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2007

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Articles 1 - 30 of 235

Full-Text Articles in Law

Advocacy Strategies To Fight Eviction In Cases Of Compulsive Hoarding And Cluttering, Tom Cobb, Eric Dunn, Vanessa Torres Hernandez, Jake Moroni Okleberry, Riana Pfefferkorn, Chelsea Spector Dec 2007

Advocacy Strategies To Fight Eviction In Cases Of Compulsive Hoarding And Cluttering, Tom Cobb, Eric Dunn, Vanessa Torres Hernandez, Jake Moroni Okleberry, Riana Pfefferkorn, Chelsea Spector

Articles

No abstract provided.


All In The Family As A Single Shareholder Of An S Corporation, Douglas A. Kahn, Jeffrey H. Kahn, Terrence G. Perris Aug 2007

All In The Family As A Single Shareholder Of An S Corporation, Douglas A. Kahn, Jeffrey H. Kahn, Terrence G. Perris

Articles

Subject to a few exceptions, a corporation that has elected to be taxed under subchapter S of chapter 1 of subtitle A of title 26 of the United States tax code is not taxed on its net income. Instead, the income, deductions, credits, and other tax items of an S corporation pass through to its shareholders on a pro rata basis. To qualify for subchapter S treatment, an electing corporation must satisfy the requirements that are set forth in section 1361, one of which is that the corporation can have no more than 100 shareholders. One aspect of that requirement ...


The Cash Nexus, Carl E. Schneider Jul 2007

The Cash Nexus, Carl E. Schneider

Articles

Courts and legislatures have labored for decades to protect patients' choice of medical treatments, even though patients seize that gift less eagerly than lawmakers expect. Yet while courts have rushed to build the whited sepulchre of informed consent, they have fled from a related problem that patients actually yearn to solve and that actually can be ameliorated the plight of patients who perforce agree to a treatment before they know its costs and who receive a bill both unrelated to the treatment's value and several times what an insured patient would pay. Increasingly, patients must be consumers in the ...


Optimal Tax Compliance And Penalties When The Law Is Uncertain, Kyle D. Logue Jun 2007

Optimal Tax Compliance And Penalties When The Law Is Uncertain, Kyle D. Logue

Articles

This article examines the optimal level of tax compliance and the optimal penalty for noncompliance in circumstances in which the substance of the tax law is uncertain - that is, when the precise application of the Internal Revenue Code to a particular situation is not clear. In such situations, a number of interesting questions arise. This article will consider two of them. First, as a normative matter, how certain should taxpayers be before they rely on a particular interpretation of a substantively uncertain tax rule? If a particular position is not clearly prohibited but neither is it clearly allowed, what is ...


Preserving A Special Collection - Ten Things You Can Do When You're On Your Own, Stacy Etheredge Feb 2007

Preserving A Special Collection - Ten Things You Can Do When You're On Your Own, Stacy Etheredge

Articles

No abstract provided.


Moderator's Report: Legal Experts' Workshop On The Future Global Legal Order, Craig H. Allen Jan 2007

Moderator's Report: Legal Experts' Workshop On The Future Global Legal Order, Craig H. Allen

Articles

In late 2006, as part of its multifaceted effort to help the Chief of Naval Operations develop a new, contemporary maritime strategy for the nation, the Naval War College convened a “Delphi group” of experts—in this case, in international law—to provide the maritime strategy development team a candid assessment of the probable state of the global legal order in 2020. The workshop, chaired by Craig H. Allen, the Charles H. Stockton Professor of International Law, was held 31 October–1 November 2006 in the College’s Decision Support Center (equipped with an advanced World Wide Web–based group ...


Command Of The Commons Boasts: An Invitation To Lawfare?, Craig H. Allen Jan 2007

Command Of The Commons Boasts: An Invitation To Lawfare?, Craig H. Allen

Articles

The first panel in this, the 2006 Naval War College, International Law Department conference on "Global Legal Challenges: Command of the Commons, Strategic Communications, and Natural Disasters," has been asked to offer a US perspective on current assertions regarding the US command of the commons. It is my privilege to moderate the discussion by a distinguished panel that includes Vice Admiral Lowell E. ("Jake") Jacoby, US Navy (retired) the immediate past director of the Defense Intelligence Agency; Vice Admiral John G. Morgan, Jr., US Navy, deputy chief of naval operations for plans and strategy (N3/N5); and Rear Admiral Joseph ...


A Primer On The Nonproliferation Regime For Maritime Security Operations Forces, Craig Allen Jan 2007

A Primer On The Nonproliferation Regime For Maritime Security Operations Forces, Craig Allen

Articles

This article seeks to provide the reader with an overview of the weapons of mass destruction (WMD) nonproliferation regime relevant to marine security operations and to alert the reader to shortfalls in that regime that might frustrate at-sea efforts to interdict WMD shipments. It begins with a general description of the international approach to combating proliferation of WMD and then examines the individual regimes for nuclear weapons, chemical weapons (CW), biological-toxin weapons (BTW) and WMD delivery systems, such as missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles. It next traces the development of several resolutions by the United Nations Security Council that target ...


The Limits Of Intelligence In Maritime Counterproliferation Operations, Craig Allen Jan 2007

The Limits Of Intelligence In Maritime Counterproliferation Operations, Craig Allen

Articles

This article begins with an examination of the intelligence needs of those engaged in maritime counterproliferation efforts. It then turns to risk-management decision making under conditions of uncertainty, focusing on decisions at the operational level and exploring the question of whether decision strategies in the WMD context should seek to minimize false-negative or false-positive errors. It concludes that even vastly improved maritime intelligence will not obviate the need for national and operational commanders to make decisions under conditions of uncertainty and that such decisions should be made on the basis of established risk-assessment and management principles. At the same time ...


The Immigration-Terrorism Illusory Correlation And Heuristic Mistake, Mary De Ming Fan Jan 2007

The Immigration-Terrorism Illusory Correlation And Heuristic Mistake, Mary De Ming Fan

Articles

The national broil over immigration reform is fermenting an illusory correlation and mistaken heuristic. Two events illustrate the involvement of legislators in the manufacture and mplification of this heuristic mistake. A controversial bill passed by the House of Representatives in December 2005 explicitly and extensively packaged immigration control with antiterrorism.' During his term as a congressman, J. D. Hayworth published a book claiming that inflows of people over the U.S.-Mexico border pose a "terrorist threat," that the nation has witnessed an "illegal alien crime spree," and that high immigration rates from Mexico threaten social instability.[para] Such pronouncements ...


Using Stock And Stock Options To Minimize Patent Royalty Payment Risks After Medimmune V. Genentech, Sean M. O'Connor Jan 2007

Using Stock And Stock Options To Minimize Patent Royalty Payment Risks After Medimmune V. Genentech, Sean M. O'Connor

Articles

This Article proposes a more or less functional equivalent mechanism to a patent royalty stream through the use of stock and stock options in the licensee. The stock would coarsely track the overall fortunes of the licensee, while the options could be more finely tuned to vest and become exercisable upon events and milestones that would have been used for payments in a traditional license fee plus royalty stream licensing deal.

There may be problems of liquidity, of course, during the period where the licensee is still privately held and thus has no ready markets for its stock. But even ...


Public Interest Research, Collaboration, And The Promise Of Wikis, Tom Cobb Jan 2007

Public Interest Research, Collaboration, And The Promise Of Wikis, Tom Cobb

Articles

One of my central goals in teaching law is to help students find ways to apply their emerging analytical powers and professional skills to promote the public interest.A related goal is to create an engaging learning experience in which students see each other—and other members of the legal community—as key resources in their education.

To help accomplish these goals, I have been formally and informally collaborating with clinics—the traditional home of public interest law and collaborative learning in most law schools— to find ways to infuse my legal writing classes with clinical methods and values. This ...


Fifth Circuit Survey: Taxation, Michael Hatfield Jan 2007

Fifth Circuit Survey: Taxation, Michael Hatfield

Articles

During the survey period, the Fifth Circuit decided nine federal tax cases. Four of the nine cases were appealed from district courts. The remaining five were appealed from the Tax Court. Three of the Tax Court's five decisions (60%) were affirmed, and three of the four district court decisions (75%) were affirmed. Thus, the Fifth Circuit affirmed most of the lower court decisions (66%). Interestingly, only three of the decisions (33%) favored the taxpayer—EC Term of Years Trust v. United States; Garber Industries, Inc. v. Commissioner; and Estate of Baird v. Commissioner—even though the Fifth Circuit is ...


Pro Se Executors—Unauthorized Practice Of Law, Or Not?, Michael Hatfield Jan 2007

Pro Se Executors—Unauthorized Practice Of Law, Or Not?, Michael Hatfield

Articles

This Article clarifies why under Texas law an individual named as executor in a will has the right to offer the will for probate and otherwise appear in a probate court without hiring a lawyer. This Article first provides an overview of the independent administration provisions of the Texas probate code before reviewing the unauthorized practice of law prohibition and the pro se exception. After establishing that executors qualify for the pro se exception in Texas because executors appearing in court are exercising their own management rights—rather than the rights of "the estate" or the beneficiaries—the Article explores ...


Alaska Native Rights, Statehood, And Unfinished Business, Robert T. Anderson Jan 2007

Alaska Native Rights, Statehood, And Unfinished Business, Robert T. Anderson

Articles

Alaska Native aboriginal rights to land and associated resources were never dealt with in a comprehensive fashion until 1971, when Congress passed the Alaska Native Lands Claims Settlement Act (ANILCA). Although general principles of federal Indian law provided strong support for the proposition that Alaska's Native people held aboriginal title to much of the new state, the Alaska Statehood Act itself carefully disclaimed any effect on aboriginal title. This approach was in keeping with the Congress's past dealings with Alaska Native property rights. This article outlines the history of Alaska Native aboriginal rights through the Statehood Act along ...


The Use And Misuse Of High-Tech Evidence By Prosecutors: Ethical And Evidentiary Issues, Robert Aronson, Jacqueline Mcmurtrie Jan 2007

The Use And Misuse Of High-Tech Evidence By Prosecutors: Ethical And Evidentiary Issues, Robert Aronson, Jacqueline Mcmurtrie

Articles

This essay first addresses the ethical and evidentiary standards for the emerging use of high-tech computer-generated animations and computer-assisted closing arguments. Next, this essay considers the same questions within the context of forensic DNA evidence. Third, this essay considers the ethics of prosecutors' use of such evidence and the consequences for the misuse of this evidence. Finally, this essay suggests remedies to ethical problems facing prosecutors in their use of this kind of evidence.


Rebuilding The Profession: Recommendations For Librarians Interested In Becoming Academic Law Library Directors, Barbara A. Bintliff, Laura N. Gasaway, Penny A. Hazelton, Frank G. Houdek, Janis L. Johnston, Martha Dragich Pearson, Charles Ten Brink, Michelle Wu Jan 2007

Rebuilding The Profession: Recommendations For Librarians Interested In Becoming Academic Law Library Directors, Barbara A. Bintliff, Laura N. Gasaway, Penny A. Hazelton, Frank G. Houdek, Janis L. Johnston, Martha Dragich Pearson, Charles Ten Brink, Michelle Wu

Articles

Based on papers presented at a 2005 workshop for individuals interested in becoming academic law library directors, this article begins by exploring the duties of academic director jobs—administrative skills and faculty responsibilities—before examining how to build credentials in preparation for such jobs. It concludes by focusing on the skills and knowledge needed to interview for director jobs.


Adapting To Administrative Law's Erie Doctrine, Kathryn A. Watts Jan 2007

Adapting To Administrative Law's Erie Doctrine, Kathryn A. Watts

Articles

This Article looks to the federalism context and draws on the federal courts' experience adapting to the Court's landmark decision in Erie Railroad Company v. Tompkins. Much like Brand X, the Court's Erie decision, which commanded federal courts to apply state law in all cases not governed by positive federal law, significantly reduced the lawmaking power of the federal courts by putting the federal courts in the position of interpreting law that they cannot definitively construe. Although Erie seemed simple enough to adhere to when state law provided a clear answer, Erie posed a serious dilemma when federal ...


Can China Promote Electronic Commerce Through Law Reform? Some Preliminary Case Study Evidence, Jane K. Winn, Song Yuping Jan 2007

Can China Promote Electronic Commerce Through Law Reform? Some Preliminary Case Study Evidence, Jane K. Winn, Song Yuping

Articles

The government of the People’s Republic of China (P.R.C.) has announced its intention to make China a global leader in innovation by 2020. Many Chinese business leaders share this goal. The primary focus of this national strategy is to transform China into an exporter of high-technology products based on Chinese designs rather than merely a low cost, high volume manufacturer of products based on technology developed in other countries.

This paper will examine the implications for this strategy with regard to the use of computerized management information systems by Chinese businesses, and its relationship to recent law ...


Global Health And Human Rights Imperative, Patricia C. Kuszler Jan 2007

Global Health And Human Rights Imperative, Patricia C. Kuszler

Articles

Open any magazine, click on a television news channel, or surf the net and you are likely to find global health highlighted as one of the foremost challenges of new millennium. First, this article will consider the meaning and measures of global health and detail the path to improved health and development prescribed by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Second, it will trace the development of international human rights law as it relates to health. Third, it demonstrate how human rights and health, long traversing parallel routes, are in fact converging in the 21st Century quest for global health ...


An External Perspective On The Nature Of Noneconomic Compensatory Damages And Their Regulation, Ronald J. Allen, Alexia Brunet, Susan Spies Roth Jan 2007

An External Perspective On The Nature Of Noneconomic Compensatory Damages And Their Regulation, Ronald J. Allen, Alexia Brunet, Susan Spies Roth

Articles

No abstract provided.


Structural Rights In Privacy, Harry Surden Jan 2007

Structural Rights In Privacy, Harry Surden

Articles

This Essay challenges the view that privacy interests are protected primarily by law. Based upon the understanding that society relies upon nonlegal devices such as markets, norms, and structure to regulate human behavior, this Essay calls attention to a class of regulatory devices known as latent structural constraints and provides a positive account of their role in regulating privacy. Structural constraints are physical or technological barriers which regulate conduct; they can be either explicit or latent. An example of an explicit structural constraint is a fence which is designed to prevent entry onto real property, thereby effectively enforcing property rights ...


The Patent Office Meets The Poison Pill: Why Legal Methods Cannot Be Patented, Andrew A. Schwartz Jan 2007

The Patent Office Meets The Poison Pill: Why Legal Methods Cannot Be Patented, Andrew A. Schwartz

Articles

In 2003, for the first time in its 170-year history, the United States Patent Office began awarding patents for novel legal innovations, in addition to traditional inventions such as the telephone or airplane. Commentators have accepted the Patent Office's power to grant legal method patents, but at the same time have criticized this new type of patent on policy grounds. But no one has suggested that the Patent Office exceeded its authority by awarding patents for legal methods, until now.

In the Patent Act of 1952, which is still in effect today, Congress established certain requirements for patentability, including ...


At War With The Eclectics: Mapping Pragmatism In Contemporary Legal Analysis, Justin Desautels-Stein Jan 2007

At War With The Eclectics: Mapping Pragmatism In Contemporary Legal Analysis, Justin Desautels-Stein

Articles

This Article has two primary goals. The first is descriptive and seeks to respond to what appears to be an increasing degree of confusion over the word "pragmatism," especially as it is used in a good deal of legal literature. This descriptive aim begins by separating out three general categories of pragmatism: (1) the so-called "everyday" pragmatism familiar to the American vernacular, (2) the classical philosophy of the early pragmatist authors like William James and John Dewey, and (3) pragmatism as understood in the context of law. The majority of the Article is subsequently concerned with exploring this last category ...


Unmitigated Punishment: Adolescent Criminal Responsibility And Lwop Sentences, Barry C. Feld Jan 2007

Unmitigated Punishment: Adolescent Criminal Responsibility And Lwop Sentences, Barry C. Feld

Articles

For more than a century, youth crime policies have oscillated between periods of more lenient treatment and harsher punishment. Justice officials and the public alternatively attributed high crime rates either to ";soft"; rehabilitative policies and advocated ";tougher"; sanctions, or to excessively harsh penalties that failed adequately to treat youths. A century ago, Progressive reformers combined a more modern construction of childhood with a more scientific conception of social control to create a judicial-welfare alternative and to remove children from the adult criminal process. 2 They used juvenile courts to assimilate, ";Americanize,"; and control ";other people's"; children.


A Century Of Juvenile Justice: A Work In Progress Or A Revolution That Failed?, Barry C. Feld Jan 2007

A Century Of Juvenile Justice: A Work In Progress Or A Revolution That Failed?, Barry C. Feld

Articles

A century ago, Progressive reformers adopted a more modem construction of childhood as a developmental period of innocence, dependence, and vulnerability. They embraced a more scientific understanding of social control - positive criminology - and tried to identify the causes of crime and to treat, rather than to punish, offenders. Reformers combined the new vision of childhood with new insights into criminality to create a judicial-welfare alternative to the adult criminal process. Jurisdiction over dependent as well as delinquent children reflected juvenile courts' broader role as a child-saving welfare agency and not simply a "junior" criminal court.'


Law And Technology: Interactions And Relationships, Daniel J. Gifford Jan 2007

Law And Technology: Interactions And Relationships, Daniel J. Gifford

Articles

The relations between law and technology are both simple and exceedingly complex. At the most elementary level, technology consists in the application of labor to create a product, to generate a service or otherwise to produce a desired result. Technology develops as ways are found to produce new results or to produce old results using fewer or less costly inputs. Law is generally understood to exist as a set of rules adopted by a society's governing institutions that are applicable to all of its inhabitants.' All modern societies have established institutions charged with making determinations about the applicability and ...


Creating Failures In The Market For Tax Planning, Phillip A. Curry, Claire Hill, Francesco Parisi Jan 2007

Creating Failures In The Market For Tax Planning, Phillip A. Curry, Claire Hill, Francesco Parisi

Articles

In this paper we consider the role of governments in designing their policy for tax planning strategies. We consider two distinct types of social costs: the cost associated with lost tax revenue, and the cost that arises from taxpayers' search for new methods to reduce their tax burden. Inevitably, reducing one of these costs comes at the expense of increasing the other; the government faces a tradeoff. By recognizing these costs and the tradeoff the government faces, we can better understand current tax policy. Moreover, a wider recognition of the tradeoff described above, and a systematic consideration of how to ...


In Search Of The Modern Skidmore Standard, Kristin Hickman, Matthew D. Krueger Jan 2007

In Search Of The Modern Skidmore Standard, Kristin Hickman, Matthew D. Krueger

Articles

This Article offers a comprehensive examination of the Skidmore standard for judicial review of agency legal interpretations as applied by the courts in the period since the Supreme Court revitalized Skidmore in United States v. Mead Corp. First, the Article documents an empirical study of five years worth of Skidmore applications in the federal courts of appeals. In the study, we evaluate two competing conceptions of Skidmore review - the independent judgment model and the theoretically more deferential sliding-scale model - and conclude that the appellate courts overwhelmingly follow the sliding scale approach. Also, contrary to two other, significantly more limited studies ...


The Minnesota Fiscal Disparities Act Of 1971: The Twin Cities' Struggle And Blueprint For Regional Cooperation, Myron Orfield, Nicholas Wallace Jan 2007

The Minnesota Fiscal Disparities Act Of 1971: The Twin Cities' Struggle And Blueprint For Regional Cooperation, Myron Orfield, Nicholas Wallace

Articles

No abstract provided.