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Full-Text Articles in Law

Lochner Lives On, Samuel Bagenstos Oct 2020

Lochner Lives On, Samuel Bagenstos

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Samuel Bagenstos, University of Michigan In the early 20th century (the “Lochner era”), courts invalidated numerous labor and employment laws for violating a supposed constitutional “freedom of contract.” The Lochner-era decisions rested on a key premise—that workers and employers were equally free to enter into bargains, or not enter into bargains, with each other. Most lawyers think that the courts killed off Lochner during the New Deal. But Lochner’s principles have persisted—not in constitutional law, but in the law of labor and employment. Key foundational doctrines of labor and employment law continue to rest on the premise of equal bargaining …


Series Editor's Preface, James C. Hathaway Mar 2020

Series Editor's Preface, James C. Hathaway

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Could we – should we – think differently about the ways in which refugees are assisted and protected? Is it possible to turn traditional thinking on its head by seeing refugees not as the objects of protection and assistance, but instead as the architects and managers of solutions?


New Environmental Crimes Project Data Shows That Pollution Prosecutions Plummeted During The First Two Years Of The Trump Administration, David M. Uhlmann Jan 2020

New Environmental Crimes Project Data Shows That Pollution Prosecutions Plummeted During The First Two Years Of The Trump Administration, David M. Uhlmann

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The latest data from the Environmental Crimes Project at the University of Michigan Law School shows a dramatic drop in pollution prosecutions during the first two years under President Donald J. Trump. The data, which now includes 14 years of cases from 2005–2018, shows a 70 percent decrease in Clean Water Act prosecutions under President Trump, as well as a more than 50 percent decrease in Clean Air Act prosecutions. The data again shows that most defendants charged with pollution crime commit misconduct involving one or more of the aggravating factors identified in my previous scholarship, so prosecutors continue to …


Parsing And Managing Inconsistency In Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Julian Arato, Chester Brown, Federico Ortino Jan 2020

Parsing And Managing Inconsistency In Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Julian Arato, Chester Brown, Federico Ortino

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Inconsistency in legal interpretation is among the most salient problems in investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS). Some such instances have been particularly glaring, and introducing consistency into ISDS rates high on the agenda of reformers - particularly for several government delegations leading multilateral reform efforts in the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Working Group III. This Article starts from the position that some degree of interpretive inconsistency is endemic to any legal order. Yet systemic inconsistency tends to undermine the basic purposes of the investment treaty regime – namely protecting and promoting foreign direct investment through predictable international …


Government Misconduct And Convicting The Innocent: The Role Of Prosecutors, Police And Other Law Enforcement, Samuel R. Gross, Maurice J. Possley, Kaitlin Jackson Roll, Klara Huber Stephens Jan 2020

Government Misconduct And Convicting The Innocent: The Role Of Prosecutors, Police And Other Law Enforcement, Samuel R. Gross, Maurice J. Possley, Kaitlin Jackson Roll, Klara Huber Stephens

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This is a report about the role of official misconduct in the conviction of innocent people. We discuss cases that are listed in the National Registry of Exonerations, an ongoing online archive that includes all known exonerations in the United States since 1989, 2,663 as of this writing. This Report describes official misconduct in the first 2,400 exonerations in the Registry, those posted by February 27, 2019.

In general, we classify a case as an “exoneration” if a person who was convicted of a crime is officially and completely cleared based on new evidence of innocence.

The Report is …