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University of Michigan Law School

Artificial intelligence

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Humans In The Loop, Nicholson Price Ii, Rebecca Crootof, Margot Kaminski Jan 2023

Humans In The Loop, Nicholson Price Ii, Rebecca Crootof, Margot Kaminski

Articles

From lethal drones to cancer diagnostics, humans are increasingly working with complex and artificially intelligent algorithms to make decisions which affect human lives, raising questions about how best to regulate these “human in the loop” systems. We make four contributions to the discourse.

First, contrary to the popular narrative, law is already profoundly and often problematically involved in governing human-in-the-loop systems: it regularly affects whether humans are retained in or removed from the loop. Second, we identify “the MABA-MABA trap,” which occurs when policymakers attempt to address concerns about algorithmic incapacities by inserting a human into decision making process. Regardless …


Open-Source Clinical Machine Learning Models: Critical Appraisal Of Feasibility, Advantages, And Challenges, Keerthi B. Harish, W. Nicholson Price Ii, Yindalon Aphinyanaphongs Nov 2022

Open-Source Clinical Machine Learning Models: Critical Appraisal Of Feasibility, Advantages, And Challenges, Keerthi B. Harish, W. Nicholson Price Ii, Yindalon Aphinyanaphongs

Articles

Machine learning applications promise to augment clinical capabilities and at least 64 models have already been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. These tools are developed, shared, and used in an environment in which regulations and market forces remain immature. An important consideration when evaluating this environment is the introduction of open-source solutions in which innovations are freely shared; such solutions have long been a facet of digital culture. We discuss the feasibility and implications of open-source machine learning in a health care infrastructure built upon proprietary information. The decreased cost of development as compared to drugs and …


An Agent-Based Model Of Financial Benchmark Manipulation, Gabriel Virgil Rauterberg, Megan Shearer, Michael Wellman Jun 2019

An Agent-Based Model Of Financial Benchmark Manipulation, Gabriel Virgil Rauterberg, Megan Shearer, Michael Wellman

Articles

Financial benchmarks estimate market values or reference rates used in a wide variety of contexts, but are often calculated from data generated by parties who have incentives to manipulate these benchmarks. Since the the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) scandal in 2011, market participants, scholars, and regulators have scrutinized financial benchmarks and the ability of traders to manipulate them. We study the impact on market quality and microstructure of manipulating transaction-based benchmarks in a simulated market environment. Our market consists of a single benchmark manipulator with external holdings dependent on the benchmark, and numerous background traders unaffected by the benchmark. …