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Permitted Incentives For Workplace Wellness Plans Under The Ada And Gina: The Regulatory Gap, Elizabeth Pendo Jan 2019

Permitted Incentives For Workplace Wellness Plans Under The Ada And Gina: The Regulatory Gap, Elizabeth Pendo

Articles

Although workplace wellness plans have been around for decades, they have flourished under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“PPACA”) into a $6 billion-dollar industry. Under PPACA, a “wellness plan” is a program of health promotion or disease prevention offered by an employer that is designed to promote health or prevent disease and which meets the other applicable requirements of that subsection. Employers look to these programs to promote healthy lifestyles, improve the overall health of employees and beneficiaries, and reduce rising healthcare costs.

PPACA’s amendments to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”) permit employers to offer …


America's (D)Evolving Childcare Tax Laws, Shannon Weeks Mccormack Jan 2019

America's (D)Evolving Childcare Tax Laws, Shannon Weeks Mccormack

Articles

Proponents have touted the ability of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the TCJA) — enacted in the twilight of 2017 — to help American working families. But while the TCJA expanded some benefits available to parents with dependent children, these parental tax benefits may be claimed regardless of whether or to what extent childcare costs are incurred to work outside the home. To help working parents with these costs (which are often their largest expense), Congress might have turned to two other mechanisms in the tax law — the “child and dependent care credit” and the “dependent care exclusion.” …


Disrupting Adhesion Contracts With #Metoo Innovators, Xuan-Thao Nguyen Jan 2019

Disrupting Adhesion Contracts With #Metoo Innovators, Xuan-Thao Nguyen

Articles

Adhesion contracts are everywhere. Take it or leave it, the dominant party holds the leverage while the weaker party adheres. Ninety percent of employment contracts contain mandatory arbitration clauses, and attempts to challenge arbitration requirements meet with judicial indifference or hostility. Ultimately, arbitration clauses eviscerate the employee's right to a jury trial and access to the court system in general. In recent years, employers in the tech sector have faced unexpected resistance from innovators. Just as innovators are known for disrupting old business models through technological innovations, #MeToo reformers are disrupting the seemingly insurmountable adhesion contract regime. They organize, protest, …


Innovating Inclusion: The Impact Of Women On Private Company Boards, Jennifer S. Fan Jan 2019

Innovating Inclusion: The Impact Of Women On Private Company Boards, Jennifer S. Fan

Articles

Eight percent—that is the percentage of women who serve on the boards of directors of private high technology companies. Private companies, particularly high technology companies, have transformed citizens’ daily lives, while the unprecedented availability of private capital has allowed those companies to remain private longer. This rise, however, has also obscured some of the weaknesses of private companies, which are not subject to public disclosure and regulatory oversight: rampant sexual harassment, the lack of women leaders in technology companies, the relative absence of female venture capitalists, and the dearth of female board members, to name a few. Yet thus far, …


Privacy Law's Indeterminacy, Ryan Calo Jan 2019

Privacy Law's Indeterminacy, Ryan Calo

Articles

American legal realism numbers among the most important theoretical contributions of legal academia to date. Given the movement’s influence, as well as the common centrality of certain key figures, it is surprising that privacy scholarship in the United States has paid next to no attention to the movement. This inattention is unfortunate for several reasons, including that privacy law furnishes rich examples of the indeterminacy thesis—a key concept of American legal realism—and because the interdisciplinary efforts of privacy scholars to explore extra-legal influences on privacy law arguably further the plot of legal realism itself


Professionally Responsible Artificial Intelligence, Michael Hatfield Jan 2019

Professionally Responsible Artificial Intelligence, Michael Hatfield

Articles

As artificial intelligence (AI) developers produce more applications for professional use, how will we determine when the use is professionally responsible? One way to answer the question is to determine whether the AI augments the professional’s intelligence or whether it is used as a substitute for it. To augment the professional’s intelligence would be to make it greater, that is, to increase and improve the professional’s expertise. But a professional who substitutes artificial intelligence for his or her own puts both the professional role and the client at risk. The problem is developing guidance that encourages professionals to use AI …


Peace And Subjectivity, Louis E. Wolcher Jan 2019

Peace And Subjectivity, Louis E. Wolcher

Articles

So long as there is law there can be no universal human right to peace. This is because legalized violence, whether in threat or in deed, constitutes the very antithesis of peaceful relations from the point of view of those whom law represses. Law cannot define peace as the absence of all violence—and still less as the absence of all legalized suffering—without gainsaying justice, for as Pascal says, “Justice without might is helpless; might without justice is tyrannical.” Although legal outcomes, like falling boulders and pouncing lions, can always be imputed to historical causes, experience teaches that legal actors generally …


Transitioning From Gilti To Fdii? Foreign Branch Income Issues, Jeffery M. Kadet, David L. Koontz Jan 2019

Transitioning From Gilti To Fdii? Foreign Branch Income Issues, Jeffery M. Kadet, David L. Koontz

Articles

In this article, Kadet and Koontz explain the risks and benefits multinationals must consider in deciding whether to transition some operations conducted within a controlled foreign corporation (along with the associated income) into a domestic group member to achieve a structure that qualifies for foreign-derived intangible income.


Letter From Jeffery M. Kadet And David L. Koontz To Internal Revenue Serv. (Aug. 20, 2019) On Notice Of Proposed Rulemaking: Classification Of Cloud Transactions And Transactions Involving Digital Content, Jeffery M. Kadet, David L. Koontz Jan 2019

Letter From Jeffery M. Kadet And David L. Koontz To Internal Revenue Serv. (Aug. 20, 2019) On Notice Of Proposed Rulemaking: Classification Of Cloud Transactions And Transactions Involving Digital Content, Jeffery M. Kadet, David L. Koontz

Articles

No abstract provided.


Janus As A Client: Ethical Obligations When Your Client Plays Two Roles In One Fiduciary Estate, Karen Boxx, Philip N. Jones Jan 2019

Janus As A Client: Ethical Obligations When Your Client Plays Two Roles In One Fiduciary Estate, Karen Boxx, Philip N. Jones

Articles

Is it possible for an attorney to have a conflict of interest when the attorney represents a trustee who is also a beneficiary of the trust? Is that situation similar to having two clients? What if the trustee is not only a beneficiary, but also a claimant against the trust? Since the trustee has three roles to play, is that situation similar to an attorney having three clients? The issue presented by these potential conflicts was one of the most vexing for the drafters of the Fifth Edition of the ACTEC Commentaries. The range of possible approaches goes from a …


Employees As Regulators: The New Private Ordering In High Technology Companies, Jennifer S. Fan Jan 2019

Employees As Regulators: The New Private Ordering In High Technology Companies, Jennifer S. Fan

Articles

There is mounting public concern over the influence that high technology companies have in our society. In the past, these companies were lauded for their innovations, but now as one scandal after another has plagued them, from being a conduit in influencing elections (think Cambridge Analytica) to the development of weaponized artificial intelligence, to their own moment of reckoning with the #MeToo movement, these same companies are under scrutiny. Leaders in high technology companies created their own sets of norms through private ordering. Their work was largely unfettered by regulators, with the exception of the Securities and Exchange Commission’s oversight …


Attacking Innovation, Xuan-Thao Nguyen, Jeffrey A. Maine Jan 2019

Attacking Innovation, Xuan-Thao Nguyen, Jeffrey A. Maine

Articles

Economists generally agree that innovation is important to economic growth and that government support for innovation is necessary. Historically, the U.S. government has supported innovation in a variety of ways: (1) a strong legal system for patents; (2) direct support through research performed by government agencies, grants, loans, and loan guarantees; and (3) indirect support through various tax incentives for private firms. In recent years, however, we have seen a weakening of the U.S. patent system, a decline in direct funding of research, and a weakening of tax policy tools used to encourage new innovation. These disruptive changes threaten the …


Note: The Prisoner’S Dementia: Ethical And Legal Issues Regarding Dementia And Healthcare In Prison, David M. N. Garavito Jan 2019

Note: The Prisoner’S Dementia: Ethical And Legal Issues Regarding Dementia And Healthcare In Prison, David M. N. Garavito

Articles

This Note will give an overview of the political and legal issues that lead to the underdiagnosing of dementias in prison populations and the problems associated with such underdiagnosing. Part I will discuss various forms of dementia that place the prison population at risk, providing general information about both pathology and symptomology of these disorders. Part II will provide an overview of the laws and policies surrounding the healthcare of prisoners and how these policies could lead to underdiagnosing problems specifically with neurological problems like dementia. Part III will describe how the symptomology of dementia, especially for those who remain …


Craft Beer And The Rising Tide Effect: An Empirical Study Of Sharing And Collaboration Among Seattle’S Craft Breweries, Zahr K. Said Jan 2019

Craft Beer And The Rising Tide Effect: An Empirical Study Of Sharing And Collaboration Among Seattle’S Craft Breweries, Zahr K. Said

Articles

This qualitative empirical research project studies Seattle’s craft brewing industry as a thriving entrepreneurial ecosystem that displays widespread collaboration and innovation. Drawing on data collected in 22 face-to-face formal interviews conducted with industry participants, the Article explores the community’s attitudes, practices, and norms with respect to collaboration and intellectual property (IP). It joins a growing body of qualitative empirical IP scholarship that maps misalignments between law and practice “on the ground,” seeking to offer a more accurate and pluralistic account of an innovative industry. The craft brewing community in Seattle cooperates extensively while continuing to compete actively for consumers. In …


Us Supreme Court Bars Punitive Damages In Unseaworthiness Claims, Craig H. Allen Jan 2019

Us Supreme Court Bars Punitive Damages In Unseaworthiness Claims, Craig H. Allen

Articles

To appreciate the reach of the Court's decision on punitive damages for unseaworthiness claims, it is important to understand the federal courts' steady expansion of the class of workers who now qualify as "seamen," the class of floating vessels and structures that now qualify as "vessels," and the strict liability standard for determining whether a vessel is seaworthy.


Woke Capital: The Role Of Corporations In Social Movements, Jennifer S. Fan Jan 2019

Woke Capital: The Role Of Corporations In Social Movements, Jennifer S. Fan

Articles

Iconic companies such as Apple, BlackRock, Delta, Google (now Alphabet), Lyft, Salesforce, and Starbucks, have recently taken very public stances on various social issues. In the past, corporations were largely silent in the face of them. Now the opposite is true—corporations play an increasingly visible role in social movements and there are times when corporations have led the discussion, particularly in areas where they have a self-interest or public opinion supports it. The enormous influence corporations wield on both the economic and social fabric of our society due to the legal framework and norms under which they operate make them …


Nobody Knew How Complicated: Constraining The President's Power To Re(Shape) Health Reform, Sallie Thieme Sanford Jan 2019

Nobody Knew How Complicated: Constraining The President's Power To Re(Shape) Health Reform, Sallie Thieme Sanford

Articles

Beginning on inauguration day, President Trump has attempted an executive repeal of the Affordable Care Act. In doing so, he has tested the limits of presidential power. He has challenged the force of institutional and non-institutional constraints. And, ironically, he has helped boost public support for the ACA’s central features. The first two sections of this article respectively consider the use of the President’s tools to advance and to subvert health reform.

The final two sections consider the forces constraining the administration’s attempted executive repeal. I argue that the most important institutional constraint, thus far, is found in multifaceted actions …


Health Reform And Higher Ed: Campuses As Harbingers Of Medicaid Universality And Medicare Commonality, Sallie Thieme Sanford Jan 2019

Health Reform And Higher Ed: Campuses As Harbingers Of Medicaid Universality And Medicare Commonality, Sallie Thieme Sanford

Articles

Between 2010 and 2016, the percentage of uninsured higher education students dropped by more than half. All the Affordable Care Act’s key access provisions contributed, but the most important factor appears to be the Medicaid expansion. This article is the first to highlight this phenomenon and ground it in data. It explores the reasons for this dramatic expansion of coverage, links it to theoretical frameworks, and considers its implications for the future of health reform.

Drawing on Medicaid universality scholarship, I discuss potential consequences of including the educationally privileged in this historically stigmatized program. Extending this scholarship, I argue that …


Letter From Jeffery M. Kadet To Internal Revenue Serv. (Oct. 6, 2019) On Notice 2019-30, 2019-2020 Priority Guidance Plan - Sourcing Of Cloud Services Income, Jeffery M. Kadet Jan 2019

Letter From Jeffery M. Kadet To Internal Revenue Serv. (Oct. 6, 2019) On Notice 2019-30, 2019-2020 Priority Guidance Plan - Sourcing Of Cloud Services Income, Jeffery M. Kadet

Articles

No abstract provided.


Race, Racism, And American Law': A Seminar From The Indigenous, Black, And Immigrant Legal Perspectives, Monte Mills, Eduardo R.C. Capulong, Andrew King-Ries Jan 2019

Race, Racism, And American Law': A Seminar From The Indigenous, Black, And Immigrant Legal Perspectives, Monte Mills, Eduardo R.C. Capulong, Andrew King-Ries

Articles

Flagrant racism has characterized the Trump era from the onset. Beginning with the 2016 presidential campaign, Trump has inflamed long-festering racial wounds and unleashed white supremacist reaction to the nation’s first black President, in the process destabilizing our sense of the nation’s racial progress and upending core principles of legality, equality, and justice. As law professors, we sought to rise to these challenges and prepare the next generation of lawyers to succeed in a different and more polarized future. Our shared commitment resulted in a new course, “Race, Racism, and American Law,” in which we sought to explore the roots …


Uncompromising Hunger For Justice: Resistance, Sacrifice, And Latcrit Theory, Brenda Williams, Edwin Lindo, Marc-Tizoc González Jan 2019

Uncompromising Hunger For Justice: Resistance, Sacrifice, And Latcrit Theory, Brenda Williams, Edwin Lindo, Marc-Tizoc González

Articles

In this Article, three law professors report on and theorize a nonviolent direct-action campaign of the kind discussed by Dr. King in his famous Letter from a Birmingham Jail. Using the basic steps of the nonviolent campaign as an organizing framework, they analyze and report on the 18-day hunger strike by the Frisco 5 (a.k.a., Frisco5). This direct action protested the extrajudicial killings of Amilcar Perez-Lopez, Alex Nieto, Luis Góngora-Pat, and Mario Woods by San Francisco Police Department (SFPD) officers and advocated for institutional change to reduce the risk of homicides against persons with similarly racialized minority-group identities. Two weeks …


Contracts Mattered As Much As Copyrights, Robert W. Gomulkiewicz Jan 2019

Contracts Mattered As Much As Copyrights, Robert W. Gomulkiewicz

Articles

Scholars have begun to appreciate the fundamental role that contracts played in the development of copyrights. Contracts gave copyrights vitalilty. This article explores the network of book publishing contracts that formed the legal infrastructure for a pre-modern “internet” at the dawn of copyright law in Great Britain in the eighteenth century. Drawing on insights from archival research, the article shows how this network of copyright contracts advanced an important goal of copyright: the spread of ideas and information throughout all parts of society. Appreciating the historical significance of copyright contracts provides valuable context for modern debates about copyright policy. Indeed, …


The Surprising Reach Of Fda Regulation Of Cannabis Even After Rescheduling, Sean M. O'Connor, Erika Lietzan Jan 2019

The Surprising Reach Of Fda Regulation Of Cannabis Even After Rescheduling, Sean M. O'Connor, Erika Lietzan

Articles

As more states legalize cannabis, the push to “deschedule” it from the Controlled Substances Act is gaining momentum. At the same time, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved the first conventional drug containing a cannabinoid derived from cannabis—cannabidiol (CBD) for two rare seizure disorders. This would all seem to bode well for proponents of full federal legalization of medical cannabis. But some traditional providers are wary of drug companies pulling medical cannabis into the regular small molecule drug development system. The FDA’s focus on precise analytical characterization and on individual active and inactive ingredients may be fundamentally inconsistent …


The Costs Of Uncertainty: The Doj’S Stalled Progress On Accessible Medical Equipment Under The Americans With Disabilities Act, Elizabeth Pendo Jan 2019

The Costs Of Uncertainty: The Doj’S Stalled Progress On Accessible Medical Equipment Under The Americans With Disabilities Act, Elizabeth Pendo

Articles

Imagine seeking medical care for serious pressure sores for a year, but your doctor never examining the sores because you could not get on the examination table in her office. Or imagine going more than fifteen years without an annual well-woman examination for the same reason, or your doctor guessing at the right dosage for a prescription because there was no scale that she could use to weigh you.

Although these scenarios may be difficult for many to imagine, they are common experiences for individuals with mobility disability. The Trump administration’s attacks on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act …


Commuting To Mars: A Response To Professors Abraham And Rabin, Ryan Calo Jan 2019

Commuting To Mars: A Response To Professors Abraham And Rabin, Ryan Calo

Articles

The remarks that follow are less about the particular wisdom of manufacturer enterprise responsibility (MER) for driverless cars, and more about the limits of legal scholarship in grappling with unfolding technologic change. The contingency of technology and its social impacts caution against sweeping interventions. And the role of law and technology scholarship—as opposed to legal scholarship that touches upon technology—is arguably to recognize the unique challenges that arise at this intersection.


Bringing The Court Into The Classroom: Suggestions For How To Craft Exercises For Upper-Level Courses Using Real Practitioners' Briefs, Benjamin Halasz Jan 2019

Bringing The Court Into The Classroom: Suggestions For How To Craft Exercises For Upper-Level Courses Using Real Practitioners' Briefs, Benjamin Halasz

Articles

When I came to teach after practicing for over a decade, I wanted my students to learn to write by using materials from real clients and cases. I quickly found that’s easier said than done. But through experimentation and discussions with experienced colleagues, I found several successful ways to put students into the role of writing parts of a “real” brief—one that uses a real case and real facts—for short, in-class exercises in upper-level courses.

Several articles tout the benefits of using briefs as examples, an enthusiasm I join. But this article focuses on using cases, and especially briefs, as …


Regulating Bot Speech, Madeline Lamo, Ryan Calo Jan 2019

Regulating Bot Speech, Madeline Lamo, Ryan Calo

Articles

We live in a world of artificial speakers with real impact. So-called “bots” foment political strife, skew online discourse, and manipulate the marketplace. Concerns over bot speech have led prominent figures in the world of technology to call for regulations in response to the unique threats bots pose. Recently, legislators have begun to heed these calls, drafting laws that would require online bots to clearly indicate that they are not human.

This work is the first to consider how efforts to regulate bots might run afoul of the First Amendment. At first blush, requiring a bot to self-disclose raises little …


From Governess To Governance: Advancing Gender Equity In Corporate Leadership, Kellye Y. Testy Jan 2019

From Governess To Governance: Advancing Gender Equity In Corporate Leadership, Kellye Y. Testy

Articles

Even as corporate influence on every aspect of life continues to grow, women (overall, and especially women of color) remain woefully underrepresented in corporate governance roles, particularly on boards of directors. This lack of gender diversity in the corporate boardroom is prevalent not only in more established companies but also persists—often at even higher levels— in new ventures as well. This Essay details the persistent lack of progress over more than a half century in diversifying leadership in corporate governance. This progress is especially concerning given that the benefits of diversity for sound decisionmaking and overall corporate welfare have been …


For Canadian Love Of Trader Joe’S: First Sale Doctrine, Reputational Harm And Lanham Act’S Extraterritoriality, Xuan-Thao Nguyen Jan 2019

For Canadian Love Of Trader Joe’S: First Sale Doctrine, Reputational Harm And Lanham Act’S Extraterritoriality, Xuan-Thao Nguyen

Articles

No abstract provided.