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Full-Text Articles in Law

Temporary Securities Regulation, Anita Krug Jan 2022

Temporary Securities Regulation, Anita Krug

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In times of crisis, including the 2020-21 global pandemic, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has engaged in a type of securities regulation that few scholars have acknowledged, let alone evaluated. Specifically, during recent market crises, the SEC has adopted rules that are temporary, designed to help the securities markets and its participants—both public companies and public investment funds, such as mutual funds and ETFs—weather the crisis at hand but go no further. Once that goal has been accomplished, these rules usually expire, replaced by the permanent rules that they temporarily supplanted. Although the temporary-rulemaking endeavor is laudable—and arguably …


Age Diversity, Alexander Boni-Saenz Jan 2021

Age Diversity, Alexander Boni-Saenz

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This Article is the first to examine age diversity in the legal literature, mapping out its descriptive, normative, and legal dimensions. Age diversity is a plural concept, as heterogeneity of age can take many forms in various human institutions. Likewise, the normative rationales for these assorted age diversities are rooted in distinct theoretical foundations, making the case for or against age diversity contextual rather than universal. A host of legal rules play a significant role in regulating age diversity, influencing the presence of different generations in the workplace, judiciary, and Congress. Better understanding the nature and consequences of age diversity …


Does Fair Use Matter? An Empirical Study Of Music Cases (Forthcoming), Edward Lee Jan 2021

Does Fair Use Matter? An Empirical Study Of Music Cases (Forthcoming), Edward Lee

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Copyright law recognizes fair use as a general limitation. It is assumed that fair use provides breathing room above and beyond the determination of infringement to facilitate the creation of new works of expression. This conventional account presupposes that fair use matters—that is, fair use provides greater leeway to a defendant than the test of infringement. Despite its commonsense appeal, this assumption has not been empirically tested. Except for fair uses involving exact copies (for which infringement would otherwise exist), it has not been proven that fair use makes much, if any, difference in results. Indeed, in one sector, the …


Reason And Conviction: Natural Rights, Natural Religion, And The Origins Of The Free Exercise Clause (Forthcoming), Steven Heyman Jan 2021

Reason And Conviction: Natural Rights, Natural Religion, And The Origins Of The Free Exercise Clause (Forthcoming), Steven Heyman

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No abstract provided.


The Undead Past: How Collective Memory Configures Trade Wars (Forthcoming), Sungjoon Cho Jan 2021

The Undead Past: How Collective Memory Configures Trade Wars (Forthcoming), Sungjoon Cho

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Conventional narratives explicate the recent trade war between the United States and China in realist terms, such as a hegemonic struggle symbolized by the “Thucydides’ trap.” Yet this universalist heuristic fatally omits ideational factors, such as beliefs, which are capable of contextualizing a particular foreign affair. The U.S.-China economic conflicts of today are characterized as much by past convictions as by simple power politics. This Article aims to remedy this analytical blind spot by employing the concept of “collective memory.” The central claim is that the particular ways and forms in which the U.S. elites and the public remember, and …


Male Same-Sex "Horseplay": The Epicenter Of All Sexual Harassment?, Kimberly Bailey Jan 2021

Male Same-Sex "Horseplay": The Epicenter Of All Sexual Harassment?, Kimberly Bailey

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In Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., the U.S. SupremeCourt recognized same-sex sexual harassment as a cognizable claim of sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. At the time, many scholars found this recognition to be significant andimportant, but some also argued that the Court provided an incomplete analysis regarding the meaning of discrimination “because of sex.” Specifically, some scholars argue that the Court’s opinion reinforces the sexual desire paradigm in the analysis of sexual harassment cases. Building upon this critique, this Article focuses specifically on the harassment of men who generally are perceived as …


What Is Nonmarriage?, Katharine Baker Oct 2020

What Is Nonmarriage?, Katharine Baker

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As rates of cohabitation rise, and marriage becomes a status reserved almost exclusively for socio-economic elites, the scholarly calls for family law to recognize more nonmarital families grow stronger by the day. This Article unpacks contemporary proposals to recognize more nonmarital families and juxtaposes those proposals with family law’s contemporary marital regime. Family law’s status-based system provides a mostly simple and efficient means of distributing resources at the end of a marriage by imposing a formulaic, but distinctly communitarian, non-market-based approach to obligation, entitlement, and value. In full, the Article defends family law’s status-based system for what it does well, …


Alt Labor? Why We Still Need Traditional Labor, Martin Malin Sep 2020

Alt Labor? Why We Still Need Traditional Labor, Martin Malin

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With union density falling to alarmingly low levels and dropping, many have largely written off traditional business unionism and have turned to so-called alt-labor forms of worker empowerment, particularly worker centers. But traditional unions continue to provide valuable service to the workers they represent and to society as a whole. The union wage premium may not be as strong as it once was but it still remains and workers represented by unions are far more likely to have health and retirement benefits than their unrepresented counterparts. Moreover, it is through traditional transactional business unionism, that workers find protection from disagreeable …


"She Was Surprised And Furious": Expatriation, Suffrage, Immigration, And The Fragility Of Women's Citizenship, 1907-1940, Felice Batlan Jul 2020

"She Was Surprised And Furious": Expatriation, Suffrage, Immigration, And The Fragility Of Women's Citizenship, 1907-1940, Felice Batlan

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This article stands at the intersection of women’s history and the history of citizenship, immigration, and naturalization laws. The first part of this article proceeds by examining the general legal status of women under the laws of coverture, in which married women’s legal existence was “covered” by that of their husbands. It then discusses the 1907 Expatriation Act, which resulted in women who were U.S. citizens married to non-U.S. citizens losing their citizenship. The following sections discuss how suffragists challenged the 1907 law in the courts and how passage of the Nineteenth Amendment—and with it a new concept of women’s …


Empirical Inheritance Law, Alexander Boni-Saenz Jun 2020

Empirical Inheritance Law, Alexander Boni-Saenz

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Empirical legal scholars tell it like it is. The nature of the “it” that we might want to know about varies significantly by legal field, however, and it also differs based on one’s scholarly position within that field. This Comment explores the major ways that empirical legal scholarship can be valuable to those of us working on normative or theoretical legal scholarship in inheritance law.


The Characterization Of Pre-Insolvency Proceedings In Private International Law, Adrian Walters, Irit Mevorach Feb 2020

The Characterization Of Pre-Insolvency Proceedings In Private International Law, Adrian Walters, Irit Mevorach

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The decade since the fnancial crisis has witnessed a proliferation of various ‘light touch’ fnancial restructuring techniques in the form of so-called pre-insolvency proceedings. These proceedings inhabit a space on the spectrum of insolvency and restructuring law, somewhere between a pure contractual workout, the domain of contract law, and a formal insolvency or rehabilitation proceeding, the domain of insolvency law. While, to date, international insolvency instruments have tended to defne insolvency proceedings quite expansively, discussion of the cross-border implications of pre-insolvency proceedings has barely begun. The question is whether pre-insolvency proceedings should qualify as proceedings related to insolvency for the …


Age, Equality, And Vulnerability, Alexander Boni-Saenz Feb 2020

Age, Equality, And Vulnerability, Alexander Boni-Saenz

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This Article uses age as an entry point for examining how temporal and methodological issues in egalitarianism make substantive equality an unattractive goal for vulnerability theory. Instead, vulnerabilitytheory should adopt a continuous doctrine of sufficiency, which is a better fit with vulnerability theory’s underlying aims and rhetoric. Instead of evaluating what individuals have in relation to others, sufficiency refocuses the inquiry on whether we have enough throughout the lifecourse. In the context of vulnerability theory, enough should be defined as the capability to be resilient as guaranteed by the responsive state.


Predatory Cities, Bernadette Atuahene Feb 2020

Predatory Cities, Bernadette Atuahene

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Between 2011 and 2015, the Wayne County Treasurer completed the property tax foreclosure process for one in four properties in Detroit, Michigan. No other American city has experienced this elevated rate of property tax foreclosures since the Great Depression. Studies reveal that the City of Detroit systematically and illegally inflated the assessed value of most of its residential properties, which led to inflated property tax bills unaffordable to many homeowners. Extraordinary tax foreclosure rates and extensive dispossession resulted. Consequently, Detroit has become a “predatory city”—a new and important sociolegal concept that this Article develops. Predatory cities are urban areas where …


Democracy, Federalism, And The Guarantee Clause, Carolyn Shapiro Jan 2020

Democracy, Federalism, And The Guarantee Clause, Carolyn Shapiro

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The Guarantee Clause of the Constitution promises that “[t]he United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government . . . .” The Supreme Court has long held this Clause to be nonjusticiable, and as a result, many see the Clause as purely vestigial. But nonjusticiable does not mean toothless, and this view fails to recognize the Clause’s grant of power to Congress. The Guarantee Clause provides Congress with the authority to ensure that each state’s internal governance meets a minimum standard of republicanism. The Framers included this promise because they feared that some …


Docket Control, Mandatory Jurisdiction, And The Supreme Court's Failure In Rucho V. Common Cause, Carolyn Shapiro Jan 2020

Docket Control, Mandatory Jurisdiction, And The Supreme Court's Failure In Rucho V. Common Cause, Carolyn Shapiro

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This paper, part of a Symposium on Andrew Coan's book, Rationing the Constitution: How Judicial Capacity Shapes Supreme Court Decision-Making, traces congressional changes to Supreme Court jurisdiction over more than a century, noting that those changes were regularly made in response to concerns about the Court's caseload. To the extent that Coan, and the Court, turn to doctrinal methods of controlling caseloads, such as deferential standards of review, they are overlooking the important congressional role in setting the Court's jurisdiction. The paper concludes by criticizing the recent decision of Rucho v. Common Cause in which the Court held that extreme …


The Complicated Relationship Of Patent Examination And Invalidation, Gregory Reilly Jan 2020

The Complicated Relationship Of Patent Examination And Invalidation, Gregory Reilly

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The conventional view is that the Patent Office examines patent applications before issuance to assure compliance with the statutory criteria of patentability. Ex post invalidation in district court litigation or Patent Office cancellation proceedings then reviews the Patent Office’s work to correct errors that result from the Patent Office’s shortcomings, bias, or “rational ignorance” that limits resources spent on examination because of the irrelevance of most patents. Scholars, the Federal Circuit, and the Supreme Court have all endorsed this conventional view. However, it is wrong—or at least overly simplistic. The American patent system is only partially a system of ex …


The Special Norms Thesis: Why Congress's Constitutional Decision-Making Should Be Disciplined By More Than The Usual Norms Of Politics, Mark Rosen Dec 2019

The Special Norms Thesis: Why Congress's Constitutional Decision-Making Should Be Disciplined By More Than The Usual Norms Of Politics, Mark Rosen

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No abstract provided.


After Janus, Martin Malin, Catherine Fisk Dec 2019

After Janus, Martin Malin, Catherine Fisk

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The Supreme Court in Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees, Council 31 upended public sector labor law by finding a novel First Amendment right of public employees to refuse to pay union fees and declaring unconstitutional scores of laws and thousands of labor contracts. This Article assesses the constraints on public sector labor law post-Janus, examines the variety of legislative responses, and proposes a path forward.Janus makes it difficult to address the collective action problem facing all large groups. Although it is in the interest of every member of a group to engage in collective action …


The Technology Enterprise: Systemic Bias Against Women, Lori Andrews Jul 2019

The Technology Enterprise: Systemic Bias Against Women, Lori Andrews

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No abstract provided.


Algorithms And Human Freedom, Richard Warner, Robert Sloan Apr 2019

Algorithms And Human Freedom, Richard Warner, Robert Sloan

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Predictive analytics such as data mining, machine learning, and artificial intelligence drive algorithmic decision making. Its "all-encompassing scope already reaches the very heart of a functioning society". Unfortunately, the legal system and its various tools developed around human decisionmakers cannot adequately administer accountability mechanisms for computer decision making. Antiquated approaches require modernization to bridge the gap between governing human decision making and new technologies. We divide the bridge-building task into three questions. First, what features of the use of predictive analytics significantly contribute to incorrect, unjustified, or unfair outcomes? Second, how should one regulate those features to make outcomes more …


The Internet Adopts Two-Way Radio, Henry Perritt Apr 2019

The Internet Adopts Two-Way Radio, Henry Perritt

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The Internet, having displaced conventional correspondence with email, having displaced traditional libraries with online ones, having revolutionized shopping, having uprooted television and movies, now is absorbing police, fire, ambulance, and public utility two-radio systems.Digital radio technologies combine with Internet switching of transmitters, receivers, and networks, so that a police officer can talk to an ambulance driver or a train dispatcher across the state or across the country. Specialized cellphones are becoming indistinguishable from walkie-talkies. Cellular telephone channels replace two-way-radio air links.Integration of “private mobile radio” into the Internet is the result of specific advances in radio and networking technology that …


Age, Time, And Discrimination (Forthcoming), Alexander Boni-Saenz Jan 2019

Age, Time, And Discrimination (Forthcoming), Alexander Boni-Saenz

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Discrimination scholars have traditionally justified antidiscrimination laws by appealing to the value of equality. Egalitarian theories locate the moral wrong of discrimination in the unfavorable treatment one individual receives as compared to another. However, discrimination theory has neglected to engage seriously with the socio-legal category of age, which poses a challenge to this egalitarian consensus due to its unique temporal character. Unlike other identity categories, an individual’s age inevitably changes over time. Consequently, any age-based legal rule or private discrimination will ultimately yield equal treatment over the lifecourse. This explains the weak constitutional protection for age and the fact that …


Haack On Legal Proof, Richard Wright Nov 2018

Haack On Legal Proof, Richard Wright

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In this paper I discuss Susan Haack’s illuminating discussion and constructive critique of the current confusion regarding the standards of proof employed in the law, focusing especially on mathematical probability rather than warranted belief interpretations of those standards. At the end, I question Haack’s claim that statistical evidence is relevant not only for establishing the existence of a causal process but also, although usually insufficient by itself, for proving actual causation in a specific case.


Originalism And Congressional Power To Enforce The Fourteenth Amendment, Christopher Schmidt Oct 2018

Originalism And Congressional Power To Enforce The Fourteenth Amendment, Christopher Schmidt

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In this Essay, I argue that originalism conflicts with the Supreme Court’s current jurisprudence defining the scope of Congress’ power to enforce the Fourteenth Amendment. Under the standard established in Boerne v. Flores, the Court limits congressional power under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment to statutory remedies premised on judicially defined interpretations of Fourteenth Amendment rights. A commitment to originalism as a method of judicial constitutional interpretation challenges the premise of judicial interpretive supremacy in Section 5 jurisprudence in two ways. First, as a matter of history, an originalist reading of Section 5 provides support for broad judicial deference …


The Changing Landscape Of 19th Century Courts, Nancy Marder Sep 2018

The Changing Landscape Of 19th Century Courts, Nancy Marder

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Book Review of:Amalia D. Kessler. Inventing American Exceptionalism: The Origins of American Adversarial Legal Culture, 1800–1877. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017. 449 pp. Illustrations, appendix, notes, bibliography, and index. $35.00.


Building A Regime Of Restrictive Immigration Laws, 1840-1945, Felice Batlan Aug 2018

Building A Regime Of Restrictive Immigration Laws, 1840-1945, Felice Batlan

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H-Pad is happy to announce the release of its sixth broadside. In “Building a Regime of Restrictive Immigration Laws, 1840-1945,” Felice Batlan traces a century of U.S. government laws, policies, and attitudes regarding immigration. The broadside explores how ideas about race, class, religion, and the Other repeatedly led to laws restricting the immigration of those who members of Congress, the President, and the U.S. public considered inferior and/or a threat.


A Fresh Look At Title Vii: Sexual Orientation Discrimination As Sex Discrimination, Anthony Michael Kreis May 2018

A Fresh Look At Title Vii: Sexual Orientation Discrimination As Sex Discrimination, Anthony Michael Kreis

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Since 2006, the Illinois Human Rights Act has prohibited discrimination in employment because of an employee’s sexual orientation or gender identity. Until 2017, employees discriminated against because of their sexual orientation had no federal cause of action, however. In a landmark decision, Hively v. Ivy Tech, the Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit became the first appellate court to hold that federal law’s prohibition of sex discrimination in the workplace also proscribed sexual orientation discrimination. The Hively decision is a substantial departure from decades’ worth of Seventh Circuit precedent and created a split between the circuits. This Article examines …


The Light Of Nature: John Locke, Natural Rights, And The Origins Of American Religious Liberty, Steven Heyman May 2018

The Light Of Nature: John Locke, Natural Rights, And The Origins Of American Religious Liberty, Steven Heyman

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No abstract provided.


Law’S Facilitating Role In The Field Of Social Enterprise., Evelyn Brody Mar 2018

Law’S Facilitating Role In The Field Of Social Enterprise., Evelyn Brody

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A Review of Dana Brakman Reiser and Steven A. Dean. Social Enterprise Law: Trust, Public Benefit, and Capital Markets. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017, 216 pp., $44.95 (hardback) ISBN 978-0-19-024978-6To appreciate the contribution of Professors Dana Brakman Reiser and Steven A. Dean in their pathbreaking volume on social enterprise law, we must begin by recognizing what we are not discussing. As the authors declare: “social enterprises are not charities” (p. 165). By definition, social enterprises are businesses, and thus not subject to the nondistribution constraint so familiar to nonprofit scholars and practitioners. An impact investor seeks profit, perhaps limited …


Liability For Mass Sexual Abuse, Tsachi Keren-Paz, Richard Wright Mar 2018

Liability For Mass Sexual Abuse, Tsachi Keren-Paz, Richard Wright

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When harm is caused to victims by multiple injurers, difficult issues arise indetermining causation of, legal responsibility for, and allocation of liability forthose harms. Nowhere is this truer than in child pornography and sex traffickingcases, in which individuals have been victimized over extended periods oftime by hundreds or even many thousands of injurers, with multiple and oftenoverlapping victims of each injurer. Courts (and lawyers) struggle with thesesituations for a simple reason: they insist on applying tests of causation thatfail when the effect was over-determined by multiple conditions. The failure toproperly understand the causation issue has exacerbated failures to properlyunderstand and …