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Information Theory And Patent Documents, W. Michael Schuster Sep 2022

Information Theory And Patent Documents, W. Michael Schuster

Akron Law Review

Recent scholarship has expanded the scope of analytical tools available to patent law researchers. The foundation of information theory published by Claude Shannon has been applied to textual analysis to determine the similarities of patents and to assess a patent’s value. This article presents a theoretical application of information theory to quantify lexical ambiguity and originality in innovation within patent law.


Revisiting The Justification Of Trademark Protection For Single Drug Compositions: A Critical Analysis From A Regulatory Perspective, Kuhu Tiwari, Dr. Niharika Sahoo Bhattacharya Sep 2022

Revisiting The Justification Of Trademark Protection For Single Drug Compositions: A Critical Analysis From A Regulatory Perspective, Kuhu Tiwari, Dr. Niharika Sahoo Bhattacharya

Akron Law Review

Trademarks, which are premised on product differentiation, are alleged to play a divergent role when used on pharmaceutical products: they tend to create an artificial product differentiation for the bioequivalent pharmaceutical products that are marketed as branded, generics, and branded-generic products. It is implied that the companies incorporate trademarks to market their products to different consumers at different prices. However, concerns arise when a company uses multiple trademarks for a single active pharmaceutical ingredient (API); sometimes, the company labels each trademark as treating a different medical condition.

This practice of brand proliferation may pose risks to patient safety by confusing ...


Fair Use As A Market Facilitator, Miriam Marcowitz-Bitton, Dan Bombach Sep 2022

Fair Use As A Market Facilitator, Miriam Marcowitz-Bitton, Dan Bombach

Akron Law Review

The Digital Age has enabled individuals worldwide to store, organize, and share everything from cherished memories embodied in photographs and videos to academic writing and correspondence. Yet, archived collections of academic, public, and private libraries are out of reach to many, and many books are now beyond reach because they are no longer in print. The high cost of digitization exacerbates these challenges.

In 2004, Google Inc. responded to these issues by announcing a project to scan and digitize the collections of several leading universities and public libraries (the “Google Books” project). The project offered users the opportunity to search ...


Letting Anarchy Loose On The World: The Anarchist Cookbook And How Copyright Fails The Author, Debora Halbert Sep 2022

Letting Anarchy Loose On The World: The Anarchist Cookbook And How Copyright Fails The Author, Debora Halbert

Akron Law Review

The Anarchist Cookbook by William Powell remains one of the most controversial books in print, even 50 years after its first publication. The story to be told about its ongoing publication can teach us about the politics of authorship, ownership, publication, copyright assignments, the public domain, and the legacies our printed words leave behind. Later in life Powell regretted publishing the book and wished that it would be removed from publication and circulation but stated that he did not own the copyright and so could not control the book. However, even at his death the book remained in print and ...


Failed Promises: Stand Your Ground's Removal Of Imminence Leads To Inconsistent Application And Decreased Safety, Nichole Hamsher Apr 2022

Failed Promises: Stand Your Ground's Removal Of Imminence Leads To Inconsistent Application And Decreased Safety, Nichole Hamsher

Akron Law Review

Self-defense, while universally recognized as a natural human right, embodies a complex set of scenarios that hinges on the level, place, and imminence of a threat to life. The modern expansion of self-defense laws, namely Stand Your Ground, allows for a wholly subjective anticipation of a threat by removing the duty to retreat, and withdraws both criminal and civil accountability. Such expansion has not afforded increased protection to those who need to use force in self-defense, such as domestic abuse victims, nor has it lowered crime rates, but actually works against such victims and increased homicide rates while not deterring ...


Hb 305: A Step In The Right Direction For Ohio's Students, Jacob Davis Apr 2022

Hb 305: A Step In The Right Direction For Ohio's Students, Jacob Davis

Akron Law Review

For nearly twenty-four years, the state of Ohio has funded education unconstitutionally. Columbus lawmakers have paid little attention to the DeRolph progeny of cases, which repeatedly provided that an education funding formula rooted in property tax values fails to pass constitutional muster. In 2019, lawmakers finally provided a solution in HB 305: the Cupp-Patterson proposal. This paper will first survey the checkered history of school funding litigation in Ohio. Then, this newly proposed approach to educational funding will be detailed and critically evaluated, with a focus placed on the hurdles that remain before it can become law. Ohio’s students ...


The Case Against Florida Statute §98.0751, Lyndsey Gallwitz Apr 2022

The Case Against Florida Statute §98.0751, Lyndsey Gallwitz

Akron Law Review

Felony disenfranchisement laws prevent millions of American citizens from voting. While the recent legal trend has been to eradicate felony disenfranchisement, each state currently has a unique framework, and the issue remains unsettled nationwide. In 2018, the state of Florida passed a constitutional amendment that allowed felons to regain their right to vote once their sentence was finished. Soon after, the Governor DeSantis signed Fla. Stat. Ann. § 98.0751 into law, which required felons to pay off all court cost before their right to vote will be restored. This new law prevented thousands of otherwise eligible felons from voting in ...


Drones, Airspace Design, And Aerial Law In States And Cities, Brent Skorup Apr 2022

Drones, Airspace Design, And Aerial Law In States And Cities, Brent Skorup

Akron Law Review

Federal and state governments have embraced drone technology in recent years to stimulate a domestic industry for new jobs and long-distance delivery services. However, the federal-state breakdown about who manages drone airspace and surface air rights has not been resolved, which, as the Government Accountability Office recently reported to Congress, threatens the progress of the U.S. drone industry. What is clear is that landowners, whether public or private, own low-altitude airspace and air rights. This article traces the legal treatment of surface airspace as real property back to Anglo-American legal treatises and court decisions in the mid-19th century. Therefore ...


Standing On Its Own Shoulders: The Supreme Court's Statutory Interpretation Of The Federal Arbitration Act, Kristen M. Blankley Apr 2022

Standing On Its Own Shoulders: The Supreme Court's Statutory Interpretation Of The Federal Arbitration Act, Kristen M. Blankley

Akron Law Review

Empirical evidence on the Supreme Court’s use of tools of statutory interpretation is an emerging field of legal study. This Article is the first to use these methodologies to analyze the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA), enacted in 1925. I analyzed 114 separate Supreme Court arbitration opinions, coding for fourteen different tools of statutory interpretation. This article presents the results of that analysis. The most striking finding from this study is the extraordinarily insular nature of the FAA jurisprudence compared to other scholars’ studies in their respective areas of the law. This nature can be determined statistically from the Supreme ...


Resorbing Patent Law's Kessler Cat Into The General Law Of Preclusion, Dennis Crouch, Homayoon Rafatijo Apr 2022

Resorbing Patent Law's Kessler Cat Into The General Law Of Preclusion, Dennis Crouch, Homayoon Rafatijo

Akron Law Review

The Supreme Court has warned against the creation and expansion of patent-specific rules of procedure where the general law would suffice. The recently revived and expanded Kessler doctrine is one such patent-specific rule, and we argue its time has come for resorption into the general law of preclusion that has since expanded to encompass the doctrine. We utilize a novel law and economic analysis of the rules of preclusion to demonstrate how lower courts’ expansion of the Kessler doctrine defeats the rationale behind the general law of preclusion.


You Have The Duty To Remain Silent: How Workplace Gag Rules Frustrate Police Accountability, Frank D. Lomonte, Jessica Terkovich Apr 2022

You Have The Duty To Remain Silent: How Workplace Gag Rules Frustrate Police Accountability, Frank D. Lomonte, Jessica Terkovich

Akron Law Review

This Article traces the First Amendment caselaw that, for more than half a century, has sided with speakers facially challenging overbroad workplace policies that forbid sharing information with the press and public. The Article then reports on the results of a nationwide survey of police and sheriff’s department policies by the Brechner Center for Freedom of Information, concluding that well over half of the nation’s biggest law enforcement agencies have rules on the books that resemble—or are identical to—those struck down as unconstitutional when challenged, at times in defiance of binding circuit-level precedent. The Article examines ...


Cambodia's Law On Secured Transaction, Timothy J. Holzer, Pho Sotheaphal Mar 2022

Cambodia's Law On Secured Transaction, Timothy J. Holzer, Pho Sotheaphal

Akron Law Review

Cambodian law permits the taking of and the perfecting of a security interest in movables (e.g., goods) and in intangibles (e.g., legally enforceable rights, such as contracts and rights in property.) Cambodia’s system is strongly patterned after Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code as developed in the United States. Perfection (i.e. notice to third parties that a security interest exists) is usually effected by the filing of a notice at the Secured Transactions Filing Office (the “STFO”) of the Ministry of Commerce, although sometimes physical possession may be required. However, conflicting or ambiguous provisions in ...


Non-Competition Agreements Under Vietnamese Law: Protection Of Trade Secrets And Free Choice Of Employment As Two Sides Of The Same Coin, Nguyen The Duc Tam, Le Nguyen Hong Nhung Mar 2022

Non-Competition Agreements Under Vietnamese Law: Protection Of Trade Secrets And Free Choice Of Employment As Two Sides Of The Same Coin, Nguyen The Duc Tam, Le Nguyen Hong Nhung

Akron Law Review

If you ask many employers in Vietnam why they use non-competition agreements (noncompetes), they will confidently tell you that they are trying to protect their legitimate ownership interests. However, what they are less confident about is the legal enforceability of noncompetes. Such uncertainty hurts both employers and employees. The ambiguity regarding the enforceability of noncompetes not only discourages employers from bringing trade secrets into Vietnam but also deprives employees of opportunities for employer investment and personal development. In this article, we argue that noncompetes should be enforceable in Vietnam. However, noncompetes should be binding only if they are necessary to ...


Sustaining Vietnamese Economic Development By Improving The Transparency Of Choice Of Law Decisions, Luong Duc Doan, Trinh Thi Hong Nguyen Mar 2022

Sustaining Vietnamese Economic Development By Improving The Transparency Of Choice Of Law Decisions, Luong Duc Doan, Trinh Thi Hong Nguyen

Akron Law Review

Without a doubt, Vietnam has enjoyed outstanding economic performance since the adoption of doi moi in 1986. To a significant extent, Vietnam has accomplished this through the dramatic increase in international trade and investment. However, further economic progress will be undermined if international partners begin to question the fairness of the Vietnamese legal system – especially in the application of choice of law principles. At best, a perceived lack of transparency in choice of law decisions will increase uncertainty; at worst, it will foster the impression that Vietnamese Courts do not treat international parties fairly. Accordingly, this article recommends that all ...


The Global Benefits Of The Law & Economics Framework In Legal Education: Overview (Part 1), Patrick H. Gaughan Mar 2022

The Global Benefits Of The Law & Economics Framework In Legal Education: Overview (Part 1), Patrick H. Gaughan

Akron Law Review

This is the first in a series of articles that overarchingly proposes that the globalization of markets necessitates the integration of the Law & Economics Framework into legal education across all legal systems. The goal of this article is to introduce readers to the Law & Economics Framework by providing an overview of relevant terms, concepts, and historical background. This article discusses the interplay of lawyers and globalization; defines the Law & Economic Framework and its origins; details relevant principles of economics; and delves into some criticisms of the Framework. The remainder of the series will be devoted to demonstrating that the intersection of international commerce and national laws necessitates the implementation of the Law & Economics Framework in legal education across legal systems.


The Digital Transformation Of Law: Are We Prepared For Artificially Intelligent Legal Practice?, Larry Bridgesmith, Dr. Adel Elmessiry Mar 2022

The Digital Transformation Of Law: Are We Prepared For Artificially Intelligent Legal Practice?, Larry Bridgesmith, Dr. Adel Elmessiry

Akron Law Review

We live in an instant access and on-demand world of information sharing. The global COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the necessity of remote working and team collaboration. Work teams are exploring and utilizing the remote work platforms required to serve in place of stand-ups common in the agile workplace. Online tools are needed to provide visibility to the status of projects and the accountability necessary to ensure that tasks are completed on time and on budget. Digital transformation of organizational data is now the target of AI projects to provide enterprise transparency and predictive insights into the process of work. In ...


Digital Curb Cuts: Towards An Inclusive Open Forms Ecosystem, Quinten Steenhuis, David Colarusso Mar 2022

Digital Curb Cuts: Towards An Inclusive Open Forms Ecosystem, Quinten Steenhuis, David Colarusso

Akron Law Review

In this paper, we focus on digital curb cuts created during the pandemic: improvements designed to increase accessibility that benefit people beyond the population that they are intended to help. As much as 86% of civil legal needs are unmet, according to a 2017 study by the Legal Services Corporation. Courts and third parties designed many innovations to meet the emergency needs of the pandemic: we argue that these innovations should be extended and enhanced to address this ongoing access to justice crisis. Specifically, we use the Suffolk University Law School's Document Assembly Line as a case study. The ...


Tele-Lawyering And The Virtual Learning Experience: Finding The Silver Lining For Remote Hybrid Externships & Law Clinics After The Pandemic, Lucy Johnston-Walsh, Alison Lintal Mar 2022

Tele-Lawyering And The Virtual Learning Experience: Finding The Silver Lining For Remote Hybrid Externships & Law Clinics After The Pandemic, Lucy Johnston-Walsh, Alison Lintal

Akron Law Review

The COVID-19 pandemic has rocked the world in innumerable ways. This article argues that the COVID-19 pandemic has a silver lining for law students in experiential learning programs. The pandemic has forced law schools across the country to fully utilize remote learning technology. The pandemic similarly forced courts to accept virtual tools in an environment that had previously relied primarily on in-person appearances. The lessons that law faculty and judges have learned from the pandemic will be permanent and may change the methods of operation going forward. Law schools that embrace the lessons they learned can help their law students ...


Treating Diagnostics: Protecting In Vitro Diagnostic Testing In An Uncertain § 101 Landscape, Emily Iroz Rich Oct 2021

Treating Diagnostics: Protecting In Vitro Diagnostic Testing In An Uncertain § 101 Landscape, Emily Iroz Rich

Akron Law Review

Beyond question, medical diagnostic tests, they save lives. The diagnostic tests also contribute to the overall health of the U.S. economy. However, the current state of subject-matter eligibility for patent protection does not incentivize the research and development of these life-saving tools. Previous legislative and judicial efforts to fix subject-matter eligibility have failed. This article proposes a diagnostic patent act to allow the protection of in vitro diagnostic tests. The proposed diagnostic patent act would include safeguards to allow adequate access to fundamental research while incentivizing the return of investment to the patent holder. Safeguards would include exceptions to ...


A Typology Of Disclosure, Sharon K. Sandeen Oct 2021

A Typology Of Disclosure, Sharon K. Sandeen

Akron Law Review

Information and data have always been valuable to businesses, but in the Information Age, as businesses have figured out more ways to commoditize the information and data they possess, there has been a corresponding increase in expressed concerns about the unauthorized “disclosure” of information. Often, these concerns are expressed in absolute terms, as if any unauthorized disclosure of information constitutes an act of unfair competition or theft. The problem is that the common understanding of disclosure, particularly among information owners that seek to restrict access to the information they possess, belies the legal meaning of the term as used in ...


Striking The Right Balance: Following The Doj's Lead For Innovation In Standardized Technology, Kristen Osenga Oct 2021

Striking The Right Balance: Following The Doj's Lead For Innovation In Standardized Technology, Kristen Osenga

Akron Law Review

Today’s technology standards are the result of an extraordinary amount of innovation, collaboration and competition. These concepts are interrelated, and each is enhanced or enabled by intellectual property. Where these three concepts come together in standards development, it is unsurprising that antitrust concerns are also present. Specifically, the interests of contributors, participants, and implementers must be fairly balanced to ensure that the appropriate types and levels of innovation, collaboration, and competition can occur—and that the public will benefit. It is important that antitrust enforcement involving standards development organizations and owners of standards essential patents recognize the careful balance ...


After The Trolls: Patent Litigation As Ex Post Market-Making, Robert Merges Oct 2021

After The Trolls: Patent Litigation As Ex Post Market-Making, Robert Merges

Akron Law Review

Patent policy has been dominated lately by efforts to reduce rent-seeking patent troll litigation. As recent reforms begin to take effect, it is timely to consider the more constructive aspects of patent litigation. This Article contends that the lag between product development and patent litigation, which pushes the problem of patent valuation into the ex post (after product development) period, serves just such a positive function. Re-search, development, and product roll-out can all take place first. Then, at a later stage, patent litigation sorts out the relative merits and contributions of the various inventors and competitors who contributed to the ...


Emotions And Intellectual Property Law, Margaret Chon Oct 2021

Emotions And Intellectual Property Law, Margaret Chon

Akron Law Review

Emotions constitute an integral part of the diverse approaches that we bring to bear upon our most pressing law and policy issues. This article explores the role of emotions in intellectual property, information, and technology law (IP). Like other areas of law, IP commits to, prioritizes, and even honors, reason, logic, and facts—which can result in the sidelining of the affective components of law. Yet our affective responses to legal and other phenomena influence both cognition and reason. Part I of the article provides a general overview of the field of law and emotions, pointing out how this approach ...


Trademarks And The Covid-19 Pandemic: An Empirical Analysis Of Trademark Applications Including The Terms "Covid," "Coronavirus," "Quarantine," "Social Distancing," "Six Feet Apart," And "Shelter In Place", Irene Calboli Oct 2021

Trademarks And The Covid-19 Pandemic: An Empirical Analysis Of Trademark Applications Including The Terms "Covid," "Coronavirus," "Quarantine," "Social Distancing," "Six Feet Apart," And "Shelter In Place", Irene Calboli

Akron Law Review

True to its nature as a (hopefully) once in a lifetime event, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a tsunami of trademark applications. These include the terms “COVID,” “Coronavirus,” and other medical and pandemic-management related terms. This unprecedented number of applications has been highlighted by several commentators in general terms in the past months. This Article examines these applications in detail. Notably, the Article presents the first and most complete survey of the applications filed between the onset of the pandemic and the end of 2020, which include the following terms: “COVID,” “Coronavirus,” “Quarantine,” “Social Distancing,” “Six Feet Apart,” and ...


Protecting Patent Owners From Infringement By The States: Will The Intellectual Property Rights Restoration Act Of 1999 Finally Satisfy The Court?, Brandon White Aug 2021

Protecting Patent Owners From Infringement By The States: Will The Intellectual Property Rights Restoration Act Of 1999 Finally Satisfy The Court?, Brandon White

Akron Law Review

The Intellectual Property Rights Restoration Act of 1999 (IPRRA), a Senate Bill currently making its way through Congress, seeks to provide a remedy for patent infringement by the states that Supreme Court will find constitutional. In this Comment, Part II will explore the history of state sovereign immunity under both the Eleventh Amendment and the common law. Part III examines Senate Bill 1835, also known as the Intellectual Property Rights Restoration Act of 1999. Part III looks at not only the substantive provisions of the IPRRA, but also at the legal arguments and policy concerns that support the Act. Part ...


Is The Fda's Nose Growing? The Fda Does Not "Exaggerate Its Overall Place In The Universe" When Regulating Speech Incident To "Off-Label" Prescription Drug Labeling And Advertising, Nicole Endejann Aug 2021

Is The Fda's Nose Growing? The Fda Does Not "Exaggerate Its Overall Place In The Universe" When Regulating Speech Incident To "Off-Label" Prescription Drug Labeling And Advertising, Nicole Endejann

Akron Law Review

In essence, Washington Legal Foundation v. Friedman and Pearson v. Shalala may have actually undermined a large portion of the FDA regulatory power over prescription drugs. Although manufacturers are still required to receive pre-market approval of a new drug, once approved the manufacturer could promote, label, and advertise the drug for other indications. This provides manufacturers with a prime opportunity to get approval for a "cheap, narrow indication and the next day begin selling the drug for multiple broad, and profitable other indications." As the use of a prescription drug changes, the safety and efficacy changes as well. By allowing ...


Overcoming Text In An Age Of Textualism: A Practitioner's Guide To Arguing Cases Of Statutory Interpretation, Robert J. Gregory Aug 2021

Overcoming Text In An Age Of Textualism: A Practitioner's Guide To Arguing Cases Of Statutory Interpretation, Robert J. Gregory

Akron Law Review

How do I construct an argument, consistent with textual primacy, that achieves my desired result?" This Article attempts to provide the practitioner with an answer to this question. First, the Article describes the historic movement from purpose to text in the interpretation of statutes. In doing so, the Article notes a critical feature of textualism as currently configured - that it permits some flexibility (more than many people realize) in the interpretation of statutes. The Article next discusses the impact of the textual movement on the process of arguing cases of statutory interpretation. In particular, the Article sets forth three possible ...


Aals Constitutional Law Panel On Brown, Another Council Of Nicaea?, Kelly A. Macgrady, John W. Van Doren Aug 2021

Aals Constitutional Law Panel On Brown, Another Council Of Nicaea?, Kelly A. Macgrady, John W. Van Doren

Akron Law Review

When considering the product of the AALS Constitutional Law Panel, entitled "What Brown Should Have Said," held in January 2000, in Washington, D.C., we have experienced considerable disorientation. We therefore ask the question asked by Lucretia in Machievelli's play, The Mandragola, "Do you mean it or are you laughing at me?" We fear that the Panelists may be laughing at us. Because, in short, their writings criticize the formalism that they use in the panel court opinions. In this article, we pick four of the Panelists, more or less at random, and confront the question of whether their ...


Legal Fictions And Moral Reasoning: Capital Punishment And The Mentally Retarded Defendant After Penry V. Johnson, Timothy S. Hall Aug 2021

Legal Fictions And Moral Reasoning: Capital Punishment And The Mentally Retarded Defendant After Penry V. Johnson, Timothy S. Hall

Akron Law Review

The relationship between mental health law and criminal law is disturbing in both its substance and its scope. If it is true that the task of lawyering is that of enabling the client to have his story told, it is certainly true that nowhere are clients' stories more complex than in the intersection between criminal law and mental health law. This Article involves one such intersection: the relationship between mental retardation and capital punishment. Johnny Paul Penry is a convicted rapist and murderer on death row in Texas. He is a survivor of long-term child abuse and organic brain damage ...


Biology Is Important, But Does Not Necessarily Always Constitute A "Family": A Brief Survey Of The Uniform Adoption Act, Carrie L. Wambaugh Aug 2021

Biology Is Important, But Does Not Necessarily Always Constitute A "Family": A Brief Survey Of The Uniform Adoption Act, Carrie L. Wambaugh

Akron Law Review

The Uniform Adoption Act [hereinafter "UAA"] recognizes that adoptive families are the "legal equivalent" to biological families. While recognizing biology is very important, the UAA contends that this biological fact alone will not be enough to trump the rights of adoptive parents and the child by ensuring stability and finality in adoptions. The child is the one with the most at stake and deserves protection from "transfer trauma" in contested adoptions. This Comment addresses the problems that adoptive families have confronted and explores certain provisions of the Uniform Adoption Act.