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Yeshiva University, Cardozo School of Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Breaking The Logjam: Principles And Practice Of Congressional Oversight And Executive Privilege, Katherine A. Shaw Aug 2021

Breaking The Logjam: Principles And Practice Of Congressional Oversight And Executive Privilege, Katherine A. Shaw

Testimony

My name is Kate Shaw, and I am a Professor of Law at Cardozo Law School, where my work focuses, among other things, on executive power and questions of constitutionalism outside the courts. Before I entered law teaching, I worked as an Associate Counsel in the White House Counsel’s Office, from 2009–2011.

I understand that the purpose of today’s hearing is to evaluate recent breakdowns in the process for resolving conflicts between executive privilege and congressional oversight. My testimony will therefore offer some brief background on executive privilege, both generally and in the context of Congress’s ...


Immigration Cyber Prisons: Ending The Use Of Electronic Ankle Shackles, Tosca Giustini, Sarah Greisman, Peter L. Markowitz, Ariel Rosen, Zachary Ross, Alisa Whitfield, Christina Fialho, Brittany Castle, Leila Kang Jul 2021

Immigration Cyber Prisons: Ending The Use Of Electronic Ankle Shackles, Tosca Giustini, Sarah Greisman, Peter L. Markowitz, Ariel Rosen, Zachary Ross, Alisa Whitfield, Christina Fialho, Brittany Castle, Leila Kang

Online Publications

The call to end immigration detention has garnered strong support in recent years due to a growing public awareness of its devastating impact on the individuals locked away, their families, and entire communities. Throughout the nation, communities, organizers, advocates, and public officials have demanded the shutdown of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention centers, particularly those operated by private prison companies.

However, less attention has been paid to another form of detention that has been insidiously expanding alongside ICE’s brick-and-mortar jails: the Intensive Supervision Assistance Program (ISAP), the primary component of ICE’s so-called “Alternatives to Detention” program. ISAP ...


Testimony Of Professor Rebecca Ingber On War Powers Reform, To The House Rules Committee, Rebecca Ingber Mar 2021

Testimony Of Professor Rebecca Ingber On War Powers Reform, To The House Rules Committee, Rebecca Ingber

Testimony

Professor Rebecca Ingber testified before the U.S. House Committee on Rules hearing on "Article I: Reforming the War Powers Resolution for the 21st Century," on March 23, 2021.


Deportation Arrest Warrants, Lindsay Nash Jan 2021

Deportation Arrest Warrants, Lindsay Nash

Articles

The common conception of a constitutionally sufficient warrant is one reflecting a judicial determination of probable cause, the idea being that the warrant process serves to check law enforcement. But neither the Constitution nor the Supreme Court has fully defined who can issue arrest warrants within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment; the constitutional significance of arrest “warrants” that are not; or when (if ever) warrants of any type are constitutionally required for deportation-related arrests. In that void, the largest federal law enforcement agency—the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)—is on pace to issue over 150,000 administrative “warrants ...


Jack Weinstein: Reimagining The Role Of The District Court Judge, Jessica A. Roth Jan 2021

Jack Weinstein: Reimagining The Role Of The District Court Judge, Jessica A. Roth

Articles

This essay, for a symposium issue of the Federal Sentencing Reporter dedicated to the impact of Judge Jack Weinstein on the occasion of his retirement from the federal bench, highlights how Judge Weinstein has re-imagined the role of the district court judge. Through his judicial opinions, extrajudicial writings and speeches, and his innovative use of the court’s supervisory authority, Judge Weinstein has challenged, and in some cases altered, the status quo in the realm of criminal sentencing. In doing so, he has established a forceful example of how district court judges can use their position to advocate for and ...


Letter From Ny Law Faculty In Support Of Diploma Privilege, Myriam E. Gilles, Betsy Ginsberg, Michael Herz, Rebecca Ingber, Kate Levine, Michael Pollack, Alexander A. Reinert, Katherine A. Shaw, Ekow N. Yankah Jul 2020

Letter From Ny Law Faculty In Support Of Diploma Privilege, Myriam E. Gilles, Betsy Ginsberg, Michael Herz, Rebecca Ingber, Kate Levine, Michael Pollack, Alexander A. Reinert, Katherine A. Shaw, Ekow N. Yankah

Online Publications

For more information, please refer to Karen Sloan's article,"Hundreds of New York Law Professors Endorse Emergency Diploma Privilege," published by the New York Law Journal and appearing on Law.com on July 22, 2020.

Additional Signatories:

Susan Abraham (New York Law School), Michelle Adams (Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law), Miriam Albert (Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University), Jose E. Alvarez (New York University School of Law), Claudia Angelos (New York University Law School), Deborah Archer (New York University Law School), Jennifer Arlen (New York University Law School), Anna Arons (New York University Law School ...


Response Letter To Chairman Mcgovern On Remote Voting, Deborah Pearlstein May 2020

Response Letter To Chairman Mcgovern On Remote Voting, Deborah Pearlstein

Testimony

Letter sent to Congressman Jim McGovern, Chair of the House Rules Committee. This letter has been entered into the Congressional Record.

"I read with interest an article by Mssrs. Mark Strand and Tim Lang introduced into the record during yesterday’s hearing of the House Rules Committee on H. Res. 965 - Authorizing remote voting by proxy in the House of Representatives. Having written elsewhere in detail about my conviction that the rules change under consideration readily passes constitutional muster, I am grateful for the opportunity to explain why the Strand and Lang position fails to persuade."


Letter To Chairman Mcgovern On Remote Voting, Deborah Pearlstein Apr 2020

Letter To Chairman Mcgovern On Remote Voting, Deborah Pearlstein

Testimony

Letter written to Congressman Jim McGovern, Chair of the House Rules Committee. This letter has been entered into the Congressional Record.

As a professor of constitutional law, and a scholar who has written extensively on separation of powers issues in U.S. Government, I believe adopting procedures to allow for remote voting under these extraordinary circumstances is not only lawful, but essential to the maintenance of our constitutional democracy. Recognizing that specific procedures for remote voting may still be in development, the analysis offered here focuses foremost on the broad scope of Congress’ constitutional authority to regulate its voting procedures.


Strategies For Emergency Release Of Incarcerated People During Covid-19 Outbreak, Sara Alvarez, Andrew Kopke, Mariel Stein, Meg Tiley Mar 2020

Strategies For Emergency Release Of Incarcerated People During Covid-19 Outbreak, Sara Alvarez, Andrew Kopke, Mariel Stein, Meg Tiley

Articles

Students in Cardozo's Criminal Defense Clinic partnered with the Office of the Appellate Defender to outline legal strategies to advocate for the release of incarcerated people who are vulnerable to harm from COVID-19.


Letter To Commissioner Andrew Saul Re: Notice Of Proposed Rulemaking On Rules Regarding The Frequency And Notice Of Continuing Disability Reviews, 84 Fed. Reg. 63588 (November 18, 2019), Tyler Dixon, Tiffany Cheung Jan 2020

Letter To Commissioner Andrew Saul Re: Notice Of Proposed Rulemaking On Rules Regarding The Frequency And Notice Of Continuing Disability Reviews, 84 Fed. Reg. 63588 (November 18, 2019), Tyler Dixon, Tiffany Cheung

Writings from the Bet Tzedek Clinic

Comments submitted by Bet Tzedek students Tyler Dixon '21 and Tiffany Cheung '21 to the Social Security Administration arguing against proposed revisions to the agencies continuing disability review procedures.

We have two main concerns with the proposed regulation. First, against the backdrop of an already overburdened agency with massive hearing backlogs and long wait times for benefits, the proposed changes will divert scarce resources toward more and more frequent continuing disability reviews (CDRs). Second, older adults nearing retirement age will face increased challenges due to more frequent, unnecessary reviews when it is highly unlikely that that they can return to ...


Paradigm Perplexities: Does International Humanitarian Law Or International Human Rights Law Govern The Gaza Border Protests Of 2018-2019, & What Are The Consequences? A Response To The Supreme Court’S Opinion In Yesh Din V. Idf Chief Of Staff (Hcj 3003/18), Anthony Carl Jan 2020

Paradigm Perplexities: Does International Humanitarian Law Or International Human Rights Law Govern The Gaza Border Protests Of 2018-2019, & What Are The Consequences? A Response To The Supreme Court’S Opinion In Yesh Din V. Idf Chief Of Staff (Hcj 3003/18), Anthony Carl

Articles

In March 2018, thousands of Gazan citizens mobilized for a mass protest movement at the border with the State of Israel that endured for more than a year and a half, ending in late 2019. By February 2019, the IDF’s response to these protestors resulted in 189 deaths and 23,313 injuries to Gazan Palestinian protestors. Upon hearing challenges to the IDF’s rules of engagement brought by a number of human rights groups, the Israeli Supreme Court ruled in HCJ 3003/18 Yesh Din v. IDF Chief of Staff that the IDF’s response was proper under the ...


How U.S. Family Law Might Deal With Spousal Relationships Of Three (Or More) People, Edward D. Stein Jan 2020

How U.S. Family Law Might Deal With Spousal Relationships Of Three (Or More) People, Edward D. Stein

Articles

For much of this nation's history, the vast majority of people have believed that being married to more than one person at the same time is deeply problematic. Further, polygamous marriage has never been legal in the United States. Despite this, some people have been in plural or group relationships and some of these people have wished to gain legal recognition for these relationships. The arguments for recognizing such relationships are persuasive, but the prospects for legalization of polygamous marriage seem slim in the near future. This Article offers a suggestion of how the law of domestic relations might ...


Applying The First Amendment To The Internal Revenue Code: Minnesota Voters Alliance And The Tax Law’S Regulation Of Nonprofit Organizations’ Political Speech, Edward A. Zelinsky Jan 2020

Applying The First Amendment To The Internal Revenue Code: Minnesota Voters Alliance And The Tax Law’S Regulation Of Nonprofit Organizations’ Political Speech, Edward A. Zelinsky

Articles

On its face, Minnesota Voters Alliance v. Mansky is about which T-shirts, hats and buttons voters can wear at the polls. However, the U.S. Supreme Court’s First Amendment analysis in Minnesota Voters Alliance extends beyond apparel at polling places. That decision impacts the ongoing debate about the Johnson Amendment, the now controversial provision of the Internal Revenue Code which forbids Section 501(c)(3) organizations from intervening in political campaigns. Minnesota Voters Alliance also affects the proper construction of Section 501(c)(3)’s ban on lobbying by tax-exempt entities as well as other provisions of the tax ...


Coronavirus, Telecommuting, And The ‘Employer Convenience’ Rule, Edward A. Zelinsky Jan 2020

Coronavirus, Telecommuting, And The ‘Employer Convenience’ Rule, Edward A. Zelinsky

Articles

New York's "convenience of the employer" doctrine overtaxes nonresident telecommuters on the days they work at their out-of-state homes. This doctrine was poor tax policy in normal times. It is particularly bad tax policy during the Covid-19 crisis, penalizing individuals who work at home.


Prosecutorial Declination Statements, Jessica A. Roth Jan 2020

Prosecutorial Declination Statements, Jessica A. Roth

Articles

This Article examines how prosecutors convey to various audiences their decisions not to charge in discrete cases. Although prosecutors regularly issue public statements about their declinations—and anecdotal evidence suggests that declination statements are on the rise—there is an absence of literature discussing the interests that such statements serve, the risks that they pose, and how such statements are consistent with the prosecutorial function. Prosecutors also operate in this space without clear ground rules set by law, policies, or professional standards. This Article attempts to fill that void. First, it theorizes the interests potentially advanced by such statements—characterized ...


Congressional Administration Of Foreign Affairs, Rebecca Ingber Jan 2020

Congressional Administration Of Foreign Affairs, Rebecca Ingber

Articles

Longstanding debates over the allocation of foreign affairs power between Congress and the President have reached a stalemate. Wherever the formal line between Congress and the President’s powers is drawn, it is well established that, as a functional matter, even in times of great discord between the two branches, the President wields immense power when he acts in the name of foreign policy or national security.

And yet, while scholarship focuses on the accretion of power in the presidency, presidential primacy is not the end of the story. The fact that the President usually “wins” in foreign affairs does ...


Povos Indígenas, Genocídio E Pademia No Brasil, Fernanda Frizzo Bragato, Marco Antônio Delfino De Almeida, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum Jan 2020

Povos Indígenas, Genocídio E Pademia No Brasil, Fernanda Frizzo Bragato, Marco Antônio Delfino De Almeida, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum

Articles

Indigenous Peoples, Genocide and Pandemics in Brazil

COVID-19 pandemics spreads among Brazilian indigenous communities while they endure the dismantling of protective policies, the current government's hostility, as well as the disproportionate effects in terms of contamination and mortality. This situation has been concerning indigenous organizations and public authorities in Brazil and worldwide. Indigenous peoples are potential victims of genocide, an act characterized both as a criminally punishable conduct and as a State policy capable to generate international State liability. This study intends to investigate whether and how the conditions of susceptibility to the physical destruction met by several Brazilian ...


Observations Of Professor Gabor Rona On The Pre-Trial Chamber's Conclusion That Events Beyond The Territory Of Afghanistan Lack Sufficient Nexus To The Armed Conflict There For Pruposes Of Application Of Rome Statute War Crimes, Gabor Rona Nov 2019

Observations Of Professor Gabor Rona On The Pre-Trial Chamber's Conclusion That Events Beyond The Territory Of Afghanistan Lack Sufficient Nexus To The Armed Conflict There For Pruposes Of Application Of Rome Statute War Crimes, Gabor Rona

Briefs

Prof. Gabor Rona, Director of CLIHHR's Law and Armed Conflict Project, submitted an amicus brief to the International Criminal Court (ICC) in connection with the Prosecutor's request to commence an investigation into international crimes arising out of the situation in Afghanistan. A Pre-Trial Chamber (PTC) had rejected the Prosecutor's request to investigate CIA war crimes arising from secret detention and torture of detainees at "black sites" in Poland, a State Party to the ICC Treaty. The PTC held that those events lacked sufficient nexus to the armed conflict in Afghanistan. Rona argues to the Appellate Chamber that ...


Executive Privilege And Congressional Oversight, Katherine A. Shaw May 2019

Executive Privilege And Congressional Oversight, Katherine A. Shaw

Testimony

My name is Kate Shaw, and I am a Professor of Law at Cardozo Law School, where my work focuses, among other things, on executive power and questions of constitutionalism outside the courts. Before I began teaching, I worked as an Associate Counsel in the Obama White House Counsel’s Office, from 2009–2011.

I understand that the purpose of today’s hearing is to contextualize and assess the White House’s recent “protective” assertion of executive privilege over the entirety of the unredacted “Report on the Investigation into Russian Interference in the 2016 Presidential Election,” prepared by Special Counsel ...


Statement Of Betsy Ginsberg, Clinical Associate Professor Of Law & Director, Civil Rights Clinic, Benjamin N. Cardozo School Of Law U.S. Commission On Civil Rights Public Briefing: Women In Prison: Seeking Justice Behind Bars, Betsy Ginsberg Feb 2019

Statement Of Betsy Ginsberg, Clinical Associate Professor Of Law & Director, Civil Rights Clinic, Benjamin N. Cardozo School Of Law U.S. Commission On Civil Rights Public Briefing: Women In Prison: Seeking Justice Behind Bars, Betsy Ginsberg

Testimony

Although men make up a significant majority of the country’s prison population, the United States has the highest rate of incarceration of women in the world.1 In recent years, women have been the fastest growing segment of our population in jails and prisons. The significant but insufficient decline we have seen with respect to the overall prison population eclipses or obscures the trend we have seen in the imprisonment of women. While the trends vary from state to state, the overall picture for women has been far worse than for men. In most states the women’s population ...


The Consummate Legal Education: Teaching Analysis As Doctrine, Julie Ann Interdonato Jan 2019

The Consummate Legal Education: Teaching Analysis As Doctrine, Julie Ann Interdonato

Articles

This paper addresses the necessity and means of developing analysis and its written expression as an independent topic of study throughout students’ law school tenure. “Doctrine,” as it appears in the above title, is defined as the transcendent analytic concepts that underlie the common law, and the modality of their application in the law’s constant evolution. The purpose of presenting analysis in this context is to enhance analytic instruction presently provided in law school, and thereby take students one step further in their education, into the realm of the practicing attorney. In this manner, educators, building on the case ...


Home Sweet Home: How New York Courts Have Dealt With Daimler's "At Home" Requirement For General Jurisdiction, Burton N. Lipshie Jan 2019

Home Sweet Home: How New York Courts Have Dealt With Daimler's "At Home" Requirement For General Jurisdiction, Burton N. Lipshie

Articles

In this Article, we will first place the Daimler decision in its context, both historical and technological, in an attempt to understand the flow of Supreme Court jurisdiction jurisprudence, and how Daimler fits into that jurisprudence. Then, we will explore the issues in New York law that Daimler left open, and which, more than five years after it was decided, remain open, and, indeed, often confused.


Binaries: Remarks On Chaim N. Saiman's "Halakhah", Richard Weisberg Jan 2019

Binaries: Remarks On Chaim N. Saiman's "Halakhah", Richard Weisberg

Articles

Binaries are helpful but deceptive, and this may be particularly true of simplistic theological dichotomies purporting to show that the Talmud is "Nitpicking" and Christian Biblical understandings "Expansive", or that Jews believe in the "letter" and Christians in the "spirit", Jews in strict Justice and Christians in "mercy", etc. This essay, which focuses on the character of Shylock and the legalistic cruelty inflicted upon him by Venice's Christians, dissolves such Binaries, leaving in their wake greater clarity about the contrary need to "re-binarize" the falsely unified hyphenated adjective "Judaeo-Christian".


Taking Data, Michael Pollack Jan 2019

Taking Data, Michael Pollack

Articles

Technological development has created new forms of information, altered expectations of privacy, and given law enforcement more tools to examine that information and intrude on that privacy. One crucial facet of these changes involves internet service providers (ISPs): as people expose more of their lives to their ISPs—all the websites they visit, people they communicate with, emails they send, files they store, and more—law enforcement efforts to access that data become more and more common. But scholars and policymakers alike recognize that the existing statutory frameworks governing those efforts are based on obsolete technology and strike balances that ...


Testimony Before The United States Senate Committee On The Judiciary On The Nomination Of Brett Kavanaugh For Associate Justice Of The U.S. Supreme Court, Rebecca Ingber Sep 2018

Testimony Before The United States Senate Committee On The Judiciary On The Nomination Of Brett Kavanaugh For Associate Justice Of The U.S. Supreme Court, Rebecca Ingber

Testimony

Professor Rebecca Ingber testified before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee as it considered the nomination of Brett Kavanaugh for Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Her testimony focused on Judge Kavanaugh's national security and international law jurisprudence, in particular, the court's role in considering international law constraints on the President's war powers, and the potential effects of this judicial approach on executive power.


The Search For Third Options In A Two-Bathroom Society, Sharon R. Cruz Jan 2018

The Search For Third Options In A Two-Bathroom Society, Sharon R. Cruz

Articles

This Note presents a narrative on and the history of transgender bathroom rights in this country, beginning with the reasoning for a two-bathroom society and the development of “bathroom laws”. The development of the two-bathroom society is intertwined with and rooted in beliefs that have remained prevalent since the Victorian Era, ideas about core differences between men and women, and how best to protect the virtues of women. In order to weave this narrative, this Note focuses particularly on current cases that are making their way through our Courts: the stories of Gavin Grimm and Coy Mathis, whose battles are ...


The Narrative Of Costs, The Cost Of Narrative, Alexander A. Reinert Jan 2018

The Narrative Of Costs, The Cost Of Narrative, Alexander A. Reinert

Articles

In Judge Victor Marrero’s Article “The Cost of Rules, the Rule of Costs,” he argues that too many lawyers use too many procedural devices to cause too much inefficiency within our civil justice system. His Article helpfully asks us to focus on the role of the lawyer and law firm economics in assessing how to solve waste and abuse in civil litigation. He proposes an array of procedural changes to address these perceived problems. In this response, I argue that Judge Marrero’s assertions about costs are questionable, given relevant empirical evidence. Moreover, although I am confident that there ...


The Institutions Of Innocence Review: A Comparative Sociological Perspective, Jessica A. Roth Jan 2018

The Institutions Of Innocence Review: A Comparative Sociological Perspective, Jessica A. Roth

Articles

The last three decades have seen the rise of an international innocence movement that has forced participants in diverse criminal justice systems to confront their systems’ fallibility, previously thought more theoretical than real. The public acknowledgment of that fallibility has led to the creation of new institutional mechanisms to re-examine old convictions. This short essay prepared for a symposium issue of the Rutgers University Law Review on the theory of criminal law reform compares the error correction institutions created in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, three English-speaking countries with common law roots and an adversarial structure, through ...


Cardozo's "Law And Literature": A Guide To His Judicial Writing Style, Richard H. Weisberg Jan 2018

Cardozo's "Law And Literature": A Guide To His Judicial Writing Style, Richard H. Weisberg

Articles

Weisberg traces Judge Cardozo's advice about legal writing to the famous 1925 essay LAW AND LITERATURE and applies it to the judicial opinions and other published works of Cardozo and various other judges.


Maintaining Condominiums And Homeowner Associations: How Much Of A Priority?, Stewart E. Sterk Jan 2018

Maintaining Condominiums And Homeowner Associations: How Much Of A Priority?, Stewart E. Sterk

Articles

During the recent real estate crisis, competition for scarce dollars pitted the holders of defaulted mortgages against condominiums and homeowner associations seeking to collect maintenance assessments. Statutes providing mortgagees with lien priority threatened association ability to provide services, and imposed a disproportionate burden on non-defaulting unit owners. Statutes enacted in other states gave associations a “super priority” lien for six months of assessments, but left uncertainty about the meaning of that super priority in an environment in which foreclosure delays became the norm.The last five years have brought a spate of litigation over the relative rights of associations and ...