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The Urbanization Of International Law And International Relations: The Rising Soft Power Of Cities In Global Governance, Chrystie Swiney Jan 2020

The Urbanization Of International Law And International Relations: The Rising Soft Power Of Cities In Global Governance, Chrystie Swiney

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article examines the rising influence of cities in global governance and on international law, despite the existing international legal and political framework, which is designed to exclude them. It explores the various strategies and tools utilized by city leaders to leapfrog over their national counterparts in order to autonomously access the international policymaking and law-making world. These include (1) coalescing together to form large networks, which engage in city or “glocal” diplomacy; (2) allying with well-connected and well-resourced international organizations; (3) gaining inclusion in UN multilateral agendas; (4) mirroring state-based coalitions and their high-profile events; (5) harnessing the language …


The Restatements And The Rule Of Law, Kristina Daugirdas Jan 2020

The Restatements And The Rule Of Law, Kristina Daugirdas

Book Chapters

This chapter explores the promotion of the rule of law. In drafting and publishing Restatements of Foreign Relations Law, both the American Law Institute and the reporters have understood the projects as contributing to the rule of law at the international level, at the domestic level, or both. There are at least three distinct ways that these Restatements might promote the rule of law. First, they might do so by clarifying the content of the law. Second, the Restatements might contribute to the development of new legal rules, specifically to the evolution and consolidation of customary international law. Finally, the …


Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law, Kristina Daugirdas, Julian Davis Mortenson Oct 2017

Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law, Kristina Daugirdas, Julian Davis Mortenson

Articles

In this section: Congress Enacts Sanctions Legislation Targeting Russia • United States and Qatar Sign Memorandum of Understanding over Terrorism Financing • Trump Reverses Certain Steps Toward Normalizing Relations with Cuba • United States Announces Plans to Withdraw from Paris Agreement on Climate Change • President Trump Issues Trade-Related Executive Orders and Memoranda • United States, Russia, and Jordan Sign Limited Ceasefire for Syria • Trump Administration Recertifies Iranian Compliance with JCPOA Notwithstanding Increasing Concern with Iranian Behavior


Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law, Kristina Daugirdas, Julian Davis Mortenson Jan 2016

Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law, Kristina Daugirdas, Julian Davis Mortenson

Articles

In this section: • U.S. Supreme Court Upholds Law Facilitating Compensation for Victims of Iranian Terrorism • Russia Argues Enhanced Military Presence in Europe Violates NATO-Russia Agreement; United States Criticizes Russian Military Maneuvers over the Baltic Sea as Inconsistent with Bilateral Treaty Governing Incidents at Sea • U.S. Secretary of State Determines ISIL Is Responsible for Genocide • United States Blocks Reappointment of WTO Appellate Body Member • U.S. Department of Defense Releases Report of Investigation Finding That October 2015 Air Strike on Doctors Without Borders Hospital in Kunduz, Afghanistan, Was Not a War Crime • United States Expands Air …


Congress And The Reconstruction Of Foreign Affairs Federalism, Ryan Baasch, Saikrishna Bangalore Prakash Jan 2016

Congress And The Reconstruction Of Foreign Affairs Federalism, Ryan Baasch, Saikrishna Bangalore Prakash

Michigan Law Review

Though the Constitution conspicuously bars some state involvement in foreign affairs, the states clearly retain some authority in foreign affairs. Correctly supposing that state participation may unnecessarily complicate or embarrass our nation’s foreign relations, the Supreme Court has embraced aggressive preemption doctrines that sporadically oust the states from discrete areas in foreign affairs. These doctrines are unprincipled, supply little guidance, and generate capricious results. Fortunately, there is a better way. While the Constitution permits the states a limited and continuing role, it never goes so far as guaranteeing them any foreign affairs authority. Furthermore, the Constitution authorizes Congress to enact …


Congress's International Legal Discourse, Kevin L. Cope May 2015

Congress's International Legal Discourse, Kevin L. Cope

Michigan Law Review

Despite Congress’s important role in enforcing U.S. international law obligations, the relevant existing literature largely ignores the branch. This omission may stem partly from the belief, common among both academics and lawyers, that Congress is generally unsympathetic to or ignorant of international law. Under this conventional wisdom, members of Congress would rarely if ever imply that international law norms should impact otherwise desirable domestic legislation. Using an original dataset comprising thirty years of legislative histories of pertinent federal statutes, this Article questions and tests that view. The evidence refutes the conventional wisdom. It shows instead that, in legislative debates over …


Contemporary Practice Of The Untied States Relating To International Law, Kristina Daugirdas, Julian Davis Mortenson Jan 2015

Contemporary Practice Of The Untied States Relating To International Law, Kristina Daugirdas, Julian Davis Mortenson

Articles

In this section: • Iran Nuclear Framework Agreement Reached; Congress Seeks to Influence Negotiation • United States Lifts Some Cuba Restrictions and Explores the Possibility of Normalizing Relations • United States Responds to Alleged North Korean Cyber Attack on Sony Pictures Entertainment • Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Releases Executive Summary of Its Study of CIA’s Detention and Interrogation Program • President Obama Seeks Statutory Authorization for the Use of Military Force Against ISIL


Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law, Kristina Daugirdas, Julian Davis Mortenson Jan 2015

Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law, Kristina Daugirdas, Julian Davis Mortenson

Articles

In this section: United States Objects to Russia’s Continued Violations of Ukraine’s Territorial Sovereignty, Including by Convoys Purporting to Provide Humanitarian Aid • United States and Afghanistan Sign Bilateral Security Agreement • United States Announces “Changes and Confirmations” in Its Interpretation of the UNConvention Against Torture • United States and China Make Joint Announcement to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Bolstering Multilateral Climate Change Negotiations • United States Deepens Its Engagement with ISIL Conflict • NATO Affirms that Cyber Attacks May Trigger Collective Defense Obligations


Zoya's Standing Problem, Or, When Should The Constitution Follow The Flag?, Jeffrey Kahn Mar 2010

Zoya's Standing Problem, Or, When Should The Constitution Follow The Flag?, Jeffrey Kahn

Michigan Law Review

Some federal courts have devised a new test of prudential standing that they use to dismiss suits filed by foreign plaintiffs alleging unlawful conduct by American officials abroad, even when these cases involve matters that may have nothing to do with foreign affairs, national security, or terrorism. Rather than decide the case on its merits or dismiss it on any number of legitimate grounds, the complaint is dismissed because the plaintiff lacks a "prior substantial connection" to the United States. I identify and critique this strange but proliferating test of standing. First, it is inconsistent with any theoretical view of …


How To Think About Ppms (And Climate Change), Donald H. Regan Jan 2009

How To Think About Ppms (And Climate Change), Donald H. Regan

Book Chapters

The European Commission has apparently backed off from a proposal to tax imported goods produced by methods that generate excessive greenhouse gas emissions. So the issue of whether such a tax would be legal under the WTO has become slightly less urgent than it recently appeared. But Pascal Lamy the Director-General of the WTO still thought the possibility of some countries imposing emission-based trade restrictions was worth mentioning prominently in his speech to the Trade Ministers Conference in conjunction with the Bali Conference on climate change after Kyoto. And at that same conference, an official of the European Commission may …


International Responsibility And The Admission Of States To The United Nations, Thomas D. Grant Jan 2009

International Responsibility And The Admission Of States To The United Nations, Thomas D. Grant

Michigan Journal of International Law

The present Article considers what identifiable substantive obligations might be relevant to admission; whether admission as practiced has resulted in a breach of obligation; and whether any such breach might impose international responsibility on the international actors involved in the decision to admit new States. The Article further considers what future reparative obligations such responsibility might entail.


Individual And State Responsibility For Intelligence Gathering, Dieter Fleck Jan 2007

Individual And State Responsibility For Intelligence Gathering, Dieter Fleck

Michigan Journal of International Law

It is the purpose of this contribution to examine relevant norms and principles for assessing acts of intelligence gathering under international law (Part I), evaluate legal problems of attribution of such acts (Part II), and, where governments commit wrongful acts, look into circumstances precluding their wrongfulness (Part III). Based on these considerations, legal consequences for criminal accountability (Part IV) and reparation (Part V) will be discussed. Finally, some conclusions may be drawn (Part VI).


An Unrecognized State In Foreign And International Courts: The Case Of The Republic Of China On Taiwan, Pasha L. Hsieh Jan 2007

An Unrecognized State In Foreign And International Courts: The Case Of The Republic Of China On Taiwan, Pasha L. Hsieh

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article provides a comparative analysis of the status of the Republic of China on Taiwan in foreign and international settings. Most existing literature written from the traditional public international law perspective focuses on Taiwan's separate statehood from China. This Article addresses an important pragmatic issue that international courts and courts in foreign countries frequently face: whether Taiwan is a "foreign State" for particular salutatory purposes in judicial proceedings. Part I of this Article provides an overview of China-Taiwan relations and the status of Taiwan under international law. I argue that the ROC on Taiwan has been a sovereign State …


The Spy Who Came In From The Cold War: Intelligence And International Law, Simon Chesterman Jan 2006

The Spy Who Came In From The Cold War: Intelligence And International Law, Simon Chesterman

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article will focus on the narrower questions of whether obtaining secret intelligence-that is, without the consent of the state that controls the information-is subject to international legal norms or constraints, and what restrictions, if any, control the use of this information once obtained. Traditional approaches to the question of the legitimacy of spying, when even asked, typically settle on one of two positions: either collecting secret intelligence remains illegal despite consistent practice, or apparent tolerance has led to a "deep but reluctant admission of the lawfulness of such intelligence gathering, when conducted within customary normative limits.” Other writers have …


Irrational War And Constitutional Design: A Reply To Professors Nzelibe And Yoo, Paul F. Diehl, Tom Ginsburg Jan 2006

Irrational War And Constitutional Design: A Reply To Professors Nzelibe And Yoo, Paul F. Diehl, Tom Ginsburg

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Reply proceeds as follows. Part I outlines the argument of the Nzelibe and Yoo paper. Part II considers their principal-agent analysis in the context of the American political system. Part III elaborates on the "democratic peace" literature, demonstrating that it does not support the conclusions that they draw. Part IV addresses the argument that we are in a new strategic situation, such that old rules ought not apply. Part V concludes.


Rebus Sic Stantibus: Notification Of Consular Rights After Medellin, Aaron A. Ostrovsky, Brandon E. Reavis Jan 2006

Rebus Sic Stantibus: Notification Of Consular Rights After Medellin, Aaron A. Ostrovsky, Brandon E. Reavis

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Comment examines, through principles of public international law and U.S. jurisprudence, the relationship between U.S. courts and the ICJ to determine if the former are indeed bound by the latter's decisions, proprio motu, or if instead some Executive action is required to make the decisions binding on the judiciary. Part of this examination will entail a discussion of the potential for dialogue between the ICJ and U.S. courts to "pierce the veil of sovereignty" that traditionally conceals the inner workings of sovereign states from the scrutiny of international tribunals. Based on this assessment, the Comment then addresses how …


Sanchez-Llamas V. Oregon And Article 36 Of The Vienna Convention On Consular Relations: The Supreme Court, The Right To Consul, And Remediation, Mark J. Kadish, Charles C. Olson Jan 2006

Sanchez-Llamas V. Oregon And Article 36 Of The Vienna Convention On Consular Relations: The Supreme Court, The Right To Consul, And Remediation, Mark J. Kadish, Charles C. Olson

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article analyzes the Sanchez-Llamas decision and attempts to ascertain its impact on future Article 36 litigation.


The Concept Of Customary International Law, Daniel M. Bodansky Jan 1995

The Concept Of Customary International Law, Daniel M. Bodansky

Michigan Journal of International Law

Review of Custom in Present International Law by Karol Wolfke


The Implementation Of The Final Act Of Helsinki: The Creation Of New Structures Or The Involvement Of Existing Ones?, Pieter Van Dijk Jan 1989

The Implementation Of The Final Act Of Helsinki: The Creation Of New Structures Or The Involvement Of Existing Ones?, Pieter Van Dijk

Michigan Journal of International Law

First, this essay will give some basic information on the character of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe as a process and on the legal nature of the Final Act of Helsinki. Second, it will discuss the follow-up mechanism and its institutional structures. Finally, the essay will evaluate the present situation and attempt to answer the question whether there is any need for the establishment of one or more new international organizations or other structures for the furtherance of the purposes which are (also) covered by the CSCE and its Final Act.


Amending The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act Of 1976 To Better Accommodate Non-Market Economies, J. Thomas Cristy Jan 1987

Amending The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act Of 1976 To Better Accommodate Non-Market Economies, J. Thomas Cristy

Michigan Journal of International Law

The purpose of this Note is to demonstrate the need for an amendment to the 1976 Act, in addition to those presently under consideration, which recognizes the political and economic realities of the modem world. The following discussion focuses on the FSIA and its inability to accommodate the ideology of non-market economies in making immunity determinations. After examining the FSIA and the development of foreign sovereign immunity in general, the discussion turns to an analysis of the differences between capitalist, or free market societies, and socialist/communist, or non-market systems. Sections IV and V analyze two areas where the failure of …


Law, Morality, And The Relations Of States, Michigan Law Review Feb 1985

Law, Morality, And The Relations Of States, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Law, Morality, and the Relations of States by Terry Nardin


The Making Of International Agreements: Congress Confronts The Executive, Michigan Law Review Feb 1985

The Making Of International Agreements: Congress Confronts The Executive, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Review of The Making of International Agreements: Congress Confronts the Executive by Loch K. Johnson


Prior Consultation In International Law: A Study Of State Practice, Michigan Law Review Feb 1984

Prior Consultation In International Law: A Study Of State Practice, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Prior Consultation in International Law: A Study of State Practice by Frederic L. Kirgis, Jr.


Congress, The Executive Branch, And Special Interests: The American Response To The Arab Boycott Of Israel, Michigan Law Review Feb 1984

Congress, The Executive Branch, And Special Interests: The American Response To The Arab Boycott Of Israel, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Congress, The Executive Branch, and Special Interests: The American Response to the Arab Boycott of Israel by Kennan L. Teslik


The European Community's Place In World Affairs: Legal Competence And Political Reality, Francis G. Jacobs Mar 1981

The European Community's Place In World Affairs: Legal Competence And Political Reality, Francis G. Jacobs

Michigan Law Review

A Review of When Europe Speaks with One Voice: The External Relations of the European Community by Phillip Taylor


How Nations Behave, 2d Ed., Michigan Law Review Mar 1980

How Nations Behave, 2d Ed., Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Book Notice about How Nations Behave. 2d ed. by Louis Henkin


Reforming The Laws And Practice Of Diplomatic Immunity, Paul F. Roye Oct 1978

Reforming The Laws And Practice Of Diplomatic Immunity, Paul F. Roye

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

As a result of public criticism and increasingly strained relations between diplomatic communities and local communities, Congress recently enacted legislation that dramatically changes United States diplomatic immunity law. This legislation eliminates the complete immunity from criminal and civil law proceedings that was afforded most foreign diplomats and their staffs, and establishes the rules of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations as the measure of diplomatic immunity in the United States. This article will examine the theoretical justification for diplomatic immunity and its application in the United States. The manner in which the recently enacted legislation alters United States diplomatic immunity …


Toward International Freedom Of Religion: A Proposal For Change In Fcn Treaty Practice, Bruce F. Howell Jan 1974

Toward International Freedom Of Religion: A Proposal For Change In Fcn Treaty Practice, Bruce F. Howell

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Since the founding of this nation, Americans have relied on fundamental constitutional principles for the ultimate protection of their religious liberty. These guarantees have been extended to all persons in the United States, not just citizens. American nationals traveling or living abroad may discover, however, that religious freedom is not regarded as a fundamental right elsewhere. Although most nations do, at least in principle, adhere to the basic idea of freedom of religious belief and exercise, religious freedom may be denied either to a state's own citizens or to foreign nationals within its boundaries.


The Presidential Monopoly Of Foreign Relations, Raoul Berger Nov 1972

The Presidential Monopoly Of Foreign Relations, Raoul Berger

Michigan Law Review

Because of the widespread ramifications of foreign relations, discussion must perforce be confined to presidential executive agreements, and whether the Senate may be excluded from knowledge of, and participation in, negotiations with foreign nations as a part of the treaty-making process. Mention only can be made of the legislative shortcomings which have contributed to the all but total takeover of foreign relations by the President, and of the need for procedural reform in the Senate if its participation is to be effective. Could we view the matter as an original question, that is, were we drafting or amending a Constitution …


Fisher: International Conflict For Beginners, Stanley D. Metzger Jun 1970

Fisher: International Conflict For Beginners, Stanley D. Metzger

Michigan Law Review

A Review of International Conflict for Beginners by Roger Fisher