, Anthony C. Infanti, Bridget J. Crawford

Book Chapters

Could a feminist perspective change the shape of the tax law? Most people understand that feminist reasoning has tremendous potential to affect, for example, the law of employment discrimination, sexual harassment, and reproductive rights. Few people may be aware, however, that feminist analysis can likewise transform tax law (as well as other statutory or code-based areas of the law). By highlighting the importance of perspective, background, and preconceptions on the reading and interpretation of statutes, Feminist Judgments: Rewritten Tax Opinions shows what a difference feminist analysis can make to statutory interpretation. This volume, part of the Feminist Judgments Series, brings …


Governing Medical Knowledge Commons - Introduction And Chapter 1, Katherine J. Strandburg, Brett M. Frischmann, Michael J. Madison Jan 2017

Governing Medical Knowledge Commons - Introduction And Chapter 1, Katherine J. Strandburg, Brett M. Frischmann, Michael J. Madison

Book Chapters

Governing Medical Knowledge Commons makes three claims: first, evidence matters to innovation policymaking; second, evidence shows that self-governing knowledge commons support effective innovation without prioritizing traditional intellectual property rights; and third, knowledge commons can succeed in the critical fields of medicine and health. The editors' knowledge commons framework adapts Elinor Ostrom's groundbreaking research on natural resource commons to the distinctive attributes of knowledge and information, providing a systematic means for accumulating evidence about how knowledge commons succeed. The editors' previous volume, Governing Knowledge Commons, demonstrated the framework's power through case studies in a diverse range of areas. Governing Medical Knowledge …


Blackstone, Expositor And Censor Of Law Both Made And Found, Jessie Allen Jan 2017

Blackstone, Expositor And Censor Of Law Both Made And Found, Jessie Allen

Book Chapters

Jeremy Bentham famously insisted on the separation of law as it is and law as it should be, and criticized his contemporary William Blackstone for mixing up the two. According to Bentham, Blackstone costumes judicial invention as discovery, obscuring the way judges make new law while pretending to uncover preexisting legal meaning. Bentham’s critique of judicial phoniness persists to this day in claims that judges are “politicians in robes” who pick the outcome they desire and rationalize it with doctrinal sophistry. Such skeptical attacks are usually met with attempts to defend doctrinal interpretation as a partial or occasional limit on …


Formulary Apportionment And International Tax Rules, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Zachee Pouga Tinhaga Jan 2017

Formulary Apportionment And International Tax Rules, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Zachee Pouga Tinhaga

Book Chapters

Any proposal to adopt unitary taxation (UT) of multinationals has to contend with whether such taxation is compatible with existing international tax rules, and, in particular, with the bilateral tax treaty network. Indeed, some researchers have argued that the separate accounting (SA) method and the arm’s length standard (ALS), introduced in the early twentieth century, are so embodied in the treaties that they form part of customary international law, and are binding even in the absence of a treaty. We disagree, because the unitary approach is just as widely embodied in most of the current international tax treaties, and, where …


Fetishizing Copies, Jessica Litman Jan 2017

Fetishizing Copies, Jessica Litman

Book Chapters

Our copyright laws encourage authors to create new works and communicate them to the public, because we hope that people will read the books, listen to the music, see the art, watch the films, run the software, and build and inhabit the buildings. That is the way that copyright promotes the Progress of Science. Recently, that not-very-controversial principle has collided with copyright owners’ conviction that they should be able to control, or at least collect royalties from, all uses of their works. A particularly ill-considered manifestation of this conviction is what I have decided to call copy-fetish. This is the …


Law Library: 1859-2017, Barbara H. Garavaglia Jan 2017

Law Library: 1859-2017, Barbara H. Garavaglia

Book Chapters

The Law Library was established in 1859 as part of the Law Department and continues to be "maintained and administered as a part of the instruction and research operation of the Law School." The library has been considered the "apparatus" of the Law Department and "the lawyer's laboratory." Indeed, this underlying view led the library to build a comprehensive collection that would provide "the means necessary for original investigation" and "permit scholars to do research work in any field of law, regardless of country or period." The collection development policy--to collect primary sources of law: statutes, civil law codes, court …


The Law School (2013), Margaret A. Leary Jan 2017

The Law School (2013), Margaret A. Leary

Book Chapters

This chapter describes the growth and changes to the University of Michigan Law School for the period 1973-2013.


The Administrative State In America, William J. Novak Jan 2017

The Administrative State In America, William J. Novak

Book Chapters

The purpose of this contribution is to examine the idea of the Continental State in a common-law context. To that effect, the focus of this essay is the American state. Typically, in comparing the American regime to the Continental idea of the state, much has been made of a so-called tradition of ‘American exceptionalism’. Alexis de Tocqueville perhaps started this trend when he observed in the United States distinctive qualities of individualism, associationalism, localism, and decentralization, but not many inklings of a modern state. ‘The federal government of the United States’, he mistakenly surmised in the early nineteenth century, ‘is …


Preface, Robin H. Huang, Nicholas C. Howson Jan 2017

Preface, Robin H. Huang, Nicholas C. Howson

Book Chapters

This volume collects the fruits of an unprecedented international academic conference, ‘Public and Private Enforcement of Company Law and Securities Regulation – China and the World’, which was held at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) in December 2014 and convened by the Centre for Financial Regulation and Economic Development (CFRED) of the Faculty of Law of CUHK, the University of Michigan Law School and the Lieberthal Rogel Center for Chinese Studies at the University of Michigan. The aim of the conference was to gather, in one place and at one time, some of the world’s top academic specialists, …


Legal Issues In Child Welfare Cases Involving Children With Disabilities, Joshua B. Kay, Frank E. Vandervort Jan 2017

Legal Issues In Child Welfare Cases Involving Children With Disabilities, Joshua B. Kay, Frank E. Vandervort

Book Chapters

This chapter examines the legal framework applicable when child maltreatment and disability intersect. It begins with a brief description of the constitutional foundation forparent-child-state relations. It provides an overview of relevant federal child welfare laws, which today shape each state’s child protection system. It then considers the application of various federal laws governing work with children and families when a child has a disability. In doing so, we consider the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and we touch upon Social Security benefits for children. This chapter does not …


War/Crimes And The Limits Of The Doctrine Of Sources, Steven R. Ratner Jan 2017

War/Crimes And The Limits Of The Doctrine Of Sources, Steven R. Ratner

Book Chapters

International humanitarian law (IHL) and international criminal law (ICL) are the product of lawmaking processes that are not captured in the black-letter doctrine of sources under which Article 38 of the ICJ Statute is the rule of recognition for international law. Despite efforts by certain institutional players and scholars to place these two regimes squarely within Article 38, both remain distinct in terms of how actors determine whether a purported rule is a legal rule. These distinctions constitute a challenge to the idea of a unified rule of recognition and argue instead for looking for indicators (not rules) about a …


Putting The 'Public' In Public Administration: The Rise Of The Public Utility Idea, William J. Novak Jan 2017

Putting The 'Public' In Public Administration: The Rise Of The Public Utility Idea, William J. Novak

Book Chapters

From the perspective of American legal history, one of the most important and lasting themes in the work of Jerry L. Mashaw is his definitive establishment of the long and deep historical origins of American administrative law and the administrative state. Mashaw's remarkable charting of “The Lost One Hundred Years of American Administrative Law” is a monumental achievement that forever alters the established chronology and history of the administrative regulatory state in the USA. Through his emphasis on what Bruce Wyman dubbed the “internal law” of administration, Mashaw identified a new route into a previously undiscovered (or at least underacknowledged) …


Democratic States Of Unexception: Towards A New Genealogy Of The American Political, William J. Novak, Stephen W. Sawyer, James T. Sparrow Jan 2017

Democratic States Of Unexception: Towards A New Genealogy Of The American Political, William J. Novak, Stephen W. Sawyer, James T. Sparrow

Book Chapters

This chapter takes issue with the history and theory of exception along these three lines. The first section offers a critique of the idea of law at the heart of the theory of exception. By taking a closer look at the history and theory of law in early nineteenth-century America, it offers an alternative reading of the role of exception in Emerson’s America – a place and time in which the exception in law was anything but exceptional. The second section offers a critique of the idea of state and sovereignty at the heart of the theory of exception in …


Mandatory Arbitration In Consumer Finance And Investor Contracts, Michael S. Barr Jan 2017

Mandatory Arbitration In Consumer Finance And Investor Contracts, Michael S. Barr

Book Chapters

This chapter focuses on the use of mandatory pre-dispute arbitration clauses in a subset of consumer contracts – those involving consumer finance and investor products and services. Arbitration clauses are pervasive in financial contracts – for credit cards, bank accounts, auto loans, broker-dealer services, and many others. In the wake of the recent financial crisis, Congress enacted the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank). Dodd-Frank authorises the new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to prohibit or condition the use of arbitration clauses in consumer finance and investment contracts, …