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Opinion Letter As To The Patentability Of Certain Inventions Associated With The Identification Of Partial Cdna Sequences, Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Robert P. Merges Jan 1995

Opinion Letter As To The Patentability Of Certain Inventions Associated With The Identification Of Partial Cdna Sequences, Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Robert P. Merges

Articles

You have asked for our legal opinion on the patentability of inventions claimed in U.S. patent applications 07/716,831, filed June 21, 1991 (the '831 application, or .'831"), 07/837,195, filed September 25, 1992 ("'195"), and 07/952,911, filed February 12, 1993 (."911"), all filed in the name of Craig Venter and others and assigned to the National Institutes of Health "(NIH)." We understand that NIH has abandoned these patent applications and has no present intention of filing similar applications in the future, but that NIH remains interested in the patenting of human DNA sequences from a broader public policy perspective. We have …


On The Topology Of Uniform Environmental Standards In A Federal System And Why It Matters (Symposium: Environmental Federalism), James E. Krier Jan 1995

On The Topology Of Uniform Environmental Standards In A Federal System And Why It Matters (Symposium: Environmental Federalism), James E. Krier

Articles

Uniform standards are much favored among the makers of federal environmental policy in the United States, which is to say, among the members of Congress. By and large-judging at least from the legislation it has enacted-Congress expects the air and water eventually to meet the same minimum levels of quality in every state in the country, and expects each pollution source in any industrial category or subcategory to be controlled just as much as every other such source, notwithstanding the source's location or other peculiar characteristics. There are exceptions to these generalizations, but they are exceptions and not the rule.1 …


Reply To Comments On The Patentability Of Certain Inventions Associated With The Identification Of Partial Cdna Sequences, Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Robert P. Merges Jan 1995

Reply To Comments On The Patentability Of Certain Inventions Associated With The Identification Of Partial Cdna Sequences, Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Robert P. Merges

Articles

A brief reply is in order to clarify our position on the patenting of research tools. We stand by the statement that "there are reasons to be wary of patents on research tools," but that statement should not be understood as a broad condemnation of patents on research tools in all contexts. Indeed, immediately after the cited language our opinion letter acknowledges that withholding patent protection from research tools could undermine private incentives to develop research tools and to make them available to investigators or lead to greater reliance on trade secrecy. Unlike the government, which purports to pursue patent …


Idaho Administrative Procedure Act: A Primer For The Practitioner, Dale Goble Jan 1993

Idaho Administrative Procedure Act: A Primer For The Practitioner, Dale Goble

Articles

No abstract provided.


International Trade Law And The Arbitration Of Administrative Law Matters: Farrel V. U.S. International Trade Commission, Ronald A. Brand Jan 1993

International Trade Law And The Arbitration Of Administrative Law Matters: Farrel V. U.S. International Trade Commission, Ronald A. Brand

Articles

With support from the executive branch, Congress, and the courts, arbitration has become an increasingly popular method of international dispute resolution. While agreements to arbitrate traditionally were frowned upon, particularly when the dispute involved certain “public law” or “statutory” matters, the situation has changed dramatically in the past few decades. United States courts now routinely order arbitration of disputes implicating important policy issues in securities, antitrust, Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (“RICO”), and employment law matters. By the end of the 1980’s, the presence of a public or “statutory” issue seemed no longer to be a distinguishing factor; arbitration, when …


Authority And Responsibility: The Jurisprudence Of Deference, Joseph Vining Jan 1991

Authority And Responsibility: The Jurisprudence Of Deference, Joseph Vining

Articles

he connection between authority and responsibility is such that the one cannot be thought of without the other. In legal method, close reading and rereading of a text marks it as an authoritative text; the presupposition of mind which is necessary to close reading is presupposition of a responsible mind. In the working of institutions that embody authority, the disposition to follow the decisions and statements of a person responsible for a matter inevitably rests upon a presupposition that the decisions and statements followed are those of the responsible person. As that presupposition fades with bureaucratization of decision and writing, …


Through The Looking-Glass And What The Idaho Supreme Court Found There, Dale Goble Jan 1990

Through The Looking-Glass And What The Idaho Supreme Court Found There, Dale Goble

Articles

No abstract provided.


Becket At The Bar--The Conflicting Obligations Of The Solicitor General, Eric Schnapper Jan 1988

Becket At The Bar--The Conflicting Obligations Of The Solicitor General, Eric Schnapper

Articles

This Article suggests that the Solicitor General has five quite distinct responsibilities: to provide the Supreme Court with accurate and balanced information, to help to shape the Court's docket, to assure that the government's presentations maintain a high level of professionalism, to frame government positions which strike an appropriate balance between justice and advocacy, and to identify the interests and policies of the government client whom he represents. These responsibilities at times place the Solicitor General under conflicting obligations, not merely conflicts between his or her duties to the Court and to the administration, but conflicts in the Solicitor General's …


In Defense Of Administrative Agency Autonomy, A. Michael Froomkin Jan 1987

In Defense Of Administrative Agency Autonomy, A. Michael Froomkin

Articles

No abstract provided.


The Natural Law Of Administrative Law, William H. Rodgers, Jr. Jan 1983

The Natural Law Of Administrative Law, William H. Rodgers, Jr.

Articles

Law teachers and researchers are inveterate seekers of metaphors. The metaphor, even if glib and obvious, invariably suggests further parallels and relationships, the conjoinder of phenomena. This is the road to uncovering unsuspected linkages and building simple descriptive models.

Theory building, in administrative law as elsewhere, begins with the capture and expression of the convincing metaphor. Extracting metaphors from the natural sciences to account for social happenings begins with a figure of speech and often ends there. Legislatures now are squeezing fat out of administrative agencies, an apt biological picture of a weight watcher's rigor being imposed on flabby, middle-aged …


Judicial Review Of Risk Assessments: The Role Of Decision Theory In Unscrambling The Benzene Decision, William H. Rodgers, Jr. Nov 1981

Judicial Review Of Risk Assessments: The Role Of Decision Theory In Unscrambling The Benzene Decision, William H. Rodgers, Jr.

Articles

[Reprinted in 13 Land Use & Envtl. L. Rev. 629-48 (1982).]


Benefits, Costs, And Risks: Oversight Of Health And Environmental Decisionmaking, William H. Rodgers, Jr. Jan 1980

Benefits, Costs, And Risks: Oversight Of Health And Environmental Decisionmaking, William H. Rodgers, Jr.

Articles

This article considers problems of "regulatory reform" in the context of environmental and health decisionmaking. Specifically, in Part I, this article defines cost-benefit analysis, explores its advantages and limitations, and assays cost-benefit practice in light of descriptive theoretical and practical demands of formal decisionmaking within administrative agencies.

The two remaining sections of this article focus on the question of how Congress and the courts can, do, and should structure environmental and health regulation. In Part II, the article explores legislative models for agency consideration of costs and benefits in promulgating regulations. It examines four alternative models, and identifies normative considerations …


A Hard Look At Vermont Yankee: Environmental Law Under Close Scrutiny, William H. Rodgers, Jr. Jan 1979

A Hard Look At Vermont Yankee: Environmental Law Under Close Scrutiny, William H. Rodgers, Jr.

Articles

In Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. the Supreme Court unanimously reversed the District of Columbia Circuit in two cases that closely scrutinized decisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and, in so doing, questioned settled habits of judicial review of administrative action affecting the environment. In this article Professor Rodgers analyzes four implications of Vermont Yankee—substantive judicial review under the National Environmental Policy Act, judicial imposition of procedures upon agencies beyond the statutory minima of the Administrative Procedure Act, the obligation of the agencies to consider alternatives in the environmental impact statement without regard to …


Comment On The Coal Lease Forfeiture Decision: The Hypothetical Case Of United States V. Peabody Coal Co., William H. Rodgers, Jr. Apr 1975

Comment On The Coal Lease Forfeiture Decision: The Hypothetical Case Of United States V. Peabody Coal Co., William H. Rodgers, Jr.

Articles

This Comment will (1) summarize the antitrust litigation that put Peabody in jeopardy of losing its leases under section 27 of the Mineral Lands Leasing Act of 1920, and (2) criticize the decision of the Justice Department to forego a test case, thus drastically narrowing by administrative fiat the coal lease forfeiture provisions of the Mineral Lands Leasing Act.


A Survey Of The Washington Industrial And Safety Act’S First Months Of Operation, Hugh D. Spitzer Jan 1974

A Survey Of The Washington Industrial And Safety Act’S First Months Of Operation, Hugh D. Spitzer

Articles

The still brief existence of the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act (WISHA)' has not begun to yield a full view of its operations, effects, strengths and weaknesses. But a look at the preliminary data compiled by the Division of Industrial Safety and Health of Washington's Department of Labor and Industries does give one an idea of the shape that the Act's enforcement will take, as well as its effect on the business and working communities.' This comment will provide a brief overview of Washington's early experience with the Act, based on statistics and interviews with the individuals responsible for …


The National Industrial Pollution Control Council: Advise Or Collude?, William H. Rodgers, Jr. Mar 1972

The National Industrial Pollution Control Council: Advise Or Collude?, William H. Rodgers, Jr.

Articles

This article analyzes three aspects of the National Industrial Pollution Countrol Coucil's performance: (1) the promise and risks it has presented; (2) its procedural performance, as tested by governing law; and (3) its accomplishments, both on the record and sub rosa, as measured by the expectations. In brief, NIPCC is portrayed as a dangerously anticompetitive institution occasionally doing business in violation of the law. The Council has published both public relations material and some useful data, but it has served more importantly as a lobbying forum for industries chafing under the regulatory bit. The experience of NIPCC forms the basis …


Direct Judicial Review And The Doctrine Of Ripeness In Administrative Law, Joseph Vining Aug 1971

Direct Judicial Review And The Doctrine Of Ripeness In Administrative Law, Joseph Vining

Articles

There has been recent interest in rationalizing and codifying the opportunities for judicial review of federal administrative determinations outside an enforcement context or special proceedings designated by statute. Abbott Laboratories v. Gardner culminated the development of a strong judicial presumption in favor of such review, founded in general considerations and justified by the broad language of the Administrative Procedure Act (AP A or Act). Since the petitioners in Abbott had theoretical rights to later review of the agency position in enforcement proceedings, the Court called the procedure "pre-enforcement" review. But similar opportunities for immediate and direct review of agency positions …


A Touchstone For Labor Board Remedies, Theodore J. St. Antoine Jan 1968

A Touchstone For Labor Board Remedies, Theodore J. St. Antoine

Articles

Fashion dictates what lawyers argue about, and law professors write about, more than we may care to admit. In labor law, especially, the styles change with a rapidity that would impress a Paris couturier. During the past decade the spotlight has moved from union democracy to labor contract enforcement to the union organizing campaign. Today the "in" topic is National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) remedies. Yet if any subject deserves immunity from the vagaries of fashion, this is the one; for all rights acquire substance only insofar as they are backed by effective remedies. Coke said it long ago: "[W]ant …


James T. Fant V. The Auditor Of Public Accounts, Thomas M. Cooley Nov 1877

James T. Fant V. The Auditor Of Public Accounts, Thomas M. Cooley

Articles

Two district attorneys complained that they were unlawfully deprived of their salary when the number of attorneys was reduced from thirteen to eleven by legislative action -- $1200 each. With the reduction in number of attorneys came the move to limit these two attorneys to service only in their counties of residence and a reduction in salary to $100 each. "When by law provision has been made for a certain number, and they have been lawfully chosen, they are protected for the term, as they would have been had the constitution itself indicated how many there should be."


Griswold V. Bay City, Thomas M. Cooley Dec 1876

Griswold V. Bay City, Thomas M. Cooley

Articles

1. RIGHT OF OWNERS OF ADJOINING LOTS TO MATERIAL TAKEN FROM STREETS - SALE OF SAME BY CITY. - In grading a street for the purpose of paving, it was necessary to remove earth which the city had no occasion for, and the street commissioner sold the same to a party who removed and used it. In an action to recover the purchase-price the purchaser defended, claiming that the city did not own the earth, but that it was owned by the adjoining lot-owners. There was no showing that the earth was of any peculiar value, nor did it appear …