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Vanderbilt University Law School

2008

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Articles 1 - 30 of 143

Full-Text Articles in Law

An Empirical Investigation Into Appellate Structure And The Perceived Quality Of Appellate Review, Jonathan R. Nash, Rafael I. Pardo Nov 2008

An Empirical Investigation Into Appellate Structure And The Perceived Quality Of Appellate Review, Jonathan R. Nash, Rafael I. Pardo

Vanderbilt Law Review

What is the ideal structure for appellate review? Without providing a definitive answer to the question, commentators have suggested several factors that may improve the process, and thus perhaps the accuracy, of appellate review. First, it is said that panels of judges are preferable to review by a single judge. Second, expertise in the relevant area of law is a benefit. Third, other indicia of lawfinding ability-such as the ability of lawyers and judges to focus on legal issues without the distraction of factual conflicts and the amenability of judges' schedules to careful contemplation and reflection-contribute to the quality of …


If The "Shoe" Fits: Reconciling The "International Shoe" Minimum Contacts Test With The Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, John A. Greer Nov 2008

If The "Shoe" Fits: Reconciling The "International Shoe" Minimum Contacts Test With The Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, John A. Greer

Vanderbilt Law Review

The desire to assume a false identity is one that transcends cultures and time periods. Even the most socially confident and successful person has, at some point, contemplated the possibility of changing or masking his or her identity-if only temporarily-with the hope of gaining some sort of competitive advantage. History and popular culture are replete with instances of such conduct, with varying degrees of success. One of the most famous historical examples, originating in Greek mythology, is the legend of the Trojan horse: the Greeks' surprise invasion of Troy using a hollow, wooden horse.

This same desire to gain a …


Standardization And Pluralism In Property Law, Nestor M. Davidson Nov 2008

Standardization And Pluralism In Property Law, Nestor M. Davidson

Vanderbilt Law Review

At the heart of contemporary property theory stands an intriguing puzzle. Unlike the relatively unconstrained freedom that contract law provides for private ordering, property law recognizes only a limited and standard list of mandatory forms. This standardization-known as the numerus clausus from the civil law concept that the "number is closed"-poses a basic conundrum: what can explain a persistent feature of the law that seems, at first glance, so clearly to restrict the autonomy and efficiency gains conventionally associated with private property?

This puzzle has garnered significant scholarly attention in recent years. Some scholars have argued that standardization, although paternalistic, …


"Brady" Obligations, Criminal Sanctions, And Solutions In A New Era Of Scrutiny, Andrew Smith Nov 2008

"Brady" Obligations, Criminal Sanctions, And Solutions In A New Era Of Scrutiny, Andrew Smith

Vanderbilt Law Review

Six days after terrorist attacks shook New York City and Washington, D.C., the FBI raided an apartment complex in a suburb of Detroit and apprehended three North African men.1 Among the men's possessions were hand-drawn sketches potentially detailing targets for terrorist attacks abroad. Four men were charged with providing material support for terrorism and document fraud and were brought to trial two years later. Richard Convertino, an assistant United States attorney with a strong track record in the DOJ, was tapped to prosecute the case and won convictions against three of the four defendants. Attorney General John Ashcroft personally and …


"The Threes": Re-Imagining Supreme Court Decisionmaking, Tracey E. George, Chris Guthrie Nov 2008

"The Threes": Re-Imagining Supreme Court Decisionmaking, Tracey E. George, Chris Guthrie

Vanderbilt Law Review

Article III is odd. In contrast to Articles 12 and II, which specify in some detail how the legislative and executive branches are to be assembled, Article III says virtually nothing about the institutional design of the Supreme Court.

Consistent with this Constitutional silence, the Court's look, shape, and behavior have adapted to changed circumstances. For example, the Court's membership has changed substantially. Initially, six Justices sat on the Court; in time, the Court grew to ten and shrank to seven. Only in 1869 did it settle at nine. Likewise, the Court's jurisdiction has changed, first expanding, then contracting, and …


"Does That Sound Familiar?": Creators' Liability For Unconscious Copyright Infringement, Christopher B. Jaeger Nov 2008

"Does That Sound Familiar?": Creators' Liability For Unconscious Copyright Infringement, Christopher B. Jaeger

Vanderbilt Law Review

In 1953, a twenty-seven year old man underwent brain surgery to treat the severe epilepsy that had plagued him during his youth. The surgeon, Dr. William Scoville, removed portions of the young man's brain that were involved in memory processing. Most notably, Dr. Scoville removed most of his patient's hippocampus. The surgery left the young man, now known to psychologists as H.M., with anterograde amnesia: he still had a short-term memory, but he was unable to convert any of his short-term memories into new long-term memories. Although H.M. could not form new long-term memories, psychologists found that he still could …


A Unified Theory Of 28 U.S.C. § 1331 Jurisdiction, Lumen N. Mulligan Nov 2008

A Unified Theory Of 28 U.S.C. § 1331 Jurisdiction, Lumen N. Mulligan

Vanderbilt Law Review

Section 1331, Title 28 of the United States Code is the general federal question jurisdictional statute, which grants federal district courts with original subject matter jurisdiction over "all civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States."' This statute grounds the majority of civil actions heard in federal court. Given the weighty doctrinal3 and pragmatic consequences that flow from determining whether a claim falls within the scope of § 1331, it is surprising to learn that we lack a coherent view of what statutory federal question jurisdiction entails. Professor Mishkin famously forwarded the classic theory that …


A Darwinist View Of The Living Constitution, Scott Dodson Oct 2008

A Darwinist View Of The Living Constitution, Scott Dodson

Vanderbilt Law Review

There is much debate, and has been for some time, over whether we have a "living" Constitution, one that adapts to changing circumstances and evolves over time. The metaphor arose and gained initial force during the Progressive Era and has been at the forefront of the debate on constitutional interpretation ever since. There is a more recent division, most prominently marked by Professor Owen Jones and Professors Brian Leiter and Michael Weisberg, over whether biology has a meaningful role to play in legal developments. Professor Jones has written many articles promoting the potential utility of behavioral and evolutionary science to …


The (Not So) Puzzling Behavior Of Angel Investors, Darian M. Ibrahim Oct 2008

The (Not So) Puzzling Behavior Of Angel Investors, Darian M. Ibrahim

Vanderbilt Law Review

Where do entrepreneurs turn for funding once their credit cards are maxed out, friends and family are no longer taking their calls, but it is still too early for venture capitalists to invest? They turn to "angel" investors. Angel investors are wealthy individuals who personally finance the same high-risk, high-growth start-ups as venture capitalists but at an earlier stage. Well-known angels include Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, EDS founder H. Ross Perot, and Dallas Mavericks' owner Mark Cuban. But the prototypical angel may still be rich old Uncle Joe, the wealthy, distant relative or family acquaintance. Angels come in many forms, …


Individualized Justice In Disputes Over Dead Bodies, Frances H. Foster Oct 2008

Individualized Justice In Disputes Over Dead Bodies, Frances H. Foster

Vanderbilt Law Review

In February 2007, the world had a ringside seat to a truly macabre fight. Under the glare of television cameras, Anna Nicole Smith's nearest but not dearest' battled in a Florida probate court over custody of her body. The parties agreed on only one point: "Anna Nicole Smith's appearance was a paramount issue to her." Yet, those same parties denied Anna Nicole after death the beauty she prized during life. Because of their protracted legal wrangling, Anna Nicole went to her grave a decomposed corpse in a closed casket. Anna Nicole Smith's tragic fate is by no means unique. For …


Managing Manure: Using Good Neighbor Agreements To Regulate Pollution From Agricultural Production, Tory H. Lewis Oct 2008

Managing Manure: Using Good Neighbor Agreements To Regulate Pollution From Agricultural Production, Tory H. Lewis

Vanderbilt Law Review

In an episode of the popular television series Seinfeld, George Costanza narrowly avoids stepping in a pile of horse manure and emphatically declares, "[M]anure's not that bad. I don't even mind the word 'manure.' You know, it's, it's 'nure,' which is good and a 'ma' in front of it. MA-NURE. When you consider the other choices, 'manure' is actually pretty refreshing."'

Not everyone shares George's enthusiasm for animal excrement. Agricultural waste has been a source of community distress for generations. In 1932, a California appellate court determined that a dairy, hog-raising, and cattle-raising operation constituted a nuisance under state law. …


The Effects Test: Extraterritoriality's Fifth Business, Austen Parrish Oct 2008

The Effects Test: Extraterritoriality's Fifth Business, Austen Parrish

Vanderbilt Law Review

The world has recently seen a tremendous expansion in countries using extraterritorial laws'-laws that regulate the activities of foreigners outside a country's borders. In the United States, domestic laws now commonly regulate extraterritorial conduct and transnational litigation has blossomed. No longer limited to the antitrust and commercial contexts, courts apply all sorts of public and private laws to activity occurring abroad. Academics have encouraged the trend, finding the notion that law should be tied to territory to be an archaic remnant of a preglobalized world. In an age of globalization, the argument goes, law should find national and political borders …


The Iphone And The Dmca: Locking The Hands Of Consumers, John Haubenreich Oct 2008

The Iphone And The Dmca: Locking The Hands Of Consumers, John Haubenreich

Vanderbilt Law Review

On August 24, 2007, less than two months after its initial release for sale, the Apple iPhone was unlocked, untethering the phones from the AT&T cellular network. Because AT&T has exclusive rights to provide coverage for the iPhone until the year 2010, hackers and computer enthusiasts worked feverishly to be the first to use the iPhone on a network other than AT&T. Although the practice of cell phone unlocking has been occurring for years, the tremendous public interest surrounding the launch of the iPhone focused attention on the issue like never before.

Wireless carriers can use software locks, hardware locks, …


An Originalism For Foreign Affairs, Ingrid Wuerth Oct 2008

An Originalism For Foreign Affairs, Ingrid Wuerth

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Legal scholarship on foreign affairs frequently focuses on the Constitution's text and original meaning, but generally does not fully engage debates about originalism as a method of modern constitutional interpretation. For its part, much of the scholarship defending originalism as a methodology has said little explicitly about foreign affairs. This short symposium contribution describes three contemporary normative arguments in favor of originalism - those advanced by Randy Barnett, Keith Whittington, and John McGinnis and Michael Rappaport - and then considers their application to foreign affairs. It concludes that these arguments are at best underdeveloped and at worst weak when it …


Why The Filed Rate Doctrine Should Not Imply Blanket Judicial Deference To Regulatory Agencies, Jim Rossi Oct 2008

Why The Filed Rate Doctrine Should Not Imply Blanket Judicial Deference To Regulatory Agencies, Jim Rossi

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The filed rate doctrine is a venerable doctrine of public utility regulation. Federal courts applying the doctrine frequently defer to the regulatory agency and refuse to consider the merits of alleged violations of antitrust, tort or contract claims where resolution would require a departure from a filed rate. For over a century, the filed rate doctrine has served many important purposes. However, with increased attention to market-based approaches to electric power, natural gas and telecommunications regulation, there is reason to question both the doctrine's continued applicability and usefulness. This short essay argues that, as regulators implement competitive markets in utility …


The Court, The Constitution, And The History Of Ideas, Scott D. Gerber May 2008

The Court, The Constitution, And The History Of Ideas, Scott D. Gerber

Vanderbilt Law Review

Several of the nation's most influential constitutional law scholars have been arguing for the better part of a decade that judicial review should be sharply limited, or eliminated altogether. The list includes such prominent thinkers as Professor Mark V. Tushnet of Harvard Law School, Professor Cass R. Sunstein of the University of Chicago Law School, and Dean Larry D. Kramer of Stanford Law School. In place of the doctrine made famous by Chief Justice John Marshall in Marbury v. Madison, these leading voices of the legal academy call for "popular constitutionalism": a constitutional law that is defined outside of the …


Giving The Terminally Ill Their Due (Process): A Case For Expanded Access To Experimental Drugs Through The Political Process, Linda K. Leibfarth May 2008

Giving The Terminally Ill Their Due (Process): A Case For Expanded Access To Experimental Drugs Through The Political Process, Linda K. Leibfarth

Vanderbilt Law Review

The stated purpose of the Food and Drug Administration ("FDA" or "Agency") is "to promote and protect the public health." In furtherance of this end, the FDA has created a regulatory framework to ensure that drugs marketed to the general public are both safe and effective. However, critics insist that the FDA's paternalistic drug approval process does little to achieve its goal. At the onset of the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s, criticism of the FDA intensified, as the FDA's lengthy and expensive drug approval process hindered terminally ill AIDS patients' access to potentially lifesaving treatment. Advocates for these patients …


Arbitration And Article Iii, Peter B. Rutledge May 2008

Arbitration And Article Iii, Peter B. Rutledge

Vanderbilt Law Review

Arbitration implicates serious constitutional concerns that have not received adequate attention in case law or commentary. Recent litigation in the D.C. Circuit over the constitutionality of the North American Free Trade Agreement ("NAFTA") represents the most recent, high-profile example. A centerpiece of NAFTA and its implementing legislation is an arbitration mechanism that divests Article III courts of virtually all jurisdiction over countervailing duty and anti-dumping claims and invests that authority in panels of Associate Professor of Law, Columbus School of Law, Catholic University of America. Arbitration implicates serious constitutional concerns that have not received adequate attention in case law or …


What's In A Song? Copyright's Unfair Treatment Of Record Producers And Side Musicians, Gabriel J. Fleet May 2008

What's In A Song? Copyright's Unfair Treatment Of Record Producers And Side Musicians, Gabriel J. Fleet

Vanderbilt Law Review

As they say in the music business, "It all begins with a song."' This is true from a commercial perspective, as it would be difficult to record albums, film videos, license music for video games, sell sheet music, or promote concerts without the basic building block of the musical composition. It is also true on the metaphysical level, because the organization of sounds into compositional form creates the necessary order that distinguishes music from noise.

Yet despite the centrality of the song, for legal purposes it is difficult to answer the question, "What is a song?" Or, to use a …


Democracy And Opportunity: A New Paradigm In Tax Equity, James R. Repetti May 2008

Democracy And Opportunity: A New Paradigm In Tax Equity, James R. Repetti

Vanderbilt Law Review

Academics and policymakers pay little attention to the interaction of a tax system with the objectives of a just government. For example, in the debate about whether the United States should retain an income tax or adopt a consumption tax, most discussions focus on the relative efficiency and equity of the taxes. Proponents of a consumption tax worry that an income tax is inefficient because it burdens investment income. Advocates of an income tax fear that a consumption tax is not equitable because low-income taxpayers consume a greater percentage of their income than wealthy taxpayers. These concerns date at least …


The Search For Due Process In Civil Commitment Hearings: How Procedural Realities Have Altered Substantive Standards, Christyne E. Ferris Apr 2008

The Search For Due Process In Civil Commitment Hearings: How Procedural Realities Have Altered Substantive Standards, Christyne E. Ferris

Vanderbilt Law Review

The civil commitment of mentally ill individuals presents the legal system with an intractable question: When should the law deprive someone of the fundamental right to liberty based on a prediction of future dangerousness? Advocates of both increased and decreased levels of civil commitment offer compelling case studies to help resolve the question. The former point to high profile events like the Virginia Tech shooting, in which mandatory incapacitation of the perpetrator at the first sign of mental illness could have prevented a senseless tragedy. The latter highlight the lives of individuals like Kenneth Donaldson, whose father had him committed …


Reformulating Outrage: A Critical Analysis Of The Problematic Tort Of Iied, Russell Fraker Apr 2008

Reformulating Outrage: A Critical Analysis Of The Problematic Tort Of Iied, Russell Fraker

Vanderbilt Law Review

The intentional infliction of emotional distress ("IIED"), also known as the tort of outrage, is a relatively new cause of action, first appearing in the legal academic literature during the 1930s. Since that time, IIED has gained widespread acceptance and is now recognized in all U.S. jurisdictions, with most courts invoking the definition set forth in the Restatement (Second) of Torts. Despite this general acceptance of the tort, courts routinely assert that IIED is a disfavored cause of action. Courts appear wary of holding defendants liable for plaintiffs' emotional injuries and therefore seek to discourage such claims.

In their efforts …


Toward A Rfra That Works, Nicholas Nugent Apr 2008

Toward A Rfra That Works, Nicholas Nugent

Vanderbilt Law Review

The history of the Supreme Court's First Amendment jurisprudence regarding the proper standard of protection for the free exercise of religion is complicated. In determining how the First Amendment speaks to situations in which generally applicable health, welfare, and safety laws incidentally or accidentally burden certain individuals' religious practices, the Court has vacillated between different standards and different extremes, overruling itself several times. Early on, the Court held that, provided the government did not interfere deliberately with religion for religious reasons, an inadvertent interference with religious practice raised no Free xercise Clause problem,' "no matter how trivial the state's nonreligious …


The Constitutional Dimension Of Immigration Federalism, Clare Huntington Apr 2008

The Constitutional Dimension Of Immigration Federalism, Clare Huntington

Vanderbilt Law Review

In Farmers Branch, Texas, the city council enacted a measure to fine landlords who rent their premises to unauthorized migrants,' and in Arizona, the state legislature passed a law imposing stiff penalties on employers who intentionally or knowingly hire unauthorized migrants. In San Francisco, the board of supervisors passed a measure that bars law enforcement officers from inquiring into the immigration status of an individual in the course of a criminal investigation. In Alabama and Florida, state officials have entered into agreements with the federal government permitting state law enforcement officers to arrest and detain non-citizens on immigration charges. Other …


Working At The Boundaries Of Markets: Prison Labor And The Economic Dimension Of Employment Relationships, Noah D. Zatz Apr 2008

Working At The Boundaries Of Markets: Prison Labor And The Economic Dimension Of Employment Relationships, Noah D. Zatz

Vanderbilt Law Review

The "who" question is prominent in recent legal scholarship about work: Who is recognized as a worker, and who is left out? Roughly speaking, two distinct conversations pursue this question. One analyzes the centrality of market work and questions whether other activities-nonmarket work-should be incorporated into legal regimes of worker support and protection. This inquiry emerges from feminist scholarship, focuses on families and caregiving, and primarily considers reforms in who counts as a worker for the purposes of family, welfare, social insurance, and tax law. The boundaries of employment largely are taken for granted, and the problem is whether to …


Hands-Off Options, Jesse M. Fried Mar 2008

Hands-Off Options, Jesse M. Fried

Vanderbilt Law Review

Executive compensation long has attracted considerable interest from investors, academics, regulators, and the media. It received increased attention in the wake of the Enron and other corporate governance scandals that erupted at the beginning of the century. Hundreds of firms were found to have engaged in various forms of earnings manipulation that, ultimately, destroyed tens of billions of dollars of social value. Much of this earnings manipulation was linked to executives' pay arrangements, such as their ability to time the unwinding of their equity incentives. The scandals eventually led to some of the most important corporate governance reforms in decades, …


The Evolving Role Of Institutional Investors In Corporate Governance And Corporate Litigation, Randall S. Thomas Mar 2008

The Evolving Role Of Institutional Investors In Corporate Governance And Corporate Litigation, Randall S. Thomas

Vanderbilt Law Review

This Symposium volume of the Vanderbilt Law Review, sponsored by the Institute for Law and Economic Policy ("ILEP"), focuses on the critical role of institutional investors in the modern American corporation. The agency cost model of the corporation tells us that in a dispersed ownership system, such as the U.S. system, large, motivated shareholders can play an important role in reducing the agency costs of equity by closely monitoring the actions of corporate management.1 Activist investors can use their voting powers, their power to file suit, and their power to sell their interests in the firm, to align the interests …


The Lead Plaintiff Provisions Of The Pslra After A Decade, Or "Look What's Happened To My Baby", Elliott J. Weiss Mar 2008

The Lead Plaintiff Provisions Of The Pslra After A Decade, Or "Look What's Happened To My Baby", Elliott J. Weiss

Vanderbilt Law Review

In 1995, my colleague John Beckerman and I had an experience shared by very few legal academics. We mailed the galley proofs of an article that we had written to the staff of a Senate Committee and then saw the Committee, the Senate, and the full Congress enact into law a bill that included all of the recommendations in our article. The article was Let the Money Do the Monitoring: How Institutional Investors Can Reduce Agency Costs in Securities Class Actions; the law was the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 ("PSLRA"). The relevant provisions of the PSLRA, now …


Small Claim Mass Fraud Actions: A Proposal For Aggregate Litigation Under Rico, Leah Bressack Mar 2008

Small Claim Mass Fraud Actions: A Proposal For Aggregate Litigation Under Rico, Leah Bressack

Vanderbilt Law Review

Assume that, tomorrow, a large company advertises a "miracle pill" that it claims will cure all forms of cancer. The company uses a sophisticated national marketing campaign to convey a strong health assurance message, which it tailors to specific audiences: women with breast cancer, men with prostate cancer, older adults with intestinal cancer, and children with leukemia. In response to the national campaign, consumers across the country purchase the pill, which costs $10. Only then do consumers discover that the pill is worthless and that the company intentionally defrauded them.

The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations ("RICO") statute provides a …


On Beyond Calpers: Survey Evidence On The Developing Role Of Public Pension Funds In Corporate Governance, Stephen J. Choi, Jill E. Fisch Mar 2008

On Beyond Calpers: Survey Evidence On The Developing Role Of Public Pension Funds In Corporate Governance, Stephen J. Choi, Jill E. Fisch

Vanderbilt Law Review

In recent years, the California Public Employees Pension System ("CalPERS") has received extensive attention for its active participation in corporate governance. CalPERS's activities established it as a leader among activist institutions. CalPERS's Murray and Kathleen Bring Professor of Law, New York University School of Law. T.J. Maloney Professor of Business Law, Fordham Law School. Thanks to Jeff Gordon, Keith Johnson, Un Kyung Park, Wayne Schneider, Damon Silvers, Randall Thomas, and John Wilcox for their valuable help in project design and for their useful comments.

Strategy was based on identifying underperforming companies with poor governance practices and then working to change …