Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

BYU Law Review

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year

Articles 1 - 30 of 2297

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Market For Bankruptcy Courts: A Case For Regulation, Not Obliteration, Brook E. Gotberg Jan 2024

The Market For Bankruptcy Courts: A Case For Regulation, Not Obliteration, Brook E. Gotberg

BYU Law Review

Large corporate debtors typically file for bankruptcy only after conducting a thorough analysis as to the most favorable venue for the case. Recent legislation has proposed to severely limit all corporate debtors’ ability to select bankruptcy venue. The messaging behind calls for venue reform is outwardly altruistic: it is said to be necessary to facilitate access to justice and to prevent abuse of the system. However, the push for venue reform is largely driven by professional envy and a distrust of specific judges based on unpopular high-profile rulings. Placing new constraints on the ability to choose venue will not achieve …


Ukraine, Urban Warfare, And Obstacles To Humanitarian Access: A Predicament Of Public International Law, Harriet Norcross Eppel Jan 2024

Ukraine, Urban Warfare, And Obstacles To Humanitarian Access: A Predicament Of Public International Law, Harriet Norcross Eppel

BYU Law Review

Humanitarian assistance is not carried out in a vacuum. As urban warfare historically complicates humanitarian aid’s access to civilians in war zones, Ukraine, having suffered and still facing highly publicized violence in civilian-dense areas, has encountered dire obstacles in acquiring necessary resources for civilians’ survival, including both direct and incidental attacks on humanitarian access. Thus, it is vital the international legal community take measures to mitigate current and future dangers of urban warfare, as well as design new solutions, such as strengthening current international law under which obstructing humanitarian access constitutes a violation of jus cogens principles, attempting to induce …


Valuing Esg, Aneil Kovvali, Yair Listokin Jan 2024

Valuing Esg, Aneil Kovvali, Yair Listokin

BYU Law Review

Corporate environmental, social, and governance (ESG) commitments promise to make capitalism better. Unfortunately, ESG has become a hotbed of hype and controversy. The core problem is that ESG mixes vague environmental and social goals with a profit maximization goal and does not provide a framework for resolving the conflicts that exist between them. The result is confusion that invites deception and cynicism. This Article proposes a mechanism for resolving conflicts between goals by translating them into the common language of money. Once nonpecuniary environmental or social goals are translated into dollar values, they can provide clear and actionable guidance for …


Exploring Flexibility In 83(B) Elections: A Tax Policy Proposal, Brayden Call Jan 2024

Exploring Flexibility In 83(B) Elections: A Tax Policy Proposal, Brayden Call

BYU Law Review

Property awards, such as equity, are taxable to the recipient and have tax implications for employers, too. Without a recipient making an 83(b) election, property awards are taxable when they are granted. For awards that have vesting requirements or are considered “restricted,” they are generally taxable upon vesting. However, making an 83(b) election allows recipients of restricted property awards to be taxed as if the property were vested, meaning more income will shift from ordinary tax rate treatment to preferential tax rate treatment.

The preferential tax system is foundational to the 83(b) election. Advocates believe that preferential tax rates in …


Garrity Immunity And The U.S. Armed Forces, Bretton H. Laudeman, Gabriel J. Chin Jan 2024

Garrity Immunity And The U.S. Armed Forces, Bretton H. Laudeman, Gabriel J. Chin

BYU Law Review

The U.S. military is one of the nation’s largest and most important public employers. Given the unique nature of military service, the service branches have a strong interest in ensuring the integrity of their ranks. Yet the military lacks a critical force-management tool used by every other public employer to investigate workplace misconduct: the ability to demand answers to potentially incriminating questions under Garrity v. New Jersey, 385 U.S. 493 (1967). The Garrity solution, known as “Garrity immunity,” strikes a critical balance between the government’s interests in workplace oversight and accountability with the employee’s Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination by …


War And Ip, Peter K. Yu Jan 2024

War And Ip, Peter K. Yu

BYU Law Review

This Article examines wartime and postwar protection of intellectual property rights, with a focus on the Russo-Ukrainian War that broke out in February 2022. It begins by showing that armed conflicts are not new to the international intellectual property regime and that this regime already contains robust structural features and carefully drafted safeguards, limitations, and flexibilities to protect intellectual property rights holders during wartime. The Article then explores the international intellectual property obligations of countries that are parties to an armed conflict as well as those that are not directly involved but have imposed sanctions on belligerent states. This Article …


Balance In The Basin, Casey Lee Mcclellan Dec 2023

Balance In The Basin, Casey Lee Mcclellan

BYU Law Review

The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) changed the way land managers and users interact with public lands. However, its stringent requirements are not responsive to today’s environmental and economic realities. For the future of sustainable mineral extraction, there must be a better way. Adaptive management, a more flexible planning process, should be used on public lands to ensure greater leeway for operators, environmentalists, and local economies. By analyzing rural northeastern Utah’s Uinta Basin’s history and existing public land use plans, this Note applies adaptive management to the area to show how thinking outside the box can solve seemingly unsolvable problems.


“Any”, James J. Brudney, Ethan J. Leib Dec 2023

“Any”, James J. Brudney, Ethan J. Leib

BYU Law Review

Our statute books use the word “any” ubiquitously in coverage and exclusion provisions. As any reader of the Supreme Court’s statutory interpretation docket would know, a large number of cases turn on the contested application of this so-called universal quantifier. It is hard to make sense of the jurisprudence of “any.” And any effort to offer a unified approach—knowing precisely when its scope is expansive (along the “literal-meaning” lines of “every” and “all”) or confining (having a contained domain related to properties provided by contextual cues)—is likely to fail. This Article examines legislative drafting manuals, surveys centuries of Court decisions, …


Hidden Contracts, Shmuel I. Becher, Uri Benoliel Dec 2023

Hidden Contracts, Shmuel I. Becher, Uri Benoliel

BYU Law Review

Transparency is a promising means for enhancing democratic values, countering corruption, and reducing power abuse. Nonetheless, the potential of transparency in the domain of consumer contracts is untapped. This Article suggests utilizing the power of transparency to increase consumer access to justice, better distribute technological gains between businesses and consumers, and deter sellers from breaching their consumer contracts while exploiting consumers’ inferior position.

In doing so, this Article focuses on what we dub “Hidden Contracts.” Part I conceptualizes the idea of hidden contracts. It first defines hidden contracts as consumer form contracts that firms unilaterally modify and subsequently remove from …


Bill Of Rights Nondelegation, Eli Nachmany Dec 2023

Bill Of Rights Nondelegation, Eli Nachmany

BYU Law Review

Speculation about the “revival” of the nondelegation doctrine has reached a fever pitch. Although the Supreme Court apparently has not applied the nondelegation doctrine to declare a federal statute unconstitutional since 1935, the doctrine may be making a comeback. The common understanding is that the nondelegation doctrine prohibits Congress from “delegating” legislative power to the executive branch. While the nondelegation doctrine may appear to be about limiting Congress, its ultimate target is delegation. But if the nondelegation doctrine is about policing delegation, then the Court has been regularly — and rigorously — applying the doctrine in a different context: In …


Twenty-First Century Split: Partisan, Racial, And Gender Differences In Circuit Judges Following Earlier Opinions, Stuart Minor Benjamin, Kevin M. Quinn, Byungkoo Kim Dec 2023

Twenty-First Century Split: Partisan, Racial, And Gender Differences In Circuit Judges Following Earlier Opinions, Stuart Minor Benjamin, Kevin M. Quinn, Byungkoo Kim

BYU Law Review

Judges shape the law with their votes and the reasoning in their opinions. An important element of the latter is which opinions they follow, and thus elevate, and which they cast doubt on, and thus diminish. Using a unique and comprehensive dataset containing the substantive Shepard’s treatments of all circuit court published and unpublished majority opinions issued between 1974 and 2017, we examine the relationship between judges’ substantive treatments of earlier appellate cases and their party, race, and gender. Are judges more likely to follow opinions written by colleagues of the same party, race, or gender? What we find is …


Byte A Carrot For Change: Uprooting Problems In Data Privacy Regulations, Sarah Terry Dec 2023

Byte A Carrot For Change: Uprooting Problems In Data Privacy Regulations, Sarah Terry

BYU Law Review

There is a growing gap between technology advancement and a lagging regulatory system. This is particularly problematic in consumer data privacy regulating. Companies hold collected consumer data and determine its use largely without accountability. As a result, ethical questions that carry society-shaping impact are answered in-house, under the influence of groupthink, and are withheld from anyone else weighing in.

This Note poses a solution that would address multiple data privacy regulation issues. Namely, an incentive approach would help even out the information-imbalanced system. Incentives are used as tools throughout intellectual property law to foster commercial progress, discourage trade secrets, and …


The Right To Be Proselytized Under International Law, Ryan Cheney Nov 2023

The Right To Be Proselytized Under International Law, Ryan Cheney

BYU Law Review

Legal analyses of proselytism have tended to focus on the rights of the proselytizer and on the right of the target of proselytism, or “proselytizee,” to be free from such “interference.” However, such analyses do not fully account for all rights involved in proselytism. When people are prevented from being proselytized, such as by law or by persecution, an important consequence is that they are cut off from a significant source of information on and mechanism for exploring and joining other religions. Despite stigmatizations of proselytism, many people regularly accept it and learn about and join other faiths through it. …


When “Close Enough” Is Not Enough: Accommodating The Religiously Devout, Dallan F. Flake Nov 2023

When “Close Enough” Is Not Enough: Accommodating The Religiously Devout, Dallan F. Flake

BYU Law Review

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 requires employers to “reasonably accommodate” employees’ religious practices that conflict with work requirements unless doing so would cause undue hardship to their business operations. Can an accommodation be reasonable if it only partially removes the conflict between an employee’s job and their religious beliefs? For instance, if a Christian employee requests Sundays off because he believes working on his Sabbath is a sin, and his employer responds by giving him Sunday mornings off to attend church services but requires him to work in the afternoon, has the employer provided a reasonable …


Free Exercise Of Abortion, Elizabeth Sepper Nov 2023

Free Exercise Of Abortion, Elizabeth Sepper

BYU Law Review

For too long, religion has been assumed to be in opposition to abortion. Abortions consistent with, motivated by, and compelled from religion have been erased from legal and political discourse. Since the fall of Roe v. Wade, free exercise claims against abortion bans have begun to correct course. Women and faith leaders in several states have filed suit, asserting their religious convictions in favor of abortion. They give form to the reality—as progressive theologians have long argued—that to have a child can be a sacred choice, but not to have a child can also be a sacred choice. And they …


Dignity, Deference, And Discrimination: An Analysis Of Religious Freedom In America’S Prisons, Elyse Slabaugh Nov 2023

Dignity, Deference, And Discrimination: An Analysis Of Religious Freedom In America’S Prisons, Elyse Slabaugh

BYU Law Review

The free exercise of religion often presents a complex reality in prison. Over the years, the standard of scrutiny for free exercise claims has not only been easily alterable but also unclear and inconsistent in its application. Recent legislation, such as RLUIPA and RFRA, has significantly improved the state of religious freedom in prisons. However, two U.S. Supreme Court decisions on RLUIPA—Cutter v. Wilkinson and Holt v. Hobbs—have led to some confusion among lower courts regarding the level of deference that should be afforded to prison officials. Although Holt demonstrated a hard look approach to strict scrutiny, it did nothing …


The Impact Of Religion And Religious Organizations, Elizabeth A. Clark Nov 2023

The Impact Of Religion And Religious Organizations, Elizabeth A. Clark

BYU Law Review

Legal scholars often see religion as a mere private preference, choice, value, or identity with no more meaning or positive social impact than any other preference, choice, value, or identity. If anything, religion’s negative impacts are often highlighted. For example, a focus on the harms of religion often underlies contemporary legal debates about religious exemptions and tensions between religious rights and LGBTQ rights or reproductive rights. Conversely, scholars in other fields have documented religion’s distinctive pro-social features, proposing mechanisms by which religion has unique positive impacts on individuals, families, and society. While recognizing that, for its practitioners, religion has its …


Don’T Say Gay Or God: How Federal Law Threatens Student Religious Rights And Fails To Protect Lgbtq Students, Stephen Mcloughlin Nov 2023

Don’T Say Gay Or God: How Federal Law Threatens Student Religious Rights And Fails To Protect Lgbtq Students, Stephen Mcloughlin

BYU Law Review

Federal law requires schools to protect students from discrimination based on their sexual orientation and gender identity. This protection is based on the principle that students must be free to explore their self-identity within the school environment as part of their intellectual development. Thus, schools must eliminate speech that threatens LGBTQ students based on their gender identity or sexual orientation. However, schools must also protect free speech and religious rights. Indeed, the expression of religious beliefs is also crucial to intellectual growth. Thus, schools must develop student speech policies that protect LGBTQ students from harmful speech while protecting controversial religious …


Transforming Natural Religion: An Essay On Religious Liberty And The Constitution, Steven J. Heyman Jun 2023

Transforming Natural Religion: An Essay On Religious Liberty And The Constitution, Steven J. Heyman

BYU Law Review

Recent Supreme Court decisions such as Burwell v. Hobby Lobby, Masterpiece Cakeshop v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission, and Fulton v. City of Philadelphia raise the fundamental question of what place religion and religious liberty should hold within a liberal constitutional order that is based on a commitment to the freedom, equality, and well-being of all persons. To explore this question, it is natural to begin with an inquiry into what founding–era Americans thought when they incorporated the First Amendment’s Free Exercise Clause into the constitutional order that they were creating. Contrary to the views taken by many judges and scholars, …


Walls Or Bridges: Law’S Role In Conflicts Over Religion And Equal Treatment, Martha Minow Jun 2023

Walls Or Bridges: Law’S Role In Conflicts Over Religion And Equal Treatment, Martha Minow

BYU Law Review

Presented as the Bruce C. Hafen Lecture, Brigham Young University Law School January 18, 2023

“[D]o you see religion as a club or do you see religion as a path? Do you see it as a wall that separates you or do you see it as a bridge that connects you to God and other people?

— Keith Ellison1


A Juror’S Religious Freedom Bill Of Rights, Antony Barone Kolenc Jun 2023

A Juror’S Religious Freedom Bill Of Rights, Antony Barone Kolenc

BYU Law Review

The prosecution of Democrat Congresswoman Corrine Brown for campaign corruption was perhaps the most significant and dramatic political trial ever to hit Northeast Florida—and that was before the Holy Spirit showed up and spoke to Juror 13 during deliberations. The Brown case is the springboard for the article’s focus on a juror’s right to religious liberty, one of the nation’s most precious constitutional rights. The Article addresses first principles behind the process of jury selection in the United States, as well as the importance and safeguarding of religious liberty in the U.S. Constitution. It then proposes six tenets to be …


Private Sanctions, Public Harm?, Jon J. Lee May 2023

Private Sanctions, Public Harm?, Jon J. Lee

BYU Law Review

The legal profession has a secret. In response to widespread public distrust in the profession’s ability to regulate itself, disciplinary authorities have undertaken modest efforts over the last several decades to make their activities more transparent. They have opened up their formal proceedings, publicized the identities of sanctioned attorneys, and shared information about their work online. But at the same time, most have quietly continued to resolve cases of ostensibly “minor” and “isolated” misconduct through private sanctions, keeping the identities of disciplined attorneys – and their misconduct – hidden from view.

This Article takes a comprehensive look at private sanctions …


Undue Mental Hardship: A Case For Standardized Treatment Of Mental Health Issues In Student Loan Discharge Proceedings, Abigail Stone May 2023

Undue Mental Hardship: A Case For Standardized Treatment Of Mental Health Issues In Student Loan Discharge Proceedings, Abigail Stone

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Rebuilding Grid Governance, Joel B. Eisen, Heather E. Payne May 2023

Rebuilding Grid Governance, Joel B. Eisen, Heather E. Payne

BYU Law Review

As climate change sharpens the focus on our electricity systems, there is widespread agreement that the institutions that govern our electric grid must change to realize a clean energy future in the timescale necessary. Scholars are actively debating how grid governance needs to change, but in this Article we demonstrate that current proposals are insufficient because they do not contemplate “rebuilding.” This Article defines “rebuilding” as ending entities tasked with grid governance and creating new ones to take their place. We propose what no one else has: an overarching framework for rebuilding any grid governance institutions.

This Article discusses when …


The Tesla Meets The Fourth Amendment, Adam M. Gershowitz May 2023

The Tesla Meets The Fourth Amendment, Adam M. Gershowitz

BYU Law Review

Can police search a smart car’s computer without a warrant? Although the Supreme Court banned warrantless searches of cell phones incident to arrest in Riley v. California, the Court left the door open for warrantless searches under other exceptions to the warrant requirement. This is the first article to argue that the Fourth Amendment’s automobile exception currently permits the police to warrantlessly dig into a vehicle’s computer system and extract vast amounts of cell phone data. Just as the police can rip open seats or slash tires to search for drugs under the automobile exception, the police can warrantlessly extract …


Contracting As A Class, Caleb N. Griffin May 2023

Contracting As A Class, Caleb N. Griffin

BYU Law Review

Contract law is stuck in a loop of path dependency and stale precedent. Its metaphors, like “the meeting of the minds,” are today laughably implausible. Its values, like “consent,” have been stripped of any real meaning. No one reads or understands the overwhelming majority of contracts to which they agree. And no one should. Reading them is meaningless, because it simply does not matter what they say. Individuals must agree to them – indeed, are effectively forced to agree to them – if they wish to participate in the modern world.

Modern digital contracting is not a collaborative process. Today, …


Regulating Strategic Sovereign Wealth, Paul Rose May 2023

Regulating Strategic Sovereign Wealth, Paul Rose

BYU Law Review

In an era of ascendant globalization, sovereign wealth funds were used by governments around the world – and, in particular, by governments with massive natural resource wealth or balance-of-trade surpluses – to invest widely in foreign markets. Sovereign wealth funds were products of the international economic order then in existence, adapted to a political and economic environment in which borders could be easily crossed and foreign assets seemed abundant and easily acquired. After the Financial Crisis, and with the increasing nationalization seen in the 2010s, this environment began to change. Both domestic and international forces spurred the development of new, …


The Unconstitutional Assertion Of Inherent Powers In Multidistrict Litigations, Robert J. Pushaw, Charles Silver Jan 2023

The Unconstitutional Assertion Of Inherent Powers In Multidistrict Litigations, Robert J. Pushaw, Charles Silver

BYU Law Review

This Article examines the constitutional basis of the federal courts’ independent exercise of “inherent powers” (IPs) that Congress has not specifically authorized. Our analysis illuminates the grave constitutional problems raised by the freewheeling assertion of IPs in multidistrict litigations (MDLs), which comprise over half of all pending federal cases.

The Supreme Court has rhetorically acknowledged that the Constitution allows resort to IPs only when doing so is absolutely necessary to enable Article III courts to exercise their “judicial power,” but has then sustained virtually all exercises of IP, whether essential or not. The Court’s excessive deference has emboldened trial judges …


Osha’S Covid-19 Vaccine Mandate: Why Justice Gorsuch’S Analysis Of The Mandate As An Elephant In A Mousehole Misses The Mark, Wyatt Rex Allred Jan 2023

Osha’S Covid-19 Vaccine Mandate: Why Justice Gorsuch’S Analysis Of The Mandate As An Elephant In A Mousehole Misses The Mark, Wyatt Rex Allred

BYU Law Review

Administrative law doctrines such as Chevron seek to strike a balance between adequate delegated power and sufficient checks on such power. The major questions doctrine reinforces the latter. Recent decisions finding major questions, however, have shown a departure from textualist principles, which formed the doctrine s foundation. Justice Gorsuch's opinion in NFIB v. OSHA is an example of this desertion of textualist principles and should thus be viewed as an improper application of the major questions doctrine. Rather than remodeling the major questions doctrine, textualist judges should acknowledge that this form of anti-textual analysis is nothing short of a revival …


Interested Voting, Matteo Gatti Jan 2023

Interested Voting, Matteo Gatti

BYU Law Review

Corporate law is attentive to transactions with a controlling shareholder, but such transactions hardly cover all instances in which an interested shareholder may harm the corporation by casting a pivotal vote to pass a resolution. Interested votes cast by directors, managers, acquirers, cross-holders, arbitrageurs, institutional investors, hedge funds, and several other actors can be as detrimental as votes by a controlling shareholder. Yet, despite the ever growing influence of shareholders in corporate governance, interested voting has received scant attention.

This Article is the first to offer a systematic mapping of interested voting based on type of shareholder and type of …