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Full-Text Articles in Law

Symposium: The Rise Of The International Trust, Jeffrey Schoenblum Jan 1999

Symposium: The Rise Of The International Trust, Jeffrey Schoenblum

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The international trust, the subject of the Symposium, is experiencing an extraordinary reception worldwide. It is being utilized by individuals from countries with legal cultures that traditionally have not known this form of ownership. In fact, there is no formal legal construct known as the "international trust." Rather, the term as used in the Symposium and as used herein, is intended as an organizing principle to explore the various implications of trusts with international or transborder linkages. The focus is on private trusts, those utilized to manage the wealth of individuals and their families, although much of the discussion pertains ...


Second Generation Law And Economics Of Conflict Of Laws: Baxter's Comparative Impairment And Beyond, Erin O'Connor Jan 1999

Second Generation Law And Economics Of Conflict Of Laws: Baxter's Comparative Impairment And Beyond, Erin O'Connor

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

In his 1963 article in the Stanford Law Review, "Choice of Law and the Federal System," Professor William F. Baxter criticized the choice-of-law approach of the First Restatement of the Conflict of Laws. According to the Restatement, courts should apply the law of the state where the last act or event deemed necessary to create a cause of action occurred. In contrast, Baxter advocated a comparative-impairment approach, whereby judges were obligated to apply the law of the state whose public policy would suffer the greatest impairment if its law was not applied. The authors contend that although Baxter's approach ...


Sustainable Development: A Five-Dimensional Algorithm For Environmental Law, J.B. Ruhl Jan 1999

Sustainable Development: A Five-Dimensional Algorithm For Environmental Law, J.B. Ruhl

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This article describes sustainable development as involving five dimensions: environment, economy, equity, time, and space (or scale). I suggest that the complexity inherent in balancing these five dimensions demand algorithmic approaches like those being explored in complex adaptive systems theory.


Judicial Federalism In The Trenches: The Rooker-Feldman Doctrine In Action, Suzanna Sherry Jan 1999

Judicial Federalism In The Trenches: The Rooker-Feldman Doctrine In Action, Suzanna Sherry

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

One little-noticed side effect of the litigation explosion in this country is the exponential growth of federal doctrines designed to simplify complex litigation. Many of these doctrines have been created and applied largely by the lower federal courts-those on the front lines of this kind of litigation-with little guidance from the Supreme Court. Indeed, when the Supreme Court does get around to noticing a problem, it often limits the lower courts' practical solutions without offering any alternatives. One little-noticed side effect of the litigation explosion in this country is the exponential growth of federal doctrines designed to simplify complex litigation ...


Priceless Process: Nonnegotiable Features Of Criminal Litigation, Nancy J. King Jan 1999

Priceless Process: Nonnegotiable Features Of Criminal Litigation, Nancy J. King

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

In this Article, Professor Nancy King develops an approach for determining when judges should block the efforts of criminal litigants to bypass constitutional and statutory requirements other than those already traded freely in traditional plea bargains. Devices for classifying nonnegotiable requirements, including the concept of "jurisdictional error," have lost their utility. Clearer rules about which deals are enforceable and which are not would increase certainty in bargaining and reduce disparate treatment of similarly situated defendants. King argues that the interests of third parties or the public may justify restrictions on bargains in criminal procedure, and she traces the stubborn persistence ...


Using Warnings To Extend The Boundaries Of Consumer Sovereignty, W. Kip Viscusi Jan 1999

Using Warnings To Extend The Boundaries Of Consumer Sovereignty, W. Kip Viscusi

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

We make decisions every day for which we may not have full information. Not all such decisions lead to negative consequences, however. For example, scientists still know very little about why aspirin has its beneficial effects. However, the lack of our knowledge does not necessarily imply that our decisions are in error or that our freedom to make these decisions should be constrained. Almost invariably, we must make decisions with uncertain implications when we fail to have complete information, whether it be with respect to today's weather forecast or the chemical composition of the foods we eat, but this ...


Why Liberals Should Chuck The Exclusionary Rule, Christopher Slobogin Jan 1999

Why Liberals Should Chuck The Exclusionary Rule, Christopher Slobogin

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This article makes the case against the exclusionary rule from a "liberal" perspective. Moving beyond the inconclusive empirical data on the efficacy of the rule, it uses behavioral and motivational theory to demonstrate why the rule is structurally unable to deter individual police officers from performing most unconstitutional searches and seizures. It also argues, contrary to liberal dogma, that the rule is poor at promoting Fourth Amendment values at the systemic, departmental level. Finally, the article contends that the rule stultifies liberal interpretation of the Fourth Amendment, in large part because of judicial heuristics that grow out of constant exposure ...


Team Production In Business Organizations: An Introduction, Margaret M. Blair, Lynn A. Stout Jan 1999

Team Production In Business Organizations: An Introduction, Margaret M. Blair, Lynn A. Stout

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

For the past two decades, legal and economic scholarship has tended to assume that the central economic problem addressed by corporation law is getting managers and directors to act as faithful agents for shareholders. There are other important economic problems faced by business firms, however. This article introduces a Symposium that explores one of those alternate economic problems: the problem of "team production". Team production problems can arise whenever three conditions are met: (1) economic production requires the combined inputs of two or more individuals; (2) at least some of these inputs are "team-specific," meaning they have a significantly higher ...


The Effect Of Shareholder Proposals On Executive Compensation, Randall Thomas, Kenneth J. Martin Jan 1999

The Effect Of Shareholder Proposals On Executive Compensation, Randall Thomas, Kenneth J. Martin

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

During the last decade, the stratospheric increases in Chief Executive Officer (CEO) pay levels have made executive compensation a popular target for shareholder activism, particularly when high pay is accompanied by poor corporate performance. Outraged investors have made their views know to corporate boards of directors using shareholder proposals, binding bylaw amendments, "Just Vote No" campaigns, and other activist efforts. As institutional and other shareholders have attempted to monitor board decisions, the question remains: Have their efforts been successful in influencing executive compensation?


Electronic Rights Management And Digital Identifier Systems, Daniel J. Gervais Jan 1999

Electronic Rights Management And Digital Identifier Systems, Daniel J. Gervais

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The new world of digital information requires a new way of providing access to that information — while keeping the copyright backbone. It might be technically easier to create a digital infrastructure without copyright: Just throw works up on the Internet, and let anyone get to them for any purposes. But such systems have been suggested and roundly rejected by those who create and own works of value. So we need to build an electronic infrastructure that works with copyright and takes advantage of the digital environment. This paper looks at the attempts to build part of that infrastructure — the electronic ...


The Role Of Legal Doctrine In The Decline Of The Islamic Waqf: A Comparison With The Trust, Jeffrey Schoenblum Jan 1999

The Role Of Legal Doctrine In The Decline Of The Islamic Waqf: A Comparison With The Trust, Jeffrey Schoenblum

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The Waqf and the trust have an ancient, intertwined history. However, whereas the Waqf has largely remained a static institution, the trust has proven remarkably flexible and responsive to changing conditions affecting intergenerational management of family wealth and its preservation. While there is a temptation to find clones in legal constructs of different cultures, care must be exercised to avoid simplistic or superficial generalizations. This is true of the Waqf and the trust. It would be intriguing to find comparable wealth administration and preservation constructs in these two great systems of law. This is simply not the case with the ...


Alj Final Orders On Appeal: Balancing Independence With Accountability, Jim Rossi Jan 1999

Alj Final Orders On Appeal: Balancing Independence With Accountability, Jim Rossi

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This essay addresses how ALJ final order authority in many state systems of administrative governance (among them Florida, Louisiana, Missouri, and South Carolina) poses a tension between independence and accountability. It is argued that political accountability is sacrificed where reviewing courts defer to ALJ final orders on issues of law and policy. Standards of review provide state courts with a way of restoring the balance between independence and accountability, but reviewing courts should heighten the deference they give to the agency's legal and policy positions -- giving little or no deference to the ALJ on these issues -- even where the ...


The Co-Evolution Of Sustainable Development And Environmental Justice: Cooperation, Then Competition, Then Conflict, J.B. Ruhl Jan 1999

The Co-Evolution Of Sustainable Development And Environmental Justice: Cooperation, Then Competition, Then Conflict, J.B. Ruhl

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This article explores sustainable development and environmental justice as potentially conflicting policy goals. Sustainable development includes equity as one of its five dimensions (in addition to environment, economy, time, and space), whereas environmental justice focuses principally on equity. Over time there is likely to be an increasing number of contexts in which sustainability-based policy solutions do not satisfy environmental justice advocates.


The American Criminal Jury, Nancy J. King Jan 1999

The American Criminal Jury, Nancy J. King

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

As juries become both less common and more expensive, some have questioned the wisdom of preserving the criminal jury in its present form. The benefits of the jury are difficult to quantify, but jury verdicts continue to earn widespread acceptance by the public and trial by jury remains a cherished right of most Americans. In any event, many basic features of the criminal jury in the United States cannot be modified without either constitutional amendment or radical reinterpretations of the Bill of Rights. Judges and legislators continue to tinker within constitutional confines, some hoping to improve the jury trial by ...


The Governmental Composition Of The Insurance Costs Of Smoking, W. Kip Viscusi Jan 1999

The Governmental Composition Of The Insurance Costs Of Smoking, W. Kip Viscusi

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The estimated health risks from smoking have significant external financial consequences for society. Studies at the national level indicate that cigarettes are selffinancing since external costs such as those due to illnesses are offset by cost savings associated with premature death, chiefly pension costs. This paper extends this analysis to all 50 states and considers the costs considered in the state attorneys general suits against the cigarette industry. Cigarettes are always self-financing from the standpoint of costs to each state. The extent of the cost savings is less than at the federal level. However, smokers' higher medical costs are outweighed ...


Terms Of Endearment And Articles Of Impeachment, Christopher Slobogin, Charles W. Collier Jan 1999

Terms Of Endearment And Articles Of Impeachment, Christopher Slobogin, Charles W. Collier

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

It is a long-established principle that presidential impeachment is an appropriate remedy only for "high Crimes and Misdemeanors" of a public nature (with the possible exception of private crimes so heinous that the President "cannot be permitted to remain at large"). The crux of this Essay's argument is that the President's affair with Monica Lewinsky was a private matter that was not rendered "public" simply because Mr. Clinton lied about it. With its vote against removing the President, the Senate seemed to agree.


Plus Ca Change . . . Or If Hard Cases Make Bad Law, What Do Bad Cases Make?, Suzanna Sherry Jan 1999

Plus Ca Change . . . Or If Hard Cases Make Bad Law, What Do Bad Cases Make?, Suzanna Sherry

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This article is part of a symposium on constitutional law, the theme of which is to explore real constitutional issues deriving from specific cases within a fictional exercise. These cases, all taken from the historical record, are described as they were litigated but with imaginary elements (such as changes in fact or outcome) designed to explore the constitutional ramifications of an altered history. Thus, each altered history represents "a road not taken" in legal jurisprudence, and in the manner of chaos theory, suggests how constitutional law today (if not reality itself) might appear once specific details of the historical record ...


Treating Kids Right, Christopher Slobogin Jan 1999

Treating Kids Right, Christopher Slobogin

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The concept of amenability to treatment is, in theory, at the core of juvenile delinquency jurisprudence. From its inception as an entity separate from the adult criminal court, the juvenile court was meant to focus on the rehabilitative potential of children. On this premise, the central inquiry in a juvenile delinquency proceeding should be whether the child found delinquent is amenable to treatment. Disposition should depend upon the rehabilitative potential and needs of the juvenile, and only if no treatment is available in the juvenile system should transfer to adult court be considered. In practice, amenability to treatment may never ...


A Prevention Model Of Juvenile Justice: The Promise Of Kansas V. Hendricks For Children, Christopher Slobogin, Mark R. Fondacaro, Jennifer L. Woolard Jan 1999

A Prevention Model Of Juvenile Justice: The Promise Of Kansas V. Hendricks For Children, Christopher Slobogin, Mark R. Fondacaro, Jennifer L. Woolard

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The traditional juvenile court, focused on rehabilitation and "childsaving," was premised primarily on a parens patriae notion of State power. " Because of juveniles' immaturity and greater treatability, this theory posited, the State could forego the substantive and procedural requirements associated with the adult system of criminal punishment. As an historical and conceptual matter, however, the parens patriae power justifies intervention only for the good of the subject, not for society as a whole. " From the outset, then, the image of the juvenile delinquency system as a manifestation of the State acting as "parent" was an implausible one. This Article has ...


An Empirical Evaluation Of Specialized Law Reviews, Chris Guthrie, Tracey E. George Jan 1999

An Empirical Evaluation Of Specialized Law Reviews, Chris Guthrie, Tracey E. George

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The sudden, rapid, and widespread increase in the number of specialized law reviews has attracted relatively little scholarly attention even though it is the most significant development in legal academic publishing in the second half of the twentieth century. As a consequence, there is a dearth of information about the proliferation, significance, and status of specialized reviews. In this Article, we attempt to fill this information gap by documenting the rise of the specialized review and by providing an empirical ranking of the top 100 specialized reviews.


The Dynamics And Determinants Of The Decision To Grant En Banc Review, Tracey E. George Jan 1999

The Dynamics And Determinants Of The Decision To Grant En Banc Review, Tracey E. George

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The ability of U.S. Courts of Appeals to control the development of law within their respective circuits has been strained by the practice of divisional sittings, the growing caseload at the circuit court level, the increasing number of judges sitting within each circuit, and the decreasing probability of Supreme Court intervention. The primary method of maintaining coherence and consistency in doctrinal development within a federal circuit is en banc review. Yet, many critics contend that en bane rehearing is a time-consuming, inefficient procedure that fails to serve its intended purpose and too often is abused for political ends. This ...


A Team Production Theory Of Corporate Law, Margaret M. Blair, Lynn A. Stout Jan 1999

A Team Production Theory Of Corporate Law, Margaret M. Blair, Lynn A. Stout

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Contemporary corporate scholarship generally assumes that the central economic problem addressed by corporation law is getting managers and directors to act as loyal agents for shareholders. We take issue with this approach and argue that the unique legal rules governing publicly-held corporations are instead designed primarily to address a different problem - the "team production" problem - that arises when a number of individuals must invest firm-specific resources to produce a nonseparable output. In such situations team members may find it difficult or impossible to draft explicit contracts distributing the output of their joint efforts, and, as an alternative, might prefer to ...


Smoking Status And Public Responses To Ambiguous Scientific Risk Evidence, W. Kip Viscusi, Wesley A. Magat, Joel Hubert Jan 1999

Smoking Status And Public Responses To Ambiguous Scientific Risk Evidence, W. Kip Viscusi, Wesley A. Magat, Joel Hubert

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Situations in which individuals receive information seldom involve scientific consensus over the level of the risk. When scientific experts disagree, people may process the information in an unpredictable manner. The original data presented here for environmental risk judgments indicate a tendency to place disproportionate weight on the high risk assessment, irrespective of its source, particularly when the experts disagree. Cigarette smokers differ in their risk information processing from nonsmokers in that they place less weight on the high risk judgment when there is a divergence in expert opinion. Consequently, they are more likely to simply average competing risk assessments.


Adoption In The Progressive Era: Preserving, Creating, And Re-Creating Families, Chris Guthrie, Joanna L. Grossman Jan 1999

Adoption In The Progressive Era: Preserving, Creating, And Re-Creating Families, Chris Guthrie, Joanna L. Grossman

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The history of adoption law and practice has received scant attention from legal scholars and historians. Most of what little scholarship there is focuses on the history of adoption to the mid-nineteenth century, when the first adoption statutes emerged in the United States. Although the enactment of these statutes has been hailed as "an historic moment in the history of Anglo-American family and society" and "the most far-reaching innovation of nineteenth-century custody law," few scholars have made an effort to document the actual operation of adoption law following the enactment of these landmark statutes. This article does just that. Drawing ...


In Defense Of Author Prominence: A Reply To Crespi And Korobkin, Tracey E. George, Chris Guthrie Jan 1999

In Defense Of Author Prominence: A Reply To Crespi And Korobkin, Tracey E. George, Chris Guthrie

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

We thank Greg Crespil and Russell Korobkin for their provocative responses to our author-prominence ranking of specialized law reviews. Crespi provides a thoughtful critique of the methodology we employ and the results we obtained. Korobkin shares some of Crespi's concerns, but he focuses his critique on the potential implications of our rankings (and rankings more generally). In this reply, we briefly address the more significant criticisms each of them raises.


An Empirical Evaluation Of Specialized Law Reviews, Tracey E. George, Chris Guthrie Jan 1999

An Empirical Evaluation Of Specialized Law Reviews, Tracey E. George, Chris Guthrie

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The sudden, rapid, and widespread increase in the number of specialized law reviews has attracted relatively little scholarly attention even though it is the most significant development in legal academic publishing in the second half of the twentieth century. As a consequence, there is a dearth of information about the proliferation, significance, and status of specialized reviews. In this Article, we attempt to fill this information gap by documenting the rise of the specialized review and by providing an empirical ranking of the top 100 specialized reviews.


The Metrics Of Constitutional Amendments: And Why Proposed Environmental Quality Amendments Don't Measure Up, J.B. Ruhl Jan 1999

The Metrics Of Constitutional Amendments: And Why Proposed Environmental Quality Amendments Don't Measure Up, J.B. Ruhl

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This article builds a model of federal constitutional amendments using proposed environmental quality rights amendments as a case study. I argue that environmental quality rights amendments are unworkable and violate the underpinnings of federal constitutional design.


Institutional Design And The Lingering Legacy Of Antifederalist Separation Of Powers Ideals In The States, Jim Rossi Jan 1999

Institutional Design And The Lingering Legacy Of Antifederalist Separation Of Powers Ideals In The States, Jim Rossi

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This Article applies comparative institutional analysis to separation of powers under state constitutions, with a particular focus on the nondelegation doctrine and states' acceptance of Chadha-like restrictions on legislative oversight. The Article begins by contrasting state and federal doctrine and enforcement levels in each of these separation of powers contexts. Most state courts, unlike their federal counterparts, adhere to a strong nondelegation doctrine. In addition, many states accept (de facto if not de jure) even more explicit and sweeping legislative vetoes than the federal system. The Article highlights the contrast of federal and state approaches by identifying their similarity with ...


"Statutory Nondelegation": Learning From Florida's Recent Experience In Administrative Procedure Reform, Jim Rossi Jan 1999

"Statutory Nondelegation": Learning From Florida's Recent Experience In Administrative Procedure Reform, Jim Rossi

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

In this Article, I assess one of the more notable reforms Florida made to its APA in 1996 with the intention of enhancing the accountability of agency rulemaking, and I discuss the lessons other state reformers can learn from Florida's experience. Part Il of this Article discusses rulemaking authority under the Federal AP A and the more restrictive approach many states take to ensure that agencies are accountable to the legislature in proposing rules. Some states, including Pennsylvania, have endorsed what I will term 11 statutory nondelegation 11: This is a judicially-adopted or APA-imposed clear statement requirement, suggesting that ...


Sex, Culture, And The Biology Of Rape: Toward Explanation And Prevention, Owen D. Jones Jan 1999

Sex, Culture, And The Biology Of Rape: Toward Explanation And Prevention, Owen D. Jones

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

For all that has been written about rape, its multiple causes remain insufficiently understood for law to deter it effectively. This follows, in part, from inadequately interdisciplinary study of rape causation. This Article argues that integrating life science and social science perspectives on sexual aggression can improve law's model of rape behavior, and further our efforts to reduce its incidence.

The Article first explains biobehavioral theories of sexual aggression, and offers a guide to common but avoidable errors in assessing them. It then compares a number of those theories' predictions with existing data and demonstrates how knowledge of the ...