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2012

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Drone Federalism: Civilian Drones And The Things They Carry, Margot E. Kaminski Dec 2012

Drone Federalism: Civilian Drones And The Things They Carry, Margot E. Kaminski

Articles

Civilian drones are scheduled to be permitted in the national airspace as early as 2015. Many think Congress should establish the necessary nationwide regulations to govern both law enforcement and civilian drone use. That thinking, however, is wrong. This Essay suggests drone federalism instead: a state-based approach to privacy regulation that governs drone use by civilians, drawing on states’ experience regulating other forms of civilian-on-civilian surveillance. This approach will allow necessary experimentation in how to best balance privacy concerns against First Amendment rights in the imminent era of drone-use democratization. This Essay closes by providing some guidance to states as ...


Custom, General Principles And The Great Architect Cassese, Mary Fan Dec 2012

Custom, General Principles And The Great Architect Cassese, Mary Fan

Articles

Major advances in international criminal law and procedure rose on the trusses of judicially elucidated sources of international law—custom and general principles. These sources depend on the crucial art of derivation advanced by the architect of modern international criminal justice, President Antonio Cassese. What has transformed international criminal justice into flourishing law able to address changing configurations of violence is the development of the art of finding law in the dark and wilds of murky unwritten norms. [para] President Cassese pioneered paths through a perilous bog. "[T]he law lives in persons," and to understand the law one must ...


Can Consumers Control Health-Care Costs?, Mark A. Hall, Carl E. Schneider Sep 2012

Can Consumers Control Health-Care Costs?, Mark A. Hall, Carl E. Schneider

Articles

The ultimate aim of health care policy is good care at good prices. Managed care failed to achieve this goal through influencing providers, so health policy has turned to the only market-based option left: treating patients like consumers. Health insurance and tax policy now pressure patients to spend their own money when they select health plans, providers, and treatments. Expecting patients to choose what they need at the price they want, consumerists believe that market competition will constrain costs while optimizing quality. This classic form of consumerism is today’s health policy watchword. This article evaluates consumerism and the regulatory ...


Rehabilitation, Research, And Reform: Prison Policy In Ireland, Mary Rogan Sep 2012

Rehabilitation, Research, And Reform: Prison Policy In Ireland, Mary Rogan

Articles

The paper tracks the concept of rehabilitation within official thinking in

Ireland since the foundation of the State. It explores when and how the term was first

used and how it has fared since. It then examines barriers to and the role of research

in the making of prison policy and comments on data deficits in the system at present.

Finally it looks at the role of interest groups within the criminal justice system in

Ireland, and specifically their effect, or potential effect, on the formation of prison

policy.


Taking, Tort, Or Crown Right? The Confused Early History Of Government Patent Policy, Sean M. O'Connor Sep 2012

Taking, Tort, Or Crown Right? The Confused Early History Of Government Patent Policy, Sean M. O'Connor

Articles

From the early days of the Republic, Congress and the federal courts grappled with the government’s rights to own or use patents it issued. Courts rejected the British “Crown Rights” rule that allowed the sovereign to practice whatever patents it issued. Instead, the federal government was conceptualized as a legal person on par with any other persons with regard to issued patents. But, this simple rule presented challenges as complexities arose in three intertwined patent rights scenarios. The first involved inventions by government employees. The second revolved around government and government contractor use of patents held by private citizens ...


Prisoner's Rights And The Separation Of Powers: Comparing Approaches In Ireland, Scotland And England And Wales., Mary Rogan Jul 2012

Prisoner's Rights And The Separation Of Powers: Comparing Approaches In Ireland, Scotland And England And Wales., Mary Rogan

Articles

The decision of Hogan J in Kinsella v. Governor of Mountjoy Prison [2011] IEHC 235 (hereinafter Kinsella) is an important development in the protection of prisoners’ constitutional rights in Ireland. The decision, which found that a prisoner’s right to have his person protected had been breached by his detention in a padded cell with a cardboard box for use as a toilet in conditions amounting to a form of sensory deprivation, may represent a new direction for prison law jurisprudence. The judgment is also of significance for its analysis of the circumstances in which conditions of detention can give ...


Almost, But Not Quite, Entirely Unlike Libraries: Academic Law Librarians Enter The World Of Archives, Stacy Etheredge Jul 2012

Almost, But Not Quite, Entirely Unlike Libraries: Academic Law Librarians Enter The World Of Archives, Stacy Etheredge

Articles

No abstract provided.


From The Thief In The Night To The Guest Who Stayed Too Long: The Evolution Of Burglary In The Shadow Of The Common Law, Helen A. Anderson Jun 2012

From The Thief In The Night To The Guest Who Stayed Too Long: The Evolution Of Burglary In The Shadow Of The Common Law, Helen A. Anderson

Articles

Burglary began evolving from the common law crime almost as soon as Lord Coke defined it in 1641 as breaking and entering a dwelling of another in the night with the intent to commit a crime therein. But sometime between the Model Penal Code in 1962 and today, burglary lost its core actus reus, “entry.” In the majority of jurisdictions, burglary can now be accomplished by simply remaining in a building or vehicle with the intent to commit a crime. Not only does such an offense cover a wide range of situations, but it allows burglary to be attached to ...


Admiralty's In Extremis Doctrine: What Can Be Learned From The Restatement (Third) Of Torts Approach?, Craig H. Allen Jan 2012

Admiralty's In Extremis Doctrine: What Can Be Learned From The Restatement (Third) Of Torts Approach?, Craig H. Allen

Articles

The in extremis doctrine has been part of maritime collision law in the U.S. for more than one hundred and sixty years. One would expect that a century and a half would provide ample time for mariners and admiralty practitioners and judges to master the doctrine. Alas, some of the professional nautical commentary and even an occasional collision case suggest that the doctrine is often misunderstood or misapplied. A fair number of admiralty writers fail to understand that the in extremis doctrine is not a single "in extremis rule," but rather several rules, all of which are related to ...


Proving Corporate Criminal Liability For Negligence In Vessel Management And Operations: An Allision-Oil Spill Case Study, Craig H. Allen Jan 2012

Proving Corporate Criminal Liability For Negligence In Vessel Management And Operations: An Allision-Oil Spill Case Study, Craig H. Allen

Articles

Maritime policy analysts often invoke the "vessel safety net" metaphor to explain the independent, but overlapping, risk management roles and responsibilities of the vessel master and crew, owner and charterer, operating company, classification society, flag state and port states. Oil spills from the 2002 M/T Prestige break up off the coast of Galicia, Spain, the 2007 M/V Cosco Busan bridge allision in San Francisco Bay and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon debacle in the Gulf of Mexico, among others, demonstrate that any or all of the components of that safety net may come under scrutiny following a marine casualty ...


The Cape Town Convention's International Registry: Decoding The Secrets Of Success In Global Electronic Commerce, Jane K. Winn Jan 2012

The Cape Town Convention's International Registry: Decoding The Secrets Of Success In Global Electronic Commerce, Jane K. Winn

Articles

The International Registry, established pursuant to the Cape Town Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment, is a new global electronic commerce system for recording and establishing the relative priority of interests in aircraft equipment. Other examples of global electronic commerce systems include the airline computer reservation system, the SWIFT financial network, and payment card networks.

The International Registry may be the most successful global electronic commerce system ever built in terms of the speed with which it was implemented, its adoption rate, and the dearth of controversy surrounding its operation. The real "driver" of its success is demand for ...


A Call For Standards: An Overview Of The Current Status And Need For Guardian Standards Of Conduct And Codes Of Ethics, Karen E. Boxx, Terry W. Hammond Jan 2012

A Call For Standards: An Overview Of The Current Status And Need For Guardian Standards Of Conduct And Codes Of Ethics, Karen E. Boxx, Terry W. Hammond

Articles

The role of trust in guardianships is rarely discussed, perhaps because of the assumption that court supervision of guardians reduces their power to act in any way other than trustworthy. However, as the number of persons needing guardianship protection increases while the resources available to courts to finance supervision decreases, the role of guardian is starting to become a more conventional fiduciary relationship complete with a hallmark downside-lack of supervision. Because of this trend, the concept of delineated standards for performance of a guardian's duties has taken on critical importance.

The 2001 Wingspan Conference, the second national conference on ...


Incorporating Literary Methods And Texts In The Teaching Of Tort Law, Zahr K. Said Jan 2012

Incorporating Literary Methods And Texts In The Teaching Of Tort Law, Zahr K. Said

Articles

Literature is comparatively under-investigated as an arena for tort pedagogy and for first-year courses in the legal curriculum generally. Where literature tends to appear in law school, it most frequently does so in the form of stand-alone law-and-literature classes, which usually focus heavily on literature.

In teaching a first-year tort law course at the University of Washington School of Law, I have explicitly used literature to aid and amplify legal analysis. The emphasis has been on law, rather than on literature. Nonetheless, literary texts and methods helped my students investigate how the law conceives of, and expresses, duties and losses ...


Patents As Promoters Of Competition: The Guild Origins Of Patent Law In The Venetian Republic, Ted Sichelman, Sean O'Connor Jan 2012

Patents As Promoters Of Competition: The Guild Origins Of Patent Law In The Venetian Republic, Ted Sichelman, Sean O'Connor

Articles

Part II of this Article describes the artisan and merchant guild systems of the Venetian Republic. Part III explores the emergence of the patent system as a means for foreigners and Venetian citizens to compete with the guilds, as well as the eventual addition of negative exclusive rights to the basic license form of positive patent privileges. In so doing, contrary to the speculation of some scholars, we reject with near certainty the contention that the first patent law statute granting exclusionary rights for—in modern parlance—technological inventions was a silk-specific directive enacted by the Venetian Grand Council in ...


Hired To Invent Vs. Works Made For Hire: Resolving The Inconsistency Among Rights Of Corporate Personhood, Authorship, And Inventorship, Sean M. O'Connor Jan 2012

Hired To Invent Vs. Works Made For Hire: Resolving The Inconsistency Among Rights Of Corporate Personhood, Authorship, And Inventorship, Sean M. O'Connor

Articles

This Essay focuses on the interrelation of three legal doctrines that affect the allocation of ownership and attribution of products of the human mind. The first, corporate personhood, grants corporations rights of personhood similar to those of natural persons. The second, the work-made-for-hire doctrine (WMFH) under copyright law, allocates ownership and attribution for copyrightable works to the employer of the natural-person author—even where that employer is a nonnatural, legal person such as a corporation. And the third, shop rights and the hired-to-invent exception, permits courts to grant equitable licenses or assignments to employers for their employees’ inventions.

These three ...


Review Of Labor And Employment Law Decisions From The United States Supreme Court's 2010-11 Term, Eric Schnapper Jan 2012

Review Of Labor And Employment Law Decisions From The United States Supreme Court's 2010-11 Term, Eric Schnapper

Articles

In the 2010-11 term, the U.S. Supreme Court decided nine significant labor and employment cases. Although some of these cases affected only the construction of a specific statute or constitutional provision, several of them addressed issues likely to affect the interpretation and implementation of a wide range of federal employment laws. Most of these decisions, rather than definitively resolving a question, raise a range of new issues likely to be litigated for years to come. Thus, for practitioners and academics alike, recognizing the new questions that have now been raised is at least as important as understanding what matters ...


Serious Flaw Of Employee Invention Ownership Under The Bayh-Dole Act In Stanford V. Roche: Finding The Missing Piece Of The Puzzle In The German Employee Invention Act, Toshiko Takenaka Jan 2012

Serious Flaw Of Employee Invention Ownership Under The Bayh-Dole Act In Stanford V. Roche: Finding The Missing Piece Of The Puzzle In The German Employee Invention Act, Toshiko Takenaka

Articles

This article argues that the current Bayh-Dole Act is incomplete because the Act fails to provide a mechanism for contractors to secure the ownership of federally funded inventions from their employees. Part I of this Article discusses this flaw in the current Bayh-Dole Act, highlighted by Stanford v. Roche, and argues that a historical accident resulted in this flaw due to Congress's failure to pass a series of bills based on the German EIA. Passages in the Bayh-Dole Act suggest that the Act assumes a transfer by operation of law to secure the ownership of federally funded inventions through ...


Legal Ethics And Federal Taxes, 1945-1965: Patriotism, Duties, And Advice, Michael Hatfield Jan 2012

Legal Ethics And Federal Taxes, 1945-1965: Patriotism, Duties, And Advice, Michael Hatfield

Articles

This article is devoted to exploring the legal ethics writings by tax lawyers in a pivotal period of income tax history: 1945-1965, the first two decades of the federal income tax as we now know it. Although the income tax began in 1913, it was World War II that created the modem mass income tax: in 1939 there were 3.9 million individual income tax taxpayers but by 1945 there were 42.6 million. This period was also one of significant progress in the administration of the income tax: the Internal Revenue Code was re-organized in 1954 and, following widespread ...


Negotiating Jurisdiction: Retroceding State Authority Over Indian Country Granted By Public Law 280, Robert T. Anderson Jan 2012

Negotiating Jurisdiction: Retroceding State Authority Over Indian Country Granted By Public Law 280, Robert T. Anderson

Articles

This Article canvasses the jurisdictional rules applicable in American Indian tribal territories-"Indian country." The focus is on a federal law passed in the 1950s, which granted some states a measure of jurisdiction over Indian country without tribal consent. The law is an aberration. Since the adoption of the Constitution, federal law preempted state authority over Indians in their territory. The federal law permitting some state jurisdiction, Public Law 280, is a relic of a policy repudiated by every President and Congress since 1970. States have authority to surrender, or retrocede, the authority granted by Public Law 280, but Indian ...


Feeling At Home: Learning, Law, Cognitive Science, And Narrative, Lea B. Vaughn Jan 2012

Feeling At Home: Learning, Law, Cognitive Science, And Narrative, Lea B. Vaughn

Articles

What is the "how and why" of law's affinity for narrative? In order to explain why the use of stories is such an effective teaching and presentation strategy in the law, this paper will consider theories and accounts from cognitive as well as evolutionary psychology, neuroscience, and, briefly, cultural anthropology. This account seeks to address "how" narrative helps us learn and use the law as well as "why" we are so compelled to use stories in teaching and in practice.

Brain science, simplified here, suggests that the first task is to grab someone's attention. Emotionally charged events are ...


There Is No Summer In The Courtroom, Maureen A. Howard Jan 2012

There Is No Summer In The Courtroom, Maureen A. Howard

Articles

Pacific Northwesterners frequently lament summer’s delayed arrival to our verdant corner of the country, and this year is no exception. June was unseasonably cool and wet, and the first official weekend of summer brought grey skies, chilly breezes, and sheets of rain. It is no surprise, then, that each year, as August approaches and summer seems to have truly arrived, locals eagerly search their closets for rarely-used warm-weather attire. Lawyers are not immune from the lure to celebrate summer’s overdue arrival by breaking out tank tops, flip-flops, sunglasses, and shorts. Nonetheless, a trial lawyer needs to remember that ...


Fostering The Business Of Innovation: The Untold Story Of Bowers V. Baystate Technologies, Robert W. Gomulkiewicz Jan 2012

Fostering The Business Of Innovation: The Untold Story Of Bowers V. Baystate Technologies, Robert W. Gomulkiewicz

Articles

Perhaps the law review literature does not need another article on the Federal Circuit’s case [320 F.3d 1317 (Fed. Cir. 2003, cert denied, 123 S.Ct. 2588 (2003)]. That case has received more than its share of attention from commentators, all criticizing Judge Rader’s majority opinion and most extolling the virtues of Judge Dyk’s dissent. Despite the storm of scholarly criticism, however, courts have followed Judge Rader’s opinion.

This Article tells the untold story of why courts have been wise to do so. The Article explains how commentators have argued that federal intellectual property law ...


Justice Stevens's Black Leather Arm Chair, Kathryn A. Watts Jan 2012

Justice Stevens's Black Leather Arm Chair, Kathryn A. Watts

Articles

As a law clerk to Justice Stevens in the October Term 2002, I felt that the very best part of the job came almost every afternoon. Without any advance warning, the Justice would get up from his desk and walk through chambers to the law clerks’ main office and plop down into a well-worn black leather arm chair that formed part of a cozy seating area flanked by tall bookshelves filled with volumes of case reporters and the United States Code.

As soon as the Justice started settling himself into his arm chair, my co-clerks and I all knew that ...


The Structural Exceptionalism Of Bankruptcy Administration, Rafael I. Pardo, Kathryn A. Watts Jan 2012

The Structural Exceptionalism Of Bankruptcy Administration, Rafael I. Pardo, Kathryn A. Watts

Articles

The current system of administration of the Bankruptcy Code is highly anomalous. It stands as one of the few major federal civil statutory regimes administered almost exclusively through adjudication in the courts—not through a federal regulatory agency. This means that rather than fitting bankruptcy into a regulatory model, the U.S. Congress has chosen to give the courts primary interpretive authority in the field of bankruptcy, delegating to courts the power to engage in residual policymaking.

Although scholars have noted some narrow aspects of the structural exceptionalism of bankruptcy administration, Congress’s decision to locate responsibility for bankruptcy policymaking ...


Regulatory Moratoria, Kathryn A. Watts Jan 2012

Regulatory Moratoria, Kathryn A. Watts

Articles

Despite significant scholarly attention given to tools that the political branches use to exert control over the administrative state, one emerging tool has gone largely unnoticed: regulatory moratoria. Regulatory moratoria, which stem from legislative or executive action, aim to freeze rulemaking activity for a period of time.

As this Article demonstrates, regulatory moratoria have worked their way into the political toolbox at both the federal and state levels. For example, at least fifteen federal bills proposing generalized regulatory moratoria were introduced in the first session of the 112th Congress, and from 2008 to 2011 alone, no fewer than nine states ...


Constraining Certiorari Using Administrative Law Principles, Kathryn A. Watts Jan 2012

Constraining Certiorari Using Administrative Law Principles, Kathryn A. Watts

Articles

The U.S. Supreme Court—thanks to various statutes passed by Congress beginning in 1891 and culminating in 1988—currently enjoys nearly unfettered discretion to set its docket using the writ of certiorari. Over the past few decades, concerns have mounted that the Court has been taking the wrong mix of cases, hearing too few cases, and relying too heavily on law clerks in the certiorari process.

Scholars, in turn, have proposed fairly sweeping reforms, such as the creation of a certiorari division to handle certiorari petitions. This Article argues that before the Court’s discretion to set its own ...


Rebellious State Crimmigration Enforcement And The Foreign Affairs Power, Mary Fan Jan 2012

Rebellious State Crimmigration Enforcement And The Foreign Affairs Power, Mary Fan

Articles

The propriety of a new breed of state laws interfering in immigration enforcement is pending before the Supreme Court and the lower courts. These laws typically incorporate federal standards related to the criminalization of immigration ("crimmigration'), but diverge aggressively from federal enforcement policy. Enacting states argue that the legislation is merely a species of "cooperative federalism" that does not trespass upon the federal power over foreign affairs, foreign commerce, and nationality rules since the laws mirror federal standards. This Article challenges the formalist mirror theory assumptions behind the new laws and argues that inconsistent state crimmigration enforcement policy and resulting ...


Too Many Tiaras: Conflicting Fiduciary Duties In The Family-Owned Business Context, Karen E. Boxx Jan 2012

Too Many Tiaras: Conflicting Fiduciary Duties In The Family-Owned Business Context, Karen E. Boxx

Articles

Family-owned businesses have been called the "backbone of the U.S. economy," but passing control of a family business to the next generation is so complex that the majority of family businesses do not survive the transition. A common scenario that leads to problems is where owners want to leave the business to their children but only one child is interested in and capable of managing the business.

A popular solution is to leave the interested child an equal share of the business, together with management control, and leave the other children's interests in the business in trust, with ...


Giving Voice To Rachel Carson: Putting Science Into Environmental Law, William H. Rodgers, Jr. Jan 2012

Giving Voice To Rachel Carson: Putting Science Into Environmental Law, William H. Rodgers, Jr.

Articles

Certainly, the most pressing issue of modern times is to develop a body of environmental law (that includes climate change) that is highly responsive to science. Without demeaning the many distinctions between the exercise of science and the practice of law, let me cut to the chase and declare that science is mostly about the “pursuit of truth” and law is mostly about “who wins.” Anybody who doubts this proposition should examine the radical differences between the “Supreme Court of Science” in the United States and the Supreme Court of Law.

The Supreme Court of Science, the National Research Council ...


Remedying The Misuse Of Nature, Sanne H. Knudsen Jan 2012

Remedying The Misuse Of Nature, Sanne H. Knudsen

Articles

As currently conceived, natural resource damages are limited in scope; even in combination they cannot adequately remedy misuses of nature. Even so, these damages provide a good starting point for assessing the promise and flaws embodied in existing laws. By identifying the limits of current resource-related remedies, the changes required to better protect ecosystem health become clearer.

In search of a reformed natural resource damages law, Part I of this Article begins by exploring the idea that we should not misuse nature. It surveys current literature and explains how the idea would--if taken seriously--recast the ways we think about private ...