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University of Washington School of Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Revolt Against The U.S. Hegemony: Judicial Divergence In Cyberspace, Dongsheng Zang Jan 2022

Revolt Against The U.S. Hegemony: Judicial Divergence In Cyberspace, Dongsheng Zang

Articles

This Article contributes to our understanding of the current state of cyber law. The global perspective demonstrates an almost uniform response to the U.S. law in cyberspace from all of America's major trading partners. In the past, comparative studies tended to focus on a single jurisdiction-typically, the European Union-and compared it with the United States. This approach, informative as it was, significantly understated the gravity of the differences between that jurisdiction and the United States. Fundamentally, it was based on an American-centric outlook with primary interests in building convergence models. In cyberspace, however, this is simply not helpful ...


Taxing Creativity, Xuan-Thao Nguyen, Jeffrey A. Maine Jan 2022

Taxing Creativity, Xuan-Thao Nguyen, Jeffrey A. Maine

Articles

The recent sell offs of song catalogs by Bob Dylan, Stevie Nicks, Neil Young, and Mick Fleetwood for extraordinarily large sums of money raise questions about the law on creativity. While patent and copyright laws encourage a wide array of creative endeavors, tax laws governing monetization of creative works do not. The Songwriters Capital Gains Equity Act, in particular, solidifies creativity exceptionalism, exacerbates tax inequities among creators, and perpetuates racial disparities in the tax Code. This Article asserts that the law must encourage creativity from all creators. It is time to eliminate tax exceptionalism for musical compositions or expand its ...


Unravelling Inventorship, Toshiko Takenaka Jan 2022

Unravelling Inventorship, Toshiko Takenaka

Articles

Inventorship, who made an invention, is one of the most important concepts under the U.S. patent system. Incorrect inventorship determinations result in patent invalidity not only because U.S. Constitution requires granting patents to true inventors, but also first-inventorto- file novelty inherited many aspects of first-to-invent novelty which depended on inventorship whether to include prior inventions as prior art. Correcting inventorship may result in sharing patent exclusivity with competitors, which forfeits profits necessary to recover expensive development costs. However, the standard to determine inventorship has been called muddy by judges and commentators because neither the Patent Act nor case ...


The Landscape Of Startup Corporate Governance In The Founder-Friendly Era, Jennifer S. Fan Jan 2022

The Landscape Of Startup Corporate Governance In The Founder-Friendly Era, Jennifer S. Fan

Articles

In corporate governance scholarship, there is an important debate about the nature and roles of the members of the board of directors in venture capital-backed private companies. The impact of a newly emerged, founder-centric model has been underappreciated, while the role of the independent director as tiebreaker or swing vote is vastly overstated. The reality is that corporate governance in these companies is a norm-driven, consensus-building process that rarely spills out into open conflict.

This is the first empirical study of startup corporate governance post-Great Recession and during the pandemic. Using survey and interview methodologies, this Article makes four primary ...


Modeling Through, Ryan Calo Jan 2022

Modeling Through, Ryan Calo

Articles

Theorists of justice have long imagined a decision-maker capable of acting wisely in every circumstance. Policymakers seldom live up to this ideal. They face well-understood limits, including an inability to anticipate the societal impacts of state intervention along a range of dimensions and values. Policymakers cannot see around corners or address societal problems at their roots. When it comes to regulation and policy-setting, policymakers are often forced, in the memorable words of political economist Charles Lindblom, to “muddle through” as best they can.

Powerful new affordances, from supercomputing to artificial intelligence, have arisen in the decades since Lindblom’s 1959 ...


Violence Everywhere: How The Current Spectacle Of Black Suffering, Police Violence, And The Violence Of Judicial Interpretation Undermine The Rule Of Law, David B. Owens Jan 2022

Violence Everywhere: How The Current Spectacle Of Black Suffering, Police Violence, And The Violence Of Judicial Interpretation Undermine The Rule Of Law, David B. Owens

Articles

No abstract provided.


The Supreme Court’S Chief Justice Of Intellectual Property Law, Bob Gomulkiewicz Jan 2022

The Supreme Court’S Chief Justice Of Intellectual Property Law, Bob Gomulkiewicz

Articles

Justice Clarence Thomas is one of the most recognizable members of the United States Supreme Court. Many people recall his stormy Senate confirmation hearing and notice his fiery dissenting opinions that call on the Court to reflect the original public meaning of the Constitution. Yet observers have missed one of Justice Thomas’s most significant contributions to the Court—his intellectual property law jurisprudence. Justice Thomas has authored more majority opinions in intellectual property cases than any other Justice in the Roberts Court era and now ranks as the most prolific author of patent law opinions in the history of ...


Reasoning V. Rhetoric: The Strange Case Of “Unconstitutional Beyond A Reasonable Doubt”, Hugh D. Spitzer Jan 2022

Reasoning V. Rhetoric: The Strange Case Of “Unconstitutional Beyond A Reasonable Doubt”, Hugh D. Spitzer

Articles

An odd formulation has frequented American constitutional discourse for 125 years: a declaration that courts should not overturn a statute on constitutional grounds unless it is “unconstitutional beyond a reasonable doubt.” This concept has been thought of as a presumption, a standard, a doctrine, or a philosophy of coordinate branch respect and judicial restraint. Yet it has been criticized because “beyond a reasonable doubt” is at root an evidentiary standard of proof in criminal cases rather than a workable theory or standard for deciding constitutional law cases. This article discusses the history and use of “unconstitutional beyond a reasonable doubt ...


Incentivizing Innovation, Xuan-Thao Nguyen, Jeffrey A. Maine Jan 2022

Incentivizing Innovation, Xuan-Thao Nguyen, Jeffrey A. Maine

Articles

This Article advocates for a new approach to incentivizing innovation through the design of ex post tax incentives for research and development (R&D) investment. In contrast to many nations, the United States relies largely on ex ante tax incentives, namely a tax deduction and tax credit for qualified R&D spending. Fundamental design flaws exist with these ex ante incentives; moreover, innovation occurs continuously and yields results at the back end of the innovation cycle. An appropriate framework should take into consideration the key players in the innovation landscape. These players are often treated differently under the tax laws such that incentives for each may be justified. This Article fills a void in the literature, which focuses mostly on ex ante R&D tax incentives, and proposes several new ex post tax incentive options for both corporations ...


Self-Control Of Personal Data And The Constitution In East Asia, Dongsheng Zang Jan 2022

Self-Control Of Personal Data And The Constitution In East Asia, Dongsheng Zang

Articles

No abstract provided.


The Injustice Of 1.5°C–2°C: The Need For A Scientifically Based Standard Of Fundamental Rights Protection In Constitutional Climate Change Cases, Lauren E. Sancken, Andrea K. Rodgers, Jennifer Marlow Jan 2022

The Injustice Of 1.5°C–2°C: The Need For A Scientifically Based Standard Of Fundamental Rights Protection In Constitutional Climate Change Cases, Lauren E. Sancken, Andrea K. Rodgers, Jennifer Marlow

Articles

In 2015, signatories to the Paris Agreement agreed to the goal of keeping global temperature rise this century to well below 2°C above preindustrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5°C. Although the adoption of the Paris Agreement was in many ways a political triumph, seven years later many climate advocates are presenting the Paris target to judicial bodies as the de facto legal standard for fundamental rights protection in climate change cases. Yet, the history leading up to the signatories’ ultimate adoption of the Paris Agreement target suggests that ...


Terrified By Technology: How Systemic Bias Distorts U.S. Legal And Regulatory Responses To Emerging Technology, Steve Calandrillo, Nolan Kobuke Anderson Jan 2022

Terrified By Technology: How Systemic Bias Distorts U.S. Legal And Regulatory Responses To Emerging Technology, Steve Calandrillo, Nolan Kobuke Anderson

Articles

Americans are becoming increasingly aware of the systemic biases we possess and how those biases preclude us from collectively living out the true meaning of our national creed. But to fully understand systemic bias we must acknowledge that it is pervasive and extends beyond the contexts of race, privilege, and economic status. Understanding all forms of systemic bias helps us to better understand ourselves and our shortcomings. At first glance, a human bias against emerging technology caused by systemic risk misperception might seem uninteresting or unimportant. But this Article demonstrates how the presence of systemic bias anywhere, even in an ...


Awakening The American Jury: Did The Killing Of George Floyd Alter Juror Deliberations Forever?, Tamara F. Lawson Jan 2021

Awakening The American Jury: Did The Killing Of George Floyd Alter Juror Deliberations Forever?, Tamara F. Lawson

Articles

In the summer of 2020, the witnessing of George Floyd's death triggered an outpouring of public expression far beyond other cases in modern times. While the experience led some to advocate for reform and participate in antiracism rallies, marches, and campaigns, it also forced many others into internal reflection, awareness, and awakening to the knowledge of a lived experience with police different from their own. The gruesome realities of the video were irreconcilable with those prior beliefs and did not comport with any moral or legal standards of dignity. Prior to witnessing George Floyd's death on video at ...


An Innovative Approach To Movement Lawyering: An Immigrant Rights Case Study, Christine N. Cimini, Doug Smith Jan 2021

An Innovative Approach To Movement Lawyering: An Immigrant Rights Case Study, Christine N. Cimini, Doug Smith

Articles

The role of lawyers in social change movements is more important than ever as communities mobilize around systemic racism, police killings, xenophobia, rising unemployment, and widening economic inequality. The immigrant rights movement is a critical part of these efforts to foment change. This Article leverages an in-depth case study – the rise and fall of the controversial immigration enforcement program known as Secure Communities - to explore how lawyers work as part of a community to challenge power and effectuate change. The dismantling of Secure Communities was widely credited to a relentless campaign to thwart the government’s then-expanding deportation strategy. The ...


The Right To Benefit From Big Data As A Public Resource, Mary D. Fan Jan 2021

The Right To Benefit From Big Data As A Public Resource, Mary D. Fan

Articles

The information that we reveal from interactions online and with electronic devices has massive value—for both private profit and public benefit, such as improving health, safety, and even commute times. Who owns the lucrative big data that we generate through the everyday necessity of interacting with technology? Calls for legal regulation regarding how companies use our data have spurred laws and proposals framed by the predominant lens of individual privacy and the right to control and delete data about oneself. By focusing on individual control over droplets of personal data, the major consumer privacy regimes overlook the important question ...


Catalytic Courts And Enforcement Of Constitutional Education Funding Provisions, Hugh D. Spitzer, Andy Omara Jan 2021

Catalytic Courts And Enforcement Of Constitutional Education Funding Provisions, Hugh D. Spitzer, Andy Omara

Articles

It is well-recognized that it is easier for judges to enforce constitutional “negative rights” provisions than positive social and economic rights. This article focuses on the challenges of enforcing one specific positive right: the constitutional right of children to attend adequately funded schools. Our article tests on-the-ground judicial implementation of education funding provisions against the general theoretical framework of judicial interaction with the political branches developed by Katharine Young. We analyze how, in multi-year, multi-decision litigation, constitutional court judges in the three jurisdictions we studied actively experimented with the challenging task of forcing, or enticing, reluctant legislative and executive branches ...


Taxing Parents: Welfarist Theories, Shannon Weeks Mccormack Jan 2021

Taxing Parents: Welfarist Theories, Shannon Weeks Mccormack

Articles

The Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”) taxes parents inequitably. Couples with a sole earner are under-taxed compared to couples with dual earners or single parents. Previous scholarship has identified these inequities and then argued that this sole earner bias should be eliminated. These arguments, however, have often been incomplete. Simply establishing that an inequity exists does not create a full argument for legal reform. After all, the Code plays favorites all the time. Scholars have traditionally turned to theories of distributive justice when evaluating whether tax preferences are warranted. These theories offer competing visions about the way resources should be ...


#Metoo Innovators: Disrupting The Race And Gender Code By Asian Americans In The Tech Industry, Xuan-Thao Nguyen Jan 2021

#Metoo Innovators: Disrupting The Race And Gender Code By Asian Americans In The Tech Industry, Xuan-Thao Nguyen

Articles

This Article focuses on how Asian American women innovators of the #MeToo generation are disrupting the code of conduct in the tech industry. The code is hard-wired into the tech bro culture of mirrortocracy, resulting in hiring practices that perpetuate existing company demographics and statistics that show that Asian American women face 2.91 times the disadvantage compared to white women. In addition, of all gender and racial groups, Asian American female innovators are the least likely to become executives. This Article identifies and explains how these innovators are the disruptors on several fronts. Utilizing everything from judicial means to ...


Antiracism, Reflection, And Professional Identity, Monte Mills, Eduardo R.C. Capulong, Andrew King-Ries Jan 2021

Antiracism, Reflection, And Professional Identity, Monte Mills, Eduardo R.C. Capulong, Andrew King-Ries

Articles

Intent on more systematically developing the emerging professional identities of law students, the professional identity formation movement is recasting how we think about legal education. Notably, however, the movement overlooks the structural racism imbedded in American law and legal education. While current models of professional development value diversity and cross-cultural competence, they do not adequately prepare the next generation of legal professionals to engage in the sustained work of interrupting and overthrowing race and racism in the legal profession and system. This article argues that antiracism is essential to the profession’s responsibility to serve justice and therefore key to ...


Bridges To A New Era: A Report On The Past, Present, And Potential Future Of Tribal Co-Management On Federal Public Lands, Monte Mills, Martin Nie Jan 2021

Bridges To A New Era: A Report On The Past, Present, And Potential Future Of Tribal Co-Management On Federal Public Lands, Monte Mills, Martin Nie

Articles

Deep ancestral and traditional connections tie many Native Nations to the federal government’s public lands. The removal of these lands from indigenous control, their acquisition by the federal government, and the federal government’s approach to their management are largely premised upon the erasure or marginalization of those connections. Both physically and legally, Indian tribes have been removed from the landscapes they occupied since time immemorial. Rather than centering, honoring, and using those connections, the current discussion of tribal co-management of federal public lands is mostly bereft of this full legal and historical context.

Compounding these limitations is the ...


Promoting Corporate Irresponsibility? Delaware As The Intellectual Property Holding State, Xuan-Thao Nguyen Jan 2021

Promoting Corporate Irresponsibility? Delaware As The Intellectual Property Holding State, Xuan-Thao Nguyen

Articles

This article is about Delaware corporate irresponsibility. Delaware has stealthily become the center of all things intellectual property. As the leader of onshore tax havens since the early 1980s, Delaware attracts multistate corporations to engage in aggressive tax avoidance schemes. Specifically, Delaware has legislatively and methodically attracted the creation of Intellectual Property Holding Companies (IPHCs), enabling companies to avoid paying their share of taxes to sister states on the income generated from the use of Intellectual Property assets. This article traces the rise of Delaware as the intellectual property state and concludes that the benefits Delaware enjoys promote corporate irresponsibility ...


The Automated Administrative State: A Crisis Of Legitimacy, Ryan Calo, Danielle Keats Citron Jan 2021

The Automated Administrative State: A Crisis Of Legitimacy, Ryan Calo, Danielle Keats Citron

Articles

The legitimacy of the administrative state is premised on our faith in agency expertise. Despite their extra-constitutional structure, administrative agencies have been on firm footing for a long time in reverence to their critical role in governing a complex, evolving society. They are delegated enormous power because they respond expertly and nimbly to evolving conditions. In recent decades, state and federal agencies have embraced a novel mode of operation: automation. Agencies rely more and more on software and algorithms in carrying out their delegated responsibilities. The automated administrative state, however, is demonstrably riddled with concerns. Legal challenges regarding the denial ...


Attitudes Towards Ip Present Among Seattle Craft Breweries, Zahr K. Said Jan 2021

Attitudes Towards Ip Present Among Seattle Craft Breweries, Zahr K. Said

Articles

No abstract provided.


The End Of Deportation, Angélica Cházaro Jan 2021

The End Of Deportation, Angélica Cházaro

Articles

This Article introduces to legal scholarship a new horizon for pro-immigrant scholarship and advocacy: deportation abolition. The ever-present threat of deportation shapes the daily lives of noncitizens. Instead of aiming for a pathway to citizenship, most noncitizens must now contend with dodging the many pathways to banishment. Despite growing threats to immigrant survival, most pro-immigrant scholarship and advocacy that aims to reduce migrant suffering assumes deportation as inevitable. The focus remains on improving individual outcomes by aligning the process of deportation with due process and the rule of law. But considered from the point of view of those facing deportation ...


The Rise Of Law And The Fall Of Circular 230: Tax Lawyer Professional Standards, 1985-2015, Michael Hatfield Jan 2021

The Rise Of Law And The Fall Of Circular 230: Tax Lawyer Professional Standards, 1985-2015, Michael Hatfield

Articles

This third article focuses on the two issues that dominated discussions of professional responsibility standards for tax lawyers in the 1985-2015 period: return position standards and tax shelter opinions. It opens with consideration of the ABA’s 1965 opinion providing “reasonable basis” as the standard for undisclosed return positions, and then traces the response to that opinion as the response prods the development of the 1985 replacement with its “realistic possibility of success” standard. The Article documents the extensive interaction between Congress, the Treasury Department, and the tax bar over the next 30 years during which penalties are studied and ...


Presidential Control Of Elections, Lisa Marshall Manheim Jan 2021

Presidential Control Of Elections, Lisa Marshall Manheim

Articles

An election that is “disputed” lacks two qualities after Election Day: a clear winner and a concession. These elections instead depend on legal processes — recounts, court proceedings, and more — for resolution. As a result, when a sitting President, running for reelection, becomes immersed in a disputed presidential election, he potentially enjoys an advantage over his opponent. He can attempt to exploit the powers of the presidency to push these legal proceedings in his favor. As a practical matter, this advantage can be formidable. A sitting president can resort to his extraordinary bully pulpit, for example, to influence public sentiment. This ...


Inclusive Patents For Open Innovation, Toshiko Takenaka Jan 2020

Inclusive Patents For Open Innovation, Toshiko Takenaka

Articles

The post-internet era has greatly affected commercial firms' innovation processes. The complexity and cumulative nature of emerging technologies under the post-internet era has made commercial firms reevaluate their innovation processes and has increased the role of individual innovators. Firms dealing with emerging technologies cannot make products without infringing on patents held by others, as their products are covered by numerous overlapping patents. Many of these firms work with individual innovators and embrace the open-source philosophy that ensures open access to technologies. These firms can no longer use patents for excluding others without risking infringement counterclaims, leading to the development of ...


Tiptoeing Through The Landmines: The Evolution Of States' Legal Ethics Authority Regarding Representing Cannabis Clients, Karen Boxx Jan 2020

Tiptoeing Through The Landmines: The Evolution Of States' Legal Ethics Authority Regarding Representing Cannabis Clients, Karen Boxx

Articles

No abstract provided.


Cracks In The Foundation, Lisa Marshall Manheim Jan 2020

Cracks In The Foundation, Lisa Marshall Manheim

Articles

This essay is part of a symposium on Richard L. Hasen’s book, Election Meltdown: Dirty Tricks, Distrust, and the Threat to American Democracy (2020). It discusses how intentional voter suppression runs contrary to a universalist conception of voting and exacerbates the other major threats facing American elections.


Banking The Unbanked Innovators, Xuan-Thao Nguyen Jan 2020

Banking The Unbanked Innovators, Xuan-Thao Nguyen

Articles

Innovators are necessary for the engine of economic growth. Why do banks still find innovators, from startups to high growth companies, unattractive as potential customers for banking and lending products? Banks typically make business loans to established companies with positive cash flow and physical assets. Banks are eager to make loans in real estate transactions. Throughout modern time, banks persistently avoid banking innovators. Nationwide, only five outlier banks are defying conventional banking practices, and the leader among them is Silicon Valley Bank. Against all the odds, Silicon Valley Bank began as a local, community bank for innovators in 1982, and ...