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Full-Text Articles in Law

Ks Pop Celebrating Three Years Of Tech-Driven Justice For All, Ayyoub Ajmi Jul 2024

Ks Pop Celebrating Three Years Of Tech-Driven Justice For All, Ayyoub Ajmi

Faculty Works

This article explores the development and impact of the Kansas Protection Order Portal (KS POP), highlighting the vital role of law librarians in the portal's design and implementation. The article showcases how KS POP has streamlined the legal process for domestic violence, sexual assault, and human trafficking victims in Kansas, marking a significant advancement in accessible legal support and serving as a model for future innovations in the justice system.


How To Limit The Downstream Costs Of Racially Restrictive Covenants, Randall K. Johnson May 2024

How To Limit The Downstream Costs Of Racially Restrictive Covenants, Randall K. Johnson

Faculty Works

This essay, which is part of the University of Kansas Law Review Symposium on the seventy-fifth (75th) anniversary of Shelley v. Kraemer, is the first to explain how a current successor in interest to a racially restrictive covenant may limit more of their own downstream costs through the use of self-help options. By definition, a downstream cost is any expense that arises after the formation, and in the course of performance, of a valid common law contract. Examples of downstream costs include the time, money and energy that property owners may expend in removing racially restrictive covenants.

The essay does …


A Performative Model For Conducting Critical Race Analysis: Josephine Baker, Modern Dance, And Utilizing Narrative To Transform Legal Doctrine, Patrick C. Brayer Apr 2024

A Performative Model For Conducting Critical Race Analysis: Josephine Baker, Modern Dance, And Utilizing Narrative To Transform Legal Doctrine, Patrick C. Brayer

Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


Revolutionizing Access To Justice: The Role Of Ai-Powered Chatbots And Retrieval-Augmented Generation In Legal Self-Help, Ayyoub Ajmi Apr 2024

Revolutionizing Access To Justice: The Role Of Ai-Powered Chatbots And Retrieval-Augmented Generation In Legal Self-Help, Ayyoub Ajmi

Faculty Works

Advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) present numerous opportunities to routinize and make the law more accessible to self-represented litigants, notably through AI chatbots employing natural language processing for conversational interactions. These chatbots exhibit legal reasoning abilities without explicit training on legal-specific datasets. However, they face challenges processing less common and more specific knowledge from their training data. Additionally, once trained, their static status makes them susceptible to knowledge obsolescence over time. This article explores the application of retrieval-augmented generation (RAG) to enhance chatbot accuracy, drawing insights from a real-world implementation developed for a court system to support self-help litigants.


A Collective Collage: Women, The Structure Of American Legal Education, And Histories Yet To Be Written, Judith Resnik Mar 2024

A Collective Collage: Women, The Structure Of American Legal Education, And Histories Yet To Be Written, Judith Resnik

UMKC Law Review

Judith Resnik shares an overview of the Women in Legal Education Section of the AALS during the 1980s and 1990s when she became involved in coordinating various activities of the Section, and then Chair. The Article also discusses the importance of documenting and archiving the activities and history of women in legal education.


The Model Law Enforcement Officer And Other First Responder's Deflection Act: A National Blueprint For Creating Successful Deflection Programs Across The Country, Marc Consalo Mar 2024

The Model Law Enforcement Officer And Other First Responder's Deflection Act: A National Blueprint For Creating Successful Deflection Programs Across The Country, Marc Consalo

UMKC Law Review

The idea of finding alternatives to the traditional approach of arresting, prosecuting, and punishing an individual for criminal behavior in the hopes it will deter future illegal conduct is not new. In 1947, the Judicial Conference of the United States met to make recommendations for the first diversion programs focusing on youthful offenders. Approximately fifteen years later, states began to explore diversion as an option for some adult lawbreakers.

The birth of diversion generated a novel approach to addressing criminal activity. However, before any individual could participate in a diversion program, law enforcement arrested the person which imposed a host …


Family Treatment Courts In Rural Settings, Alissa Hendricks, John Lepage Mar 2024

Family Treatment Courts In Rural Settings, Alissa Hendricks, John Lepage

UMKC Law Review

Missouri courts deal in hundreds of thousands of cases each year that involve money, property, and crime, but no category of cases is more important than those dealing with the safety and welfare of children. The collaborative model of family treatment courts was created out of the passion for this responsibility to children and to the families of this state.

Family treatment courts evolved from the adult drug court model, where collaborative efforts found success within the criminal justice system. Family treatment courts are now one of the most expansive improvements conducted in the judicial, child welfare, substance use disorder …


Legislating Courts, Michael Pollack Mar 2024

Legislating Courts, Michael Pollack

UMKC Law Review

Judges are ordinarily thought of as deciders of a specific sort: people who apply the rule of law to resolve disagreements between the parties appearing before them. But in every state, judges do far more. They are charged by state statutory or constitutional law with a range of quasi-administrative, quasi-legislative, and quasi-executive law enforcement functions. These roles raise a number of theoretical and practical concerns. In many states, though, legislatures have gone even further. They have either wholly delegated significant policymaking power to state court judges or have sat idle while those judges have assumed the mantle of functions that …


Problem-Solving Courts And The Outcome Oversight Gap, Erin R. Collins Mar 2024

Problem-Solving Courts And The Outcome Oversight Gap, Erin R. Collins

UMKC Law Review

The creation of a specialized, “problem-solving” court is a ubiquitous response to the issues that plague our criminal legal system. The courts promise to address the factors believed to lead to repeated interactions with the system, such as addiction or mental illness, thereby reducing recidivism and saving money. And they do so effectively – at least according to their many proponents, who celebrate them as an example of a successful “evidence-based,” data-driven reform. But the actual data on their efficacy is underwhelming, inconclusive, or altogether lacking. So why do they persist?

This Article seeks to answer that question by scrutinizing …


A New Generation Of Reform In Drug Enforcement In Kansas City, Jean Peters Baker Mar 2024

A New Generation Of Reform In Drug Enforcement In Kansas City, Jean Peters Baker

UMKC Law Review

Jackson County, Missouri has been at the forefront of drug policy reform for decades, with the establishment of one of America's first Drug Courts in the early 1990s. This Article will delve into the impact of the county's shift in drug policy on the drug court model, both positive and negative, and where the county expects to go in the future. We will examine what we currently understand about drugs, including the destructive effects of drugs on individuals and their families, the history of the War on Drugs and its lack of impact, and the statistics on drug crimes and …


Engaging The Base: Using Veterans Treatment Courts In Missouri To Address Core Issues, Evan Rodriguez Mar 2024

Engaging The Base: Using Veterans Treatment Courts In Missouri To Address Core Issues, Evan Rodriguez

UMKC Law Review

With a per capita veteran population surpassing the national average, Missouri presents its veterans with unique challenges in their day-to-day lives. For example, nearly one-third of Missouri veterans are disabled, compared to one-sixth of civilians. The State established the Missouri Veterans Commission, which supports veterans and their families with the veteran-specific obstacles they face. To that end, Missouri offers the second highest number of veteran benefits of any state in the country.

Like all groups of people, some veterans will unfortunately enter the criminal justice system due to varying factors. Veterans Treatment Courts ("VTCs") originated to address veteran-specific reasons for …


Kansas City Municipal Court's Domestic Violence Court Programming, Courtney A. Wachal, Gerald Sorensen, Jenna Phelps, Nephateri Hill Mar 2024

Kansas City Municipal Court's Domestic Violence Court Programming, Courtney A. Wachal, Gerald Sorensen, Jenna Phelps, Nephateri Hill

UMKC Law Review

The Kansas City Municipal Domestic Violence Court identifies cases as domestic violence if they involve intimate partner violence, violations of protective order, interfamily violence, or cases where there is a child witness. This court manages a large caseload of domestic violence violations that vary widely in the severity of the charges and the levels of violence.

The Kansas City Municipal Domestic Violence Court has prioritized their probation resources by focusing services on those cases that are most in need of supervision and on those cases most likely to be receptive to services. This article will discuss The Compliance Docket and …


Housing Court: A Balancing Act, Todd Wilcher Mar 2024

Housing Court: A Balancing Act, Todd Wilcher

UMKC Law Review

This article provides a general description of the Kansas City Municipal Court's Housing Court - its origin, jurisdiction, and process-and discusses the broader themes and competing interests at issue in its cases. Because detached single-family home cases take up most of the space on the dockets, the single-family home theme is a major thread in the fabric of this Article. At the same time, however-in the broader context of the municipal environment-every building, structure and open land is subject to building, zoning, and maintenance regulations. These regulations are pervasive in our modern society, and ensuring they are applied in a …


Iiaas And The Montreal Protocol: The Legal Minefield Inside The Most Successful Environmental Treaty In History, Jackson Elder Mar 2024

Iiaas And The Montreal Protocol: The Legal Minefield Inside The Most Successful Environmental Treaty In History, Jackson Elder

UMKC Law Review

The most successful environmental treaty in history might break international law's core principle, and it all depends on who you ask. International law consists of rules and principles relating to states, international organizations, and individuals. The source of all international law is the consent of nations, and each nation is governed by the treaties they consent to. Provisions that force states to behave according to its text and do not satisfy international law's traditional consent standard are consequential. As no term exists for these provisions currently, these clauses have been termed as international imposed axiomatic alterations ("IIAA"s). IIAAs, for this …


Ptsd As Bodily Injury: Perspectives From Neuroscience And Medical Psychology, Jennifer Sweeton Mar 2024

Ptsd As Bodily Injury: Perspectives From Neuroscience And Medical Psychology, Jennifer Sweeton

UMKC Law Review

This Comment proposes that PTSD be reconceptualized, and reclassified, as a bodily injury in personal injury cases. In Part II, this Comment reviews the way courts describe PTSD in personal injury cases. Part III examines psychiatric literature and discusses the symptoms and classification of PTSD as both an emotional and medical condition. It also identifies several structural and functional brain alterations associated with PTSD, in addition to physiological changes that occur as a result of PTSD. Part IV asserts that the brain processes physical and emotional pain almost identically, and that most injuries include both emotional and physical components. In …


Building A Successful Team In A Problem-Solving Court: The Western District Of Missouri Model, Carie Allen, Stephen R. Bough, Lajuana Counts, Arthur Diaz, Jeffrey Mccarther, Katie Meister, James Parker Mar 2024

Building A Successful Team In A Problem-Solving Court: The Western District Of Missouri Model, Carie Allen, Stephen R. Bough, Lajuana Counts, Arthur Diaz, Jeffrey Mccarther, Katie Meister, James Parker

UMKC Law Review

Problem-solving courts work. We know that reentry programs and intensive supervision programs like drug courts are effective alternatives to incarceration that reduce recidivism. For example, the United States District Court for the Western District of Missouri's Reentry Court has an 85.7% success rate for graduates, meaning they complete their term of supervised release without any new charges. A reduction of recidivism means hefty savings of tax-payer dollars. More importantly, successful problem-solving courts mean people engage in their communities, raise families, work productive jobs, and pay taxes.

Courts and legislators and executive branches around the country are increasingly turning to problem …


Combating Substance Abuse And Violence In Jackson County, Missouri: A Public Health Approach To The "War On Drugs", Danielle Bukacheski, Grant Baker, Stephen R. Bough Mar 2024

Combating Substance Abuse And Violence In Jackson County, Missouri: A Public Health Approach To The "War On Drugs", Danielle Bukacheski, Grant Baker, Stephen R. Bough

UMKC Law Review

In 1989, Jackson County, Missouri, made history - voters passed the first tax solely dedicated to funding substance abuse prevention and treatment. Today, the COMmunity Backed Anti-Crime Tax ("COMBAT") continues to annually generate between $25 to $30 million that supports Jackson County courts, the Jackson County Prosecutor's Office, local law enforcement agencies, and nonprofit organizations focusing on prevention and treatment. COMBAT has achieved success through its de-emphasis on punitive law enforcement practices and emphasis on public health. Instead of focusing on the prosecution of drug-related offenses, COMBAT is leading a more holistic "War on Drugs" by funding community-based resources to …


How We Can Best Support Neurodivergent Patrons, Mari Cheney, Annalee Hickman Pierson, Geraldine Kalim, Julia M. Pluta Mar 2024

How We Can Best Support Neurodivergent Patrons, Mari Cheney, Annalee Hickman Pierson, Geraldine Kalim, Julia M. Pluta

Faculty Works

When law librarians think about making out libraries a welcoming and inclusive environment for all library patrons, we need to include individuals of all abilities in this process. This article discusses how law librarians can best create a welcoming and inclusive environment in their libraries and services. It also focuses on how to best support neurodivergent patrons through universal design.


Generative Ai And Finding The Law, Paul D. Callister Jan 2024

Generative Ai And Finding The Law, Paul D. Callister

Faculty Works

Abstract

Legal information science requires, among other things, principles and theories. The article states six principles or considerations that any discussion of generative AI large language models and their role in finding the law must include. The article concludes that law librarianship will increasingly become legal information science and require new paradigms. In addition to the six principles, the article applies ecological holistic media theory to understand the relationship of the legal community’s cognitive authority, institutions, techné (technology, medium and method), geopolitical factors, and the past and future to understand the changes in this information milieu. The article also explains …


The Lawyer's Duty Of Competence In A Climate-Imperiled World, John C. Dernbach, Irma S. Russell, Matthew Bogoshian Jan 2024

The Lawyer's Duty Of Competence In A Climate-Imperiled World, John C. Dernbach, Irma S. Russell, Matthew Bogoshian

Faculty Works

The United States has more than 1.3 million practicing lawyers. Under Model Rule 1.1 of the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct and every state’s rules of conduct, each of these lawyers owes clients competent representation. Under the rule, “[c]ompetent representation requires the knowledge, skill, thoroughness and preparation reasonably necessary for the services.” While law and rules will undoubtedly change in response to the climate crisis, the duty of competence does not await such change or legal reform. The ubiquitous nature of the duty of competence means it is applicable to each lawyer now and will continue to evolve as …


Comment Letter On Sec’S Proposed Rule On Conflicts Of Interest Associated With The Use Of Predictive Data Analytics By Broker-Dealers And Investment Advisers, File Number S7-12-23, Sergio Alberto Gramitto Ricci, Christina M. Sautter Oct 2023

Comment Letter On Sec’S Proposed Rule On Conflicts Of Interest Associated With The Use Of Predictive Data Analytics By Broker-Dealers And Investment Advisers, File Number S7-12-23, Sergio Alberto Gramitto Ricci, Christina M. Sautter

Faculty Works

This comment letter responds to the Securities and Exchange Commission’s proposed rule Release Nos. 34-97990; IA-6353; File Number S7-12-23 - Conflicts of Interest Associated with the Use of Predictive Data Analytics by Broker-Dealers and Investment Advisers. Our comments draw on our scholarship relating to laypersons’ participation in securities markets and the corporate sector as well as on the role of technology in corporate governance.

We express concerns that the SEC’s proposed regulation undermines individuals’ ability to access capital markets in an efficient and cost-effective manner. In the era of excessive concentration of equities ownership and power, often with negative societal …


A Guide To Emtala, Kaylee Jacobson Oct 2023

A Guide To Emtala, Kaylee Jacobson

Law Student Works

This Pathfinder research guide provides an overview of the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA). This guide is intended for both attorneys in the field and hospital compliance departments. It is essential for attorneys to understand both the requirements of an EMTALA claim and the circuit splits on interpretation. Hospital compliance departments have an interest in understanding EMTALA for preventative and response measures.

This guide walks the researcher through a brief background on EMTALA and how to research the federal statute using primary, secondary, and news-based sources. The goal is to equip them with the necessary tools to perform …


Enforceability Of Exculpatory Clauses In Missouri, Samantha Cusumano Oct 2023

Enforceability Of Exculpatory Clauses In Missouri, Samantha Cusumano

Law Student Works

Today, a vast majority of contracts signed by consumers contain provisions that release one or both of the parties from liability if personal injury occurs during the course of the contract. These provisions are referred to as liability waivers, exculpatory clauses, limitations of liability, or liability releases, and these terms are often used interchangeably within this pathfinder and in legal research relating to this topic. The effect of these provisions is that the signing party waives their right to file future claims against the other party in the event of injury or loss and relieves the drafting party of any …


The Ethical Risk Of Experience, Barbara Glesner Fines Oct 2023

The Ethical Risk Of Experience, Barbara Glesner Fines

Faculty Works

Practice may make perfect, but in law practice, experience and specialization can actually increase some types of errors - leading to an increased risk of malpractice claims, disciplinary complaints, or client dissatisfaction. This article explores the question of why this may be so. The article first examines the phenomenon of increased malpractice and disciplinary risks for family law attorneys in general and experienced attorneys in par­ticular. The central question this article examines is this, "Why might highly experienced and specialized family law attorneys find themselves facing the most severe of disciplinary sanctions or malpractice judgments?" The answers point to some …


Real Property Issues In Family Law: An Annotated Bibliography, Allen Roston Oct 2023

Real Property Issues In Family Law: An Annotated Bibliography, Allen Roston

Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


Why U.S. States Need Their Own Cannabis Industry Banks, Christoph Henkel, Randall K. Johnson Oct 2023

Why U.S. States Need Their Own Cannabis Industry Banks, Christoph Henkel, Randall K. Johnson

Faculty Works

The legal cannabis trade is the fastest growing industry in the United States. In 2019, about 48.2 million Americans used the drug at least once. As such, it is easy to see why the legal cannabis trade may generate annual revenues exceeding $30 billion in Fiscal Year 2022 alone.

One inconvenient truth, however, is that the parties to any cannabis trade may face a range of difficulties due to conflicts between federal and state laws. These difficulties include the fact that many financial institutions are reluctant to handle cannabis proceeds. One reason is that a lack of alignment in terms …


Inclusiveness: Advancing Environmental Justice In A Diverse Democracy, Irma S. Russell, Alexandra D. Dunn Oct 2023

Inclusiveness: Advancing Environmental Justice In A Diverse Democracy, Irma S. Russell, Alexandra D. Dunn

Faculty Works

Today, environmental justice (EJ) is more than a significant and meaningful social movement. EJ has now emerged—after at least five decades—as a major initiative for the federal government and for many state governments. Since the beginnings of the EJ movement, its proponents have sought redress for the disproportionate and negative impacts of generations of environmental policy and siting decisions that resulted in adverse effects on the health, environment, economics, and climate of disadvantaged communities. Scientific research and “big data” programs now provide evidence supporting community EJ claims, and laws such as the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law (BIL) and the Inflation Reduction …


What Is The Optimal Basis For Imposing Government Liens?, Randall K. Johnson Aug 2023

What Is The Optimal Basis For Imposing Government Liens?, Randall K. Johnson

Faculty Works

By presenting a detailed case study, which focuses on who gets subjected to government liens, this essay helps U.S. states to make more informed decisions. It seeks to do so by critically assessing Illinois’ historic approach to lien imposition and enforcement, in part, because this state had the most forced sales of real property in recent years. In addition, Illinois also generated the largest amount of related economic losses in the U.S. during that same time period. This state did so despite adhering to the old majority rule for turning over surplus value from such sales. That rule required creditors …


Wireless Investors & Apathy Obsolescence, Sergio Alberto Gramitto Ricci, Christina M. Sautter Aug 2023

Wireless Investors & Apathy Obsolescence, Sergio Alberto Gramitto Ricci, Christina M. Sautter

Faculty Works

This Article discusses how a subgenre of retail investors makes investors’ apathy obsolete. In prior work, we dub retail investors who rely on technology and online communications in their investing and corporate governance endeavors “wireless investors.” By applying game theory, this Article discusses how wireless investors’ global-scale online interactions allow them to circulate information and coordinate, obliterating collective action problems.


The Retail Investor Report, Nick Einhorn, Jill E. Fisch, Sergio Alberto Gramitto Ricci, Monique Le, Christina M. Sautter Aug 2023

The Retail Investor Report, Nick Einhorn, Jill E. Fisch, Sergio Alberto Gramitto Ricci, Monique Le, Christina M. Sautter

Faculty Works

In 2020, a wave of retail investors entered the stock market. In the last two years, approximately 30 million new retail investors opened brokerage accounts in the U.S. By 2021, retail investors comprised 25% of total equities trading volume, nearly double the percentage reported a decade prior.

And they’ve stuck around. In February 2023, retail investors across platforms set a new all-time high for weekly inflows, with $1.5 billion dollars pouring into the market in a single week.

Participation in the public markets remains high; more significantly, it has evolved. Public.com surveyed 2,000+ investors to compile its 2023 report. Public’s …