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Vanderbilt University Law School

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

So Far Yet So Close: Comparing Governing Laws In Arbitration Agreements Under English And Chinese Laws, King Fung Tsang Associate Professor, Weijie Lin L.L.B. May 2023

So Far Yet So Close: Comparing Governing Laws In Arbitration Agreements Under English And Chinese Laws, King Fung Tsang Associate Professor, Weijie Lin L.L.B.

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The governing law of arbitration agreements determines the validity of an arbitration agreement and equally the entire arbitration. However, there is huge disagreement around the world as to the appropriate choice-of-law rules for deciding this governing law, particularly between rules favoring the governing law of the underlying contract (represented by the English approach) and the curial law (represented by the Chinese approach). By comparing the choice-of-law rules of these two jurisdictions, the authors argue that this disagreement is futile and unnecessary because both jurisdictions’ choice-of-law rules are pro-validity in substance and likely lead to the arbitration agreement being upheld. There …


Globalize Me: Regulating Distributed Ledger Technology, Roee Sarel, Hadar Y. Jabotinsky, Israel Klein May 2023

Globalize Me: Regulating Distributed Ledger Technology, Roee Sarel, Hadar Y. Jabotinsky, Israel Klein

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)—the technology underlying cryptocurrencies—has been identified by many as a game-changer for data storage. Although DLT can solve acute problems of trust and coor- dination whenever entities (e.g., firms, traders, or even countries) rely on a shared database, it has mostly failed to reach mass adoption out- side the context of cryptocurrencies.

A prime reason for this failure is the extreme state of regulation, which was largely absent for many years but is now pouring down via uncoordinated regulatory initiatives by different countries. Both of these extremes—under-regulation and over-regulation—are consistent with traditional concepts from law and economics. …


Two Countries In Crisis: Man Camps And The Nightmare Of Non-Indigenous Criminal Jurisdiction In The United States And Canada, Justin E. Brooks May 2023

Two Countries In Crisis: Man Camps And The Nightmare Of Non-Indigenous Criminal Jurisdiction In The United States And Canada, Justin E. Brooks

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Thousands of Indigenous women and girls have gone missing or have been found murdered across the United States and Canada; these disappearances and killings are so frequent and widespread that they have become known as the Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women Crisis (MMIW Crisis). Indigenous communities in both countries often lack the jurisdiction to prosecute violent crimes committed by non-Indigenous offenders against Indigenous victims on Indigenous land. Extractive industries—businesses that establish natural resource extraction projects—aggravate the problem by establishing temporary housing for large numbers of non-Indigenous, primarily male workers on or around Indigenous land (“man camps”). Violent crimes against Indigenous …


A Private And Efficient Approach To Us-China Trade: Bringing A Non-Violation Case In The Wto, Daniel C.K. Chow, Ian M. Sheldon May 2023

A Private And Efficient Approach To Us-China Trade: Bringing A Non-Violation Case In The Wto, Daniel C.K. Chow, Ian M. Sheldon

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

When Joe Biden defeated Donald Trump to become president of the United States in 2020, many observers hoped that Biden would reset the troubled US-China trade relationship. The Trump administration had abandoned the rules-based approach to international trade of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and adopted a power-based approach instead. Using a power-based approach, the United States imposed or threatened sanctions if China did not dismantle its state-led economy and terminate the use of industrial subsidies to support its domestic industries. The United States also crippled the dispute settlement system of the WTO so that nations could not challenge US …


The Emerging Jurisprudence Of The African Human Rights Court And The Protection Of Human Rights In Africa, John M. Mbaku, Professor Of Economics May 2023

The Emerging Jurisprudence Of The African Human Rights Court And The Protection Of Human Rights In Africa, John M. Mbaku, Professor Of Economics

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

During most of the post-independence period, many African countries have either been unwilling or unable to protect human rights or relegated this important function to a small group of poorly funded but brave and courageous non-state actors. Most importantly, some African governments have either actively engaged in human rights violations or failed to bring to justice those who have committed atrocities against their fellow citizens. In the 1970s and 1980s, many African heads of state were more concerned with national sovereignty in an effort to hide the violation of human rights committed within their jurisdictions than participating in the building, …


Aadhaar: India’S National Identification System And Consent-Based Privacy Rights, Anvitha S. Yalavarthy Mar 2023

Aadhaar: India’S National Identification System And Consent-Based Privacy Rights, Anvitha S. Yalavarthy

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

India’s national identification program, Aadhaar, created the largest national biometric database in the world. While the program is touted as voluntary, the increasing dependence on it, and the laws surrounding it, make it de facto mandatory. This Note examines the social and legal landscapes surrounding the Aadhaar program along with the principles of data privacy and biometric data collection in the European Union and the United States to show how those principles can and should apply to the Aadhaar system.

This Note suggests that the way to strengthen the Aadhaar system’s privacy regime is by balancing the principles of necessity …


Globalize Me: Regulating Distributed Ledger Technology, Roee Sarel, Hadar Y. Jabotinsky, Israel Klein Mar 2023

Globalize Me: Regulating Distributed Ledger Technology, Roee Sarel, Hadar Y. Jabotinsky, Israel Klein

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)—the technology underlying cryptocurrencies—has been identified by many as a game-changer for data storage. Although DLT can solve acute problems of trust and coor- dination whenever entities (e.g., firms, traders, or even countries) rely on a shared database, it has mostly failed to reach mass adoption outside the context of cryptocurrencies.

A prime reason for this failure is the extreme state of regulation, which was largely absent for many years but is now pouring down via uncoordinated regulatory initiatives by different countries. Both of these extremes-—under-regulation and over-regulation—-are consistent with traditional concepts from law and economics. Specifically, …


To Spac Or Not To Spac: Liberalizing The Regulation Of Capital Markets, Allison N. Swecker Mar 2023

To Spac Or Not To Spac: Liberalizing The Regulation Of Capital Markets, Allison N. Swecker

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The merger and acquisition world has experienced an uptick in deal flow since 2016, reaching unprecedented levels in 2020 due to enhanced private equity funding and market volatility. While the market volatility spurred by COVID-19 halted traditional initial public offerings (IPOs), the special purpose acquisition company (SPAC) market exploded. The flurry of SPAC activity in the United States triggered the development of SPAC markets worldwide. Unfortunately, SPACs’ great rise to fame in the past few years has come at a cost-—fraud. As such, the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is left grappling with how to best regulate the market …


His Ship Has Sailed--Expelling Columbus From Cultural Heritage Law, Emily Behzadi Mar 2023

His Ship Has Sailed--Expelling Columbus From Cultural Heritage Law, Emily Behzadi

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Latin America is a region rich with cultural heritage that existed for centuries before its antiquities were looted, trafficked, and sold on the international market. The language used to classify these objects of cultural heritage has been a tool of oppression and erasure. In reference to those objects of historical importance, auction houses, dealers, museums, and even looters themselves consistently use the term “Pre- Columbian.” “Pre-Columbian,” which means “before Columbus,” defines the historical period prior to the establishment of the Spanish culture in the national territories of Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean islands. In fact, this definition …


Strategic Litigation In Wartime: Judging The Russian Invasion Of Ukraine Through The Genocide Convention, Michael Ramsden Jan 2023

Strategic Litigation In Wartime: Judging The Russian Invasion Of Ukraine Through The Genocide Convention, Michael Ramsden

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Ukraine's recent initiation of legal proceedings against Russia under the Genocide Convention is a prominent example of what has been termed "strategic litigation," denoting the bringing of a case with a goal to produce a wider impact beyond the courtroom. In Allegations of Genocide (Ukraine v. Russia), Ukraine sought a series of declarations from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) that Russia's decision to use force in Ukraine, and its ongoing operation, was unlawful, insofar as such a decision rested on the prevention of genocide. Given that the ICJ does not have the jurisdiction to determine whether Russia has committed …


Closing The Cracks And The Courts: A Comparative Analysis Of Debt Collection Regulation In The United Kingdom And The United States, Tasia S. Harris, Candidate For Doctor Of Jurisprudence Jan 2023

Closing The Cracks And The Courts: A Comparative Analysis Of Debt Collection Regulation In The United Kingdom And The United States, Tasia S. Harris, Candidate For Doctor Of Jurisprudence

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Consumers who borrow from a lender today cannot count on dealing with that same lender later if they default on their debt. In today's world of debt collection, the lender will outsource collection to a thirdparty debt collector, or those consumers' defaulted debt will be bought and sold numerous times for pennies on the dollar until eventually a debt buyer decides to pursue payment. Either way, under the current US debt collection laws and regulations, both third-party debt collectors and debt buyers can act outside the scope of debt collection regulation in the United States, and many will take that …


Notes On Continental Constitutional Identities, Benjamen F. Gussen Jan 2023

Notes On Continental Constitutional Identities, Benjamen F. Gussen

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Geo-constitutional analysis examines the reciprocal effect of geography on constitutions. Within this analysis, a continental constitutional identity focuses on the intersection between institutional geographies and institutional identities, where constitutions are understood as meta-institutions. In some constitutions, belonging to a continent is part of the national identity, while other constitutions only signal a non-geographic, usually an ethnic, identity. The US Constitution is an example of the former. The quintessential example of a non-geographic constitution is the Constitution of the Russian Federation. A similar disregard of continental identities can be found in Israel and the Arab League countries east of the Sinai …


Are We Closing The Gap? Reforms To Legal Capacity In Latin America In Light Of The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities, Pablo Marshall, Paula Vasquez, Violeta Puran, Loreto Godoy --Research Assistant Jan 2023

Are We Closing The Gap? Reforms To Legal Capacity In Latin America In Light Of The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities, Pablo Marshall, Paula Vasquez, Violeta Puran, Loreto Godoy --Research Assistant

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

This Article examines the the reforms developed in Latin America over the last decade that have adapted domestic legislation regarding legal capacity toward the support model of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). Our examination of the reforms in Costa Rica, Argentina, Peru, and Colombia focuses on the adoption process of the reforms, the main characteristics of the implemented support model, some transitional and implementation aspects of the reforms, and a critical examination of their relationship to the CRPD. Finally, this Article explores some weaknesses related to the reforms' implementation processes.


Play On? An Evaluation Of Fifa's Legal Regime And Its Foundation In Alternative Dispute Resolution, Blaine Sanders, J.D. Candidate, 2023 Jan 2023

Play On? An Evaluation Of Fifa's Legal Regime And Its Foundation In Alternative Dispute Resolution, Blaine Sanders, J.D. Candidate, 2023

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Few associate the Federation Internationale de Football Association, or FIFA, with its legal regime. Rather, and understandably so, sports fans and commentators tend to focus on World Cups, corruption, or even the FIFA video game. Yet, FIFA's role in the sport of soccer extends well beyond what receives the most commercial attention. FIFA shoulders the burden of regulating soccer's member associations, national teams, clubs, players, and countless other personnel through its FIFA Statutes. This is a considerable undertaking, which FIFA achieves through its comprehensive system of alternative dispute resolution.

Soccer is now a global business, largely due to the economic …


Enforcing Soft Law In International Investment Arbitration, Vera Korzun Jan 2023

Enforcing Soft Law In International Investment Arbitration, Vera Korzun

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Drawing examples from international environmental law, sustainable development, and corporate social responsibility, this Article examines the evolving role of international investment arbitration in the enforcement of non-binding soft law rules of international law. In doing so, the Article explains how investment tribunals can, and have been called upon to, interpret and, paradoxically, enforce soft law instruments. The Article calls for reevaluation of the nature of soft law and the role of investor-state dispute settlement in international rulemaking and enforcement. It also argues that for international environmental law and law on sustainable development, where the lack of an enforcement mechanism has …


Ecolabeling In The Multinational Mining Industry: A Method Toward Environmental Sustainability, Regina Raze J.D. Candidate Jan 2023

Ecolabeling In The Multinational Mining Industry: A Method Toward Environmental Sustainability, Regina Raze J.D. Candidate

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The international mining industry's environmental impact is not new. However, with the rise of international scrutiny on climate change and global warming, what the industry can do to lessen its impact is changing. Consumers are demanding stronger commitments to the environment from producers, and producers are therefore requiring stronger commitments from their suppliers. One such commitment the extractive industry can adhere to is implementing an ecolabeling regime for open pit mines mining critical minerals for consumer products. Ecolabels signal to customers that the environment is a priority for companies. However, with an ecolabel comes trade implications and concerns about accuracy. …


How Transnationally Effective Are The Uk Migration Policies In Relation To Missing Migrants? A Transnational Law Perspective, Luke N. Eda Jan 2023

How Transnationally Effective Are The Uk Migration Policies In Relation To Missing Migrants? A Transnational Law Perspective, Luke N. Eda

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

All over the world, several thousands of migrants go missing when they attempt to flee from war, violence, persecution, repressive regimes, systematic human rights violations, etc. Thousands die each year in deadly shipwrecks in a desperate attempt to enter Europe and the United Kingdom. In these instances of deaths and loss, international human rights law imposes duties on states to account for people missing in transnational migration and to respect the rights of members of their families. Despite such provisions, states sometimes deny that they have obligations to deal with cases of migrants reported missing in transnational migration until migrants …


Trump V. Tiktok, Anupam Chander Nov 2022

Trump V. Tiktok, Anupam Chander

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

How did a Chinese big tech company beat the president of the United States? When then-President Donald Trump sought to ban TikTok, ostensibly because of its Chinese roots, US courts came to TikTok's rescue. Rather than deferring to the president's claims of a national security emergency justifying the ban, courts held that the president lacked statutory authority to ban TikTok. This Article chronicles the Trump administration's attempt to either ban TikTok or to compel its sale to a "very American" company, preferably one led by a political ally. The TikTok affair thus demonstrates what Harold Koh calls the National Security …


The Pivotal Role Of International Human Rights Law In Defeating Cybercrime: Amid A (Un-Backed) Global Treaty On Cybercrime, Professor Fatemah Albader Nov 2022

The Pivotal Role Of International Human Rights Law In Defeating Cybercrime: Amid A (Un-Backed) Global Treaty On Cybercrime, Professor Fatemah Albader

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

On May 26, 2021, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a resolution approving the drafting of a new global treaty on cybercrime, which commenced in February 2022. The proposed UN agreement on cybercrime regulation has garnered significant criticism among the international community, namely by state delegates, human rights advocates, and nongovernmental organizations. Fears stem from the belief that such a treaty would be used to legitimize abusive practices and undermine fundamental human rights. National cybercrime laws already unduly restrict human rights. However, at a time where the global community has moved toward a digital world, it becomes even …


The Law And Politics Of Ransomware, Asaf Lubin Nov 2022

The Law And Politics Of Ransomware, Asaf Lubin

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

What do Lady Gaga, the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, the city of Valdez in Alaska, and the court system of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul all have in common? They have all been victims of ransomware attacks, which are growing both in number and severity. In 2016, hackers perpetrated roughly four thousand ransomware attacks a day worldwide, a figure which was already alarming. By 2020, however, ransomware attacks reached a staggering number, between twenty thousand and thirty thousand per day in the United States alone. That is a ransomware attack every eleven seconds, each of which …


Information Operations Under International Law, Tsvetelina Van Benthem, Talita Dias, Duncan B. Hollis Nov 2022

Information Operations Under International Law, Tsvetelina Van Benthem, Talita Dias, Duncan B. Hollis

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

An information operation or activity (IO) can be defined as the deployment of digital resources for cognitive purposes to change or reinforce attitudes or behaviors of the targeted audience in ways that align with the authors' interests. While not a new phenomenon, these operations have become increasingly prominent and pervasive in today's digital age, a trend that the ongoing war in Ukraine and the use of the internet for terrorist purposes tragically demonstrate. Against this backdrop, this Article critically assesses the existing international legal framework applicable to IOs. It makes three overarching claims. First, IOs can cause real and tangible …


Protecting What Matters: Reflections On A Central Bank's Role At Times Of War, Iris H-Y Chiu, Alan H. Brener Oct 2022

Protecting What Matters: Reflections On A Central Bank's Role At Times Of War, Iris H-Y Chiu, Alan H. Brener

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

This Article explores the important and multifaceted roles of a central bank in extraordinary times of crisis such as war, focusing on the National Bank of Ukraine (NBU) and its responses in the face of the Russian invasion of Ukraine which began on February 24, 2022. During a time of martial law, institutional preservation and legitimacy can be threatened, but preserving these very institutional tenets is important in defending the nation under siege and in securing future restoration and rebuilding. In this light, we examine the NBU's difficult and conflicting choices in three respects: providing war finance, preserving banking and …


Security Council Resolutions And The Double Function Of Explanation Of Votes, Mark Klamberg Oct 2022

Security Council Resolutions And The Double Function Of Explanation Of Votes, Mark Klamberg

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

UN Security Council resolutions are not always clear: they sometimes need to be interpreted. Members of the Security Council may make statements in connection with their votes, termed explanation of votes. Explanation of votes may have at least two functions. First, they may contribute to the formation of customary international law. Secondly, they can be used as a means for interpreting Security Council resolutions in relation to a specific situation or dispute. The present Article examines different trajectories of conversations to show how Security Council resolutions and explanation of votes may protect the status quo in some instances and act …


Gravity And Grace: Foreign Investments And Cultural Heritage In International Investment Law, Valentina Vadi Oct 2022

Gravity And Grace: Foreign Investments And Cultural Heritage In International Investment Law, Valentina Vadi

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Globalization and international economic governance have promoted dialogue and interaction among nations, potentially increasing cultural diversity and providing the funds to recover and preserve cultural heritage. However, these phenomena can also jeopardize cultural diversity. Foreign direct investments in the extraction of natural resources have the potential to change cultural landscapes, destroy monuments, and erase memories. In parallel, international investment law constitutes a legally binding and highly effective regime that demands that states promote and facilitate foreign direct investment. Does the existing legal framework adequately protect cultural heritage vis-a-vis the economic interests of foreign investors? To address this question, this Article …


A Regulatory Scheme For The Dawn Of Space Tourism, Molly M. Mccue Oct 2022

A Regulatory Scheme For The Dawn Of Space Tourism, Molly M. Mccue

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Today, companies like Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic have successfully launched paying customers into space, forging the future of the space tourism industry. While a growing space tourism industry promotes scientific advancement and opens an activity once reserved for trained astronauts to the public, the industry generates new issues and reveals the vulnerabilities of international space law. This Note explores the history of commercial spaceflight and the international agreements that comprise the current legal regime. It argues that space tourism presents a need for a new international agreement to address three vulnerabilities in the current international regime: environmental protections, protections …


Money Grab: How The G20/Oecd Inclusive Framework For Taxation Could Unnecessarily Disrupt Corporate Incentives And Misallocate Taxing Rights, William T. Anderson Oct 2022

Money Grab: How The G20/Oecd Inclusive Framework For Taxation Could Unnecessarily Disrupt Corporate Incentives And Misallocate Taxing Rights, William T. Anderson

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is proposing a dramatic shift to international corporate taxation that both sets a floor for corporate tax rates across the globe and transforms how countries obtain taxing rights over large multinational corporations. This Note focuses on the proposed framework for re-allocating taxing rights over corporations away from the traditional requirement of a physical presence in a country to mere revenues in a country. This Note identifies problems with the proposal as it relates to artificially altering corporate incentives and structures, as well as the proposal's incompatibility with theories of taxation- including Adam …


Defending Henrietta Lacks: Justification Of Ownership Rights In Separated Human Body Parts, Arseny Shevelev, Georgy Shevelev Oct 2022

Defending Henrietta Lacks: Justification Of Ownership Rights In Separated Human Body Parts, Arseny Shevelev, Georgy Shevelev

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Since the time of Moore v. Regents of the University of California, it has become a well-established and widespread view that a person, when their separated body parts are misappropriated, is forced to limit themselves to fiduciary and other non-proprietary claims against those who violate the bodily inviolability of their separated parts. Now, with the filing of a lawsuit in defense of the rights in body parts of the victim of racial discrimination, Henrietta Lacks, the judicial system has an opportunity to justify itself by adopting a different perception of rights in human body parts. This Article focuses on the …


Suspension Of Citizenship: Ethical Concerns In International Commercial Surrogacy And The Legal Possibility Of Stateless Children, Rachael Curtin May 2022

Suspension Of Citizenship: Ethical Concerns In International Commercial Surrogacy And The Legal Possibility Of Stateless Children, Rachael Curtin

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Legal issues often exist in ethical gray areas. Advancements in reproductive technologies have increased family-building options for those that were previously unable to procreate. Similarly, globalization has increased family-placement options for children in the adoption context. However, when assisted reproductive technologies advance in a globalized world without regulation or international cooperation, international com- mercial surrogacy arrangements are governed by contractual systems that often protect the commissioning parties, rather than those who are most vulnerable and in need of protections. This Note examines how the current lack of international regulation and cooperation in the international commercial surrogacy context can leave children …


Independence And Liability In Civil Aviation Accident Investigations Through Annex 13 And The Montreal Convention, Joshua C. Moscow May 2022

Independence And Liability In Civil Aviation Accident Investigations Through Annex 13 And The Montreal Convention, Joshua C. Moscow

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

International law governs the investigation of civil aviation accidents through the Chicago Convention and the International Civil Aviation Organization. Their standards, outlined primarily in Annex 13 to the Chicago Convention, require accident investigations to be conducted in an independent and impartial manner. Notwithstanding this requirement, a state with a nationalized airline may lead an Annex 13 investigation into an accident involving (essentially) itself. The conflict that arises when this occurs challenges Annex 13 independence-a challenge that may be difficult to avoid given the prevalence of nationalized airlines. While Annex 13 independence is threatened when a state assumes the role of …


Challenging Some Baseline Assumptions About The Evolution Of International Commissions Of Inquiry, Michael A. Becker May 2022

Challenging Some Baseline Assumptions About The Evolution Of International Commissions Of Inquiry, Michael A. Becker

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Conventional accounts of the historical development of international commissions of inquiry reflect a progress narrative consisting of three propositions: (1) that recourse to inquiry bodies has increased dramatically in the post-Cold War era, (2) that inquiry bodies have evolved from mechanisms for "pure" fact- finding into quasi-judicial bodies that engage with international law, and (3) that the function of inquiry bodies has shifted from diplomatic dispute settlement to norm enforcement and accountability. Part I explains how this narrative simplifies and distorts the rich history of inquiry bodies in international affairs. Part II shows how the idea of a post-Cold War …