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Academic Economic Espionage?, Elizabeth A. Rowe Oct 2023

Academic Economic Espionage?, Elizabeth A. Rowe

William & Mary Law Review

In 2018 the U.S. government announced that Chinese espionage was occurring in university research labs, and the Department of Justice subsequently made it a high priority to prosecute economic espionage in academia. The DOJ’s grave concerns about espionage in academia have continued, and the Director of the FBI has lamented that American taxpayers are footing the bill for China’s technological development. This geopolitical concern about espionage has had real world and personal consequences in academia. Since 2019, over a dozen high-profile criminal prosecutions have put prominent professors at major research universities across the country in handcuffs and almost all the …


Balancing Liberty And Security: A Proposal For Amplified Procedural Due Process Protections In The U.S. Sanctions Regime, Allison Lofgren Oct 2022

Balancing Liberty And Security: A Proposal For Amplified Procedural Due Process Protections In The U.S. Sanctions Regime, Allison Lofgren

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

This Note will concentrate on procedural due process concerns stemming from the imposition of terrorist financing sanctions, and it will primarily discuss designated U.S. persons. This is a narrow focus, but it can be viewed as a microcosm for due process issues present throughout the broader IEEPA [International Emergency Economic Powers Act] regime. Ultimately, this Note will conclude that OFAC [Office of Foreign Assets Control]'s terrorist financing designation process inadequately protects the procedural due process rights of targets, and it will advocate for the implementation of additional procedural protections that balance undeniable constitutional requirements with the critical concern of national …


If You Think Ai Won't Eclipse Humanity, You're Probably Just A Human, Gary D. Brown Dec 2021

If You Think Ai Won't Eclipse Humanity, You're Probably Just A Human, Gary D. Brown

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Building machines that can replicate human thinking and behavior has fascinated people for hundreds of years. Stories about robots date from ancient history through da Vinci to the present. Whether designed to save labor or lives, to provide companionship or protection, loyal, capable, productive machines are a dream of humanity.

The modern manifestation of this interest in using human-like technology to advance social interests is artificial intelligence (AI). This is a paper about what that interest in AI means and how it might develop in the world of national security.

This abstract has been adapted from the author's introduction.


Congressional Oversight Of Modern Warfare: History, Pathologies, And Proposals For Reform, Oona A. Hathaway, Tobias Kuehne, Randi Michel, Nicole Ng Oct 2021

Congressional Oversight Of Modern Warfare: History, Pathologies, And Proposals For Reform, Oona A. Hathaway, Tobias Kuehne, Randi Michel, Nicole Ng

William & Mary Law Review

Despite significant developments in the nature of twenty-first century warfare, Congress continues to employ a twentieth century oversight structure. Modern warfare tactics, including cyber operations, drone strikes, and special operations, do not neatly fall into congressional committee jurisdictions. Counterterrorism and cyber operations, which are inherently multi-jurisdictional and highly classified, illustrate the problem. In both contexts, over the past several years Congress has addressed oversight shortcomings by strengthening its reporting requirements, developing relatively robust oversight regimes. But in solving one problem, Congress has created another: deeply entrenched information silos that inhibit the sharing of information about modern warfare across committees. This …


Black Flags Behind Bars: Doe V. Mattis And Why The 2001 Aumf Does Not Justify The Detention Of U.S.-Citizen Islamic State Fighters, John A. Gurtunca Feb 2020

Black Flags Behind Bars: Doe V. Mattis And Why The 2001 Aumf Does Not Justify The Detention Of U.S.-Citizen Islamic State Fighters, John A. Gurtunca

William & Mary Law Review Online

This Note proposes that the current legal authority the United States relies on to detain U.S. citizens captured as enemy combatants—the 2001 AUMF—does not provide an adequate justification for the detention of Islamic State fighters who are U.S. citizens. This Note argues that despite a marriage of convenience, the Islamic State’s organizational and operational differences from al-Qaeda make it a factually distinct organization. Because the Islamic State and al-Qaeda are two different entities, the Islamic State falls outside the scope of the 2001 AUMF. Thus, the 2001 AUMF should not apply to the detention of U.S.-citizen Islamic State fighters because …


Protecting The States From Electoral Invasions, Drew Marvel Jan 2020

Protecting The States From Electoral Invasions, Drew Marvel

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Since the 2016 U.S. presidential election, the threat of foreign interference in U.S. elections has loomed large in the minds of the American public. During the 2016 campaign season, Russian government-backed hackers infiltrated the networks and computers of the Democratic National Committee (DNC), the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC), and various campaign officials, harvesting private information and installing spyware and malware for ongoing intelligence purposes. U.S. intelligence officials have indicated that, using similar tactics, the Russian hackers also targeted election systems and officials in all fifty states, successfully breaching at least two of those states’ election systems, Illinois and Florida. …


Digital Internment, Margaret Hu Jan 2020

Digital Internment, Margaret Hu

Faculty Publications

In Korematsu, Hirabayashi, and the Second Monster, Eric L. Muller explores whether Korematsu v. United States is dead post-Trump v. Hawaii, and whether by failing to strike down Hirabayashi v. United States, the “mother” of Korematsu and a “second monster” lives on. This brief response Essay contends that answering these questions first demands grasping how Trump v. Hawaiifailed to fully address the program implemented by the Muslim Ban–Travel Ban: Extreme Vetting. Extreme Vetting can be characterized as a form of “digital internment” through a complex web of cybersurveillance, administrative-imposed restraints, and “identity-management” rationales that are …


United States Antiterror Law Is Missing The Mark: Changing The Material Support Statute To Hit The Target, Tessa Beryl Tilton Feb 2019

United States Antiterror Law Is Missing The Mark: Changing The Material Support Statute To Hit The Target, Tessa Beryl Tilton

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Bulk Biometric Metadata Collection, Margaret Hu Jun 2018

Bulk Biometric Metadata Collection, Margaret Hu

Faculty Publications

Smart police body cameras and smart glasses worn by law enforcement increasingly reflect state-of-the-art surveillance technology, such as the integration of live-streaming video with facial recognition and artificial intelligence tools, including automated analytics. This Article explores how these emerging cybersurveillance technologies risk the potential for bulk biometric metadata collection. Such collection is likely to fall outside the scope of the types of bulk metadata collection protections regulated by the USA FREEDOM Act of 2015. The USA FREEDOM Act was intended to bring the practice of bulk telephony metadata collection conducted by the National Security Agency (“NSA”) under tighter regulation. In …


The Unreasonable Rise Of Reasonable Suspicion: Terrorist Watchlists And Terry V. Ohio, Jeffrey Kahn Dec 2017

The Unreasonable Rise Of Reasonable Suspicion: Terrorist Watchlists And Terry V. Ohio, Jeffrey Kahn

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Terry v. Ohio’s “reasonable suspicion” test was created in the context of domestic law enforcement, but it did not remain there. This Essay examines the effect of transplanting this test into a new context: the world of terrorist watchlists. In this new context, reasonable suspicion is the standard used to authorize the infringement on liberty that often results from being watchlisted. But nothing else from the case that created that standard remains the same. The government official changes from a local police officer to an anonymous member of the intelligence community. The purpose changes from crime prevention to counterterrorism. …


Private Actors, Corporate Data And National Security: What Assistance Do Tech Companies Owe Law Enforcement?, Caren Morrison Dec 2017

Private Actors, Corporate Data And National Security: What Assistance Do Tech Companies Owe Law Enforcement?, Caren Morrison

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

When the government investigates a crime, do citizens have a duty to assist? This question was raised in the struggle between Apple and the FBI over whether the agency could compel Apple to defeat its own password protections on the iPhone of one of the San Bernardino shooters. That case was voluntarily dismissed as moot when the government found a way of accessing the data on the phone, but the issue remains unresolved.

Because of advances in technology, software providers and device makers have been able to develop almost impenetrable protection for their customers’ information, effectively locking law enforcement out …


Encryption, Asymmetric Warfare, And The Need For Lawful Access, Geoffrey S. Corn Dec 2017

Encryption, Asymmetric Warfare, And The Need For Lawful Access, Geoffrey S. Corn

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Horizontal Cybersurveillance Through Sentiment Analysis, Margaret Hu Dec 2017

Horizontal Cybersurveillance Through Sentiment Analysis, Margaret Hu

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

This Essay describes emerging big data technologies that facilitate horizontal cybersurveillance. Horizontal cybersurveillance makes possible what has been termed as “sentiment analysis.” Sentiment analysis can be described as opinion mining and social movement forecasting. Through sentiment analysis, mass cybersurveillance technologies can be deployed to detect potential terrorism and state conflict, predict protest and civil unrest, and gauge the mood of populations and subpopulations. Horizontal cybersurveillance through sentiment analysis has the likely result of chilling expressive and associational freedoms, while at the same time risking mass data seizures and searches. These programs, therefore, must be assessed as adversely impacting a combination …


Crimmigration-Counterterrorism, Margaret Hu Nov 2017

Crimmigration-Counterterrorism, Margaret Hu

Faculty Publications

The discriminatory effects that may stem from biometric ID cybersurveillance and other algorithmically-driven screening technologies can be better understood through the analytical prism of “crimmigrationcounterterrorism”: the conflation of crime, immigration, and counterterrorism policy. The historical genesis for this phenomenon can be traced back to multiple migration law developments, including the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. To implement stricter immigration controls at the border and interior, both the federal and state governments developed immigration enforcement schemes that depended upon both biometric identification documents and immigration screening protocols. This Article uses contemporary attempts to implement an expanded regime of “extreme vetting” to …


Biometric Cyberintelligence And The Posse Comitatus Act, Margaret Hu Jan 2017

Biometric Cyberintelligence And The Posse Comitatus Act, Margaret Hu

Faculty Publications

This Article addresses the rapid growth of what the military and the intelligence community refer to as “biometric-enabled intelligence.” This newly emerging intelligence tool is reliant upon biometric databases—for example, digitalized storage of scanned fingerprints and irises, digital photographs for facial recognition technology, and DNA. This Article introduces the term “biometric cyberintelligence” to more accurately describe the manner in which this new tool is dependent upon cybersurveillance and big data’s massintegrative systems.

This Article argues that the Posse Comitatus Act of 1878, designed to limit the deployment of federal military resources in the service of domestic policies, will be difficult …


The Lesser Of Two Evils: Exploring The Constitutionality Of Indefinite Detentions Of Terror Enemy Combatants Following The End Of “Combat Operations” In Afghanistan, Justin A. Thatch Jun 2016

The Lesser Of Two Evils: Exploring The Constitutionality Of Indefinite Detentions Of Terror Enemy Combatants Following The End Of “Combat Operations” In Afghanistan, Justin A. Thatch

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


A Problem Of Standards?: Another Perspective On Secret Law, Jonathan Hafetz May 2016

A Problem Of Standards?: Another Perspective On Secret Law, Jonathan Hafetz

William & Mary Law Review

This Article provides a new perspective on the growth of secret law in the United States. It is widely assumed that the U.S. government’s exercise of national security powers suffers from excessive secrecy. Although secrecy presents significant challenges, it does not alone explain the lack of clarity surrounding the government’s legal justifications for using military force, conducting surveillance, or exercising other national security powers. The Article argues that what is often labeled “secret law” may also be understood as a consequence of how legal standards are used in this context.

The Article draws on the larger rules versus standards literature …


Doing Our Part: Acknowledging And Addressing Women’S Contributions To Isis, Elizabeth Buner Feb 2016

Doing Our Part: Acknowledging And Addressing Women’S Contributions To Isis, Elizabeth Buner

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Regulating Drones Under The First And Fourth Amendments, Marc Jonathan Blitz, James Grimsley, Stephen E. Henderson, Joseph Thai Oct 2015

Regulating Drones Under The First And Fourth Amendments, Marc Jonathan Blitz, James Grimsley, Stephen E. Henderson, Joseph Thai

William & Mary Law Review

The FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 requires the Federal Aviation Administration to integrate unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, into the national airspace system by September 2015. Yet perhaps because of their chilling accuracy in targeted killings abroad, perhaps because of an increasing consciousness of diminishing privacy more generally, and perhaps simply because of a fear of the unknown, divergent UAV-restrictive legislation has been proposed in Congress and enacted in a number of states. Given UAV utility and cost-effectiveness over a vast range of tasks, however, widespread commercial use ultimately seems certain. Consequently, it is imperative to understand …


#Tweeting For Terrorism: First Amendment Implications In Using Proterrorist Tweets To Convict Under The Material Support Statute, Abigail M. Pierce Oct 2015

#Tweeting For Terrorism: First Amendment Implications In Using Proterrorist Tweets To Convict Under The Material Support Statute, Abigail M. Pierce

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


National Security Information Disclosures And The Role Of Intent, Mary-Rose Papandrea Mar 2015

National Security Information Disclosures And The Role Of Intent, Mary-Rose Papandrea

William & Mary Law Review

In the public discourse, the perceived intent of those who disclose national security information without authorization plays an important role in whether they are labeled as heroes or traitors. Should it matter whether Chelsea (formerly Bradley) Manning leaked government information to WikiLeaks knowing that our enemies might benefit from the information? Is it relevant that Edward Snowden believed—or that a reasonable person would believe—that the topsecret government surveillance programs he revealed were illegal, or that the public value in knowing about these programs outweighed any risk of harm to national security? This Article examines whether intent—and what kind of intent— …


A Liberal Communitarian Approach To Security Limitations On The Freedom Of The Press, Amitai Etzioni May 2014

A Liberal Communitarian Approach To Security Limitations On The Freedom Of The Press, Amitai Etzioni

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Interest-Balancing Vs. Fiduciary Duty: Two Models For National Security Law, Evan Fox-Decent, Evan J. Criddle May 2012

Interest-Balancing Vs. Fiduciary Duty: Two Models For National Security Law, Evan Fox-Decent, Evan J. Criddle

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Averting Nuclear 9/11: The Need To Move Beyond Nepa And Transition To A Homeland Security-Administered Infrastructure Security Statement, Michael S. Munson Nov 2010

Averting Nuclear 9/11: The Need To Move Beyond Nepa And Transition To A Homeland Security-Administered Infrastructure Security Statement, Michael S. Munson

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Submarines, Sonar, And The Death Of Whales: Enforcing The Delicate Balance Of Environmental Compliance And National Security In Military Training, Joel R. Reynolds Apr 2008

Submarines, Sonar, And The Death Of Whales: Enforcing The Delicate Balance Of Environmental Compliance And National Security In Military Training, Joel R. Reynolds

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Congress Has The Power To Enforce The Bill Of Rigths Against The Federal Government; Therefore Fisa Is Constitutional And The President's Terrorist Surveillance Program Is Illegal, Wilson R. Huhn Dec 2007

Congress Has The Power To Enforce The Bill Of Rigths Against The Federal Government; Therefore Fisa Is Constitutional And The President's Terrorist Surveillance Program Is Illegal, Wilson R. Huhn

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

The principal point of this Article is that Congress has plenary authority to enforce the Bill of Rights against the federal government. Although this precept is a fundamental one, neither the Supreme Court nor legal scholars have articulated this point in clear, simple, and direct terms. The Supreme Court does not have a monopoly on the Bill of Rights. Congress, too, has constitutional authority to interpret our rights and to enforce or enlarge them as against the actions of the federal government. Congress exercised its power to protect the constitutional rights of American citizens when it enacted the Foreign Intelligence …


National Security And The Endangered Species Act: A Fresh Look At The Exemption Process And The Evolution Of Army Environmental Policy, Jason C. Wells Oct 2006

National Security And The Endangered Species Act: A Fresh Look At The Exemption Process And The Evolution Of Army Environmental Policy, Jason C. Wells

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Bioweapon Impacts On Public Health And The Environment, David Pimentel, Marcia Pimentel Apr 2006

Bioweapon Impacts On Public Health And The Environment, David Pimentel, Marcia Pimentel

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Sustainable Development And Terrorism: International Linkages And A Case Study Of Sri Lanka, Sumudu Atapattu Feb 2006

Sustainable Development And Terrorism: International Linkages And A Case Study Of Sri Lanka, Sumudu Atapattu

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Gis In An Age Of Homeland Security: Accessing Public Information To Ensure A Sustainable Environment, Patricia E. Salkin Oct 2005

Gis In An Age Of Homeland Security: Accessing Public Information To Ensure A Sustainable Environment, Patricia E. Salkin

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.