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University of Michigan Law School

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1996

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Articles 1 - 30 of 176

Full-Text Articles in Law

A Theory Of Insurance Policy Interpretation, Kenneth S. Abraham Dec 1996

A Theory Of Insurance Policy Interpretation, Kenneth S. Abraham

Michigan Law Review

The first principle of insurance law is captured by the maxim contra proferentem, which directs that ambiguities in a contract be interpreted "against the drafter," who is almost always the insurer. Yet given the modern recognition that language is an inherently imperfect instrument for communicating meaning, insurance policy provisions are in a sense always ambiguous. Moreover, in addition to contra proferentem, policyholders may invoke such allied doctrines as waiver, estoppel, and the rule that the reasonable expectations of the insured should be honored even if those expectations are unambiguously contradicted by fine-print provisions in the policy. Contra proferentem and these …


Is Turn About Fair Play? Copyright Law And The Fair Use Of Computer Software Loaded Into Ram, Chad G. Asarch Dec 1996

Is Turn About Fair Play? Copyright Law And The Fair Use Of Computer Software Loaded Into Ram, Chad G. Asarch

Michigan Law Review

Computer systems, especially those in heavy-use commercial settings, often require routine maintenance to continue functioning properly. Many businesses turn to an independent service organization ("IS0") to provide computer maintenance services because ISOs frequently charge less than the original equipment manufacturer ("OEM") for those services. The tremendous growth in computer use has spawned a multi-billion dollar computer maintenance industry in the United States, and ISOs and OEMs have become engaged in fierce competition for this computer service business. The struggle between ISOs and OEMs to capture this expanding market has spilled over into the courts, spawning a number of recent decisions …


Revitalizing Environmental Federalism, Daniel C. Esty Dec 1996

Revitalizing Environmental Federalism, Daniel C. Esty

Michigan Law Review

Politicians from Speaker Newt Gingrich to President Bill Clinton, cheered on by academics such as Richard Revesz, are eagerly seeking to return authority over environmental regulation to the states. In the European Union, localist opponents of environmental decisionmaking in Brussels rally under the banner of "subsidiarity." And in debates over international trade liberalization, demands abound for the protection of "national sovereignty" in environmental regulation. All of these efforts presume that a decentralized approach to environmental policy will yield better results than more centralized programs. This presumption is misguided. While the character of some environmental concerns warrants a preference for local …


A More Sensible Approach To Regulating Independent Expenditures: Defending The Constitutionality Of The Fed's New Express Advocacy Standard, Michael D. Leffel Dec 1996

A More Sensible Approach To Regulating Independent Expenditures: Defending The Constitutionality Of The Fed's New Express Advocacy Standard, Michael D. Leffel

Michigan Law Review

Campaign finance reformers argue that the "unholy alliance of private money and public elections" has created "a crisis of confidence in our elected officials." The now-deceased campaign reform advocate Philip M. Stem summed up the role of money in campaigns this way: "[M]oney-power has replaced people-power as the driving force in American politics and the determinant of electoral victory." One form of "money-power" in elections that received a great deal of attention in the last election cycle was "independent expenditures." Independent expenditures are funds spent by interested individuals or groups - usually in the form of television or radio advertisements …


Recent Books, Michigan Law Review Dec 1996

Recent Books, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A list of books recenlty received by Michigan Law Review.


Determining Ripeness Of Substantive Due Process Claims Brought By Landowners Against Local Governments, David S. Mendel Nov 1996

Determining Ripeness Of Substantive Due Process Claims Brought By Landowners Against Local Governments, David S. Mendel

Michigan Law Review

Landowners who sustain economic harm from arbitrary and capricious applications of land use regulations may sue the local government entities responsible for applying those regulations under 42 U.S.C. § 1983, alleging that the local government entities deprived them of substantive due process in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. A landowner who brings this claim - an "as-applied arbitrary and capricious substantive due process" claim - may in appropriate cases seek declaratory and injunctive relief, damages, and attorney's fees. Despite controversy among courts and commentators over both the definition of property interests protected by the Due Process Clause and the standard …


The First Amendment Comes Of Age: The Emergence Of Free Speech In Twentieth-Century America, G. Edward White Nov 1996

The First Amendment Comes Of Age: The Emergence Of Free Speech In Twentieth-Century America, G. Edward White

Michigan Law Review

As the number of issues perceived as having First Amendment implications continues to grow, and the coterie of potential beneficiaries of First Amendment protection continues to widen - including not only the traditional oppressed mavericks and despised dissenters but some rich and powerful members from the circles of political and economic orthodoxy - alarms have been sounded. Another period of stocktaking for free speech theory appears to be dawning, and some recent commentators have proposed a retrenchment from the long twentieth- century progression of increasingly speech-protective interpretations of the First Amendment. At the heart of the retrenchment literature lies the …


The Limited Liability Company: A Catalyst Exposing The Corporate Integration Question, Susan Pace Hamill Nov 1996

The Limited Liability Company: A Catalyst Exposing The Corporate Integration Question, Susan Pace Hamill

Michigan Law Review

The rise of the domestic limited liability company (LLC) from obscurity to its present position as a viable, mainstream alternative to the corporation or partnership was met with enormous enthusiasm by the business community and the practicing bar. First introduced by the State of Wyoming in 1977 and recognized by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) as a partnership for federal income tax purposes in 1988, the LLC offers for the first time a domestic entity that combines the tax advantages of a partnership with limited liability protection for all members, an advantage commonly associated with corporations. The advantages of the …


Recent Books, Michigan Law Review Nov 1996

Recent Books, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A list of books recenlty received by Michigan Law Review.


Curtailing The Economic Distortions Of The Mortgage Interest Deduction, William T. Mathias Oct 1996

Curtailing The Economic Distortions Of The Mortgage Interest Deduction, William T. Mathias

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Many Americans consider the mortgage interest deduction a necessary fixture of the American tax system. In this Article, Mathias examines the economic underpinnings of the deduction and finds that it cannot be justified on purely economic grounds. He then evaluates the major policy arguments for the mortgage interest deduction and concludes that it is inefficient, inequitable, and too costly in its present form to be justified on policy grounds. Finally, the author advocates for the elimination or substantial reduction in the size and scope of the mortgage interest deduction.


The Three-Judge District Court In Voting Rights Litigation, Michael E. Solimine Oct 1996

The Three-Judge District Court In Voting Rights Litigation, Michael E. Solimine

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In recent Terms the Supreme Court has heard numerous appeals from the decisions of three-judge district courts in controversial Voting Rights Act cases as well as in challenges to congressional districts designed allegedly to facilitate the election of members of minority groups. Although the cases themselves have been followed closely, the institution of the three-judge district court itself has received relatively little attention, even though Congress passed legislation in 1976 that restricted the three-judge court's jurisdiction to reapportionment and certain Voting Rights Act cases. In this Article, Professor Solimine argues that numerous problems attend the formation and operation of such …


Democratizing Hmo Regulation To Enforce The "Rule Of Rescue", Kent G. Rutter Oct 1996

Democratizing Hmo Regulation To Enforce The "Rule Of Rescue", Kent G. Rutter

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Despite heightened public concern about HMOs, misguided regulatory measures have not guaranteed HMO patients access to the treatment options many consider vital. This Note recommends four changes to the current regulatory system that would preserve HMOs' ability to control health care costs while allowing patients and doctors, rather than lawmakers or HMO administrators, to set health care priorities.


Congressional Ethics And Constitutent Advocacy In An Age Of Mistrust, Ronald M. Levin Oct 1996

Congressional Ethics And Constitutent Advocacy In An Age Of Mistrust, Ronald M. Levin

Michigan Law Review

Like lawyer-bashing, Congress-bashing seems never to go out of style. As every newspaper reader knows, and as public opinion surveys confinn, the public's regard for the legislative branch has been discouragingly low for years. One of the incidents that has done most to fuel this mood is the Keating Five affair. The Senate Ethics Committee's decision in the Keating case, which has been called "the ultimate metaphor for political corruption," provides a fitting prologue for this article's theme: the ethical dimensions of intervention by members of Congress into administrative agency proceedings.


Antitrust Balancing In A (Near) Coasean World: The Case Of Franchise Tying Contracts, Alan J. Meese Oct 1996

Antitrust Balancing In A (Near) Coasean World: The Case Of Franchise Tying Contracts, Alan J. Meese

Michigan Law Review

Antitrust law has largely succumbed to the hegemony of balancing. Courts applying the rule of reason are told to balance a restraint's procompetitive effects against its anticompetitive impact. Mergers once deemed anticompetitive solely because they facilitated the exercise of market power are now evaluated by weighing the anticompetitive effects of such increased power against any efficiencies created by the transaction. Finally, some activities once deemed per se illegal are now subject to a balancing approach, either by explicit application of the rule of reason, or by recognition of certain affirmative defenses to otherwise per se violations. Unlike many other balancing …


The Politics Of Postmodern Jurisprudence, Stephen M. Feldman Oct 1996

The Politics Of Postmodern Jurisprudence, Stephen M. Feldman

Michigan Law Review

What is the politics of postmodern jurisprudence? Forms of postmodern interpretivism, including philosophical hermeneutics and deconstruction, assert that we are always and already interpreting. This assertion has provoked numerous scholarly attacks, many of which invoke standard modernist hobgoblins such as textual indeterminacy, solipsism, ethical relativism, and nihilism. From the modernist standpoint, postmodern jurisprudence thus is either conservative or apolitical because it lacks the firm foundations necessary for knowledge and critique. In this article, I argue that these modernist attacks not only are mistaken but that they also obscure the potentially radical political ramifications of postmodern interpretivism. My discussion focuses on …


Attainder And Amendment 2: Romer's Rightness, Akhil Reed Amar Oct 1996

Attainder And Amendment 2: Romer's Rightness, Akhil Reed Amar

Michigan Law Review

Call me silly. In fact, call me terminally silly. For despite Justice Scalia's remarkably confident claim, I believe, and shall try to prove below, that the Romer Court majority opinion invalidating Colorado's Amendment 2 was right both in form and in substance, both logically and sociologically. I stress "form" and "logic" at the outset because I share Justice Scalia's belief in the importance of these things in constitutional adjudication. I also share his commitment to constitutional text, history, and structure, and his suspicion of "free-form" constitutionalism. And so I shall highlight the text, history, and spirit of a constitutional clause …


Recent Books, Michigan Law Review Oct 1996

Recent Books, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A list of books recenlty received by Michigan Law Review.


Securing Russia's Future: A Plea For Reform In Russian Secured Transactions Law, Jason J. Kilborn Oct 1996

Securing Russia's Future: A Plea For Reform In Russian Secured Transactions Law, Jason J. Kilborn

Michigan Law Review

After many turbulent years of uneasy transition to a market economy, Russia is finally "open for business." Nonetheless, the transitional period remains far from over, and Russian enterprises are still starved for capital that they desperately need for retooling to convert from military to consumer production, for acquiring new equipment to replace old and worn machinery, and for undertaking new and lucrative projects. While Russian financial institutions may provide significant funding, their reserves are limited; they could not hope to finance independently the multitude of existing and potential enterprises within the expansive Russian territory. Therefore, much of the financing for …


Is Amendment 2 Really A Bill Of Attainder? Some Questions About Professor Amar's Analysis Of Romer, Roderick M. Hills Jr. Oct 1996

Is Amendment 2 Really A Bill Of Attainder? Some Questions About Professor Amar's Analysis Of Romer, Roderick M. Hills Jr.

Michigan Law Review

As I first discovered as a law student in Professor Amar's classes on legal history and federal courts, it is generally an intellectual treat to listen to Professor Amar's legal analysis, even when he is attacking one's own arguments. So my pleasure at reading Professor Amar's analysis of the Court's decision in Romer v. Evans was only partly dampened by his disapproval of the respondents' brief that I and other plaintiffs' counsel filed with the Court. According to Amar, this respondents' brief provided the Court with "so little help" that it had to rely on an entirely different and much …


Random Thoughts By A Distant Collaborator, Wayne R. Lafave Aug 1996

Random Thoughts By A Distant Collaborator, Wayne R. Lafave

Michigan Law Review

A Tribute to Jerry Israel


A Tribute To Professor Jerold Israel--My Teacher, My Co-Author, My Good Friend, Paul D. Borman Aug 1996

A Tribute To Professor Jerold Israel--My Teacher, My Co-Author, My Good Friend, Paul D. Borman

Michigan Law Review

A Tribute to Jerry Israel


The Limits Of Legal Language: Decisionmaking In Capital Cases, Jordan M. Steiker Aug 1996

The Limits Of Legal Language: Decisionmaking In Capital Cases, Jordan M. Steiker

Michigan Law Review

To make the case for the proposed changes, I will first describe briefly in Parts I and II the structure of pre- and post-Furman capital decisiorurtaking and the weaknesses of those approaches. I then will set forth in Part III the specific rationales for each proposed reform.

The scheme I propose raises a significant constitutional question. Can the death penalty be retained as a punishment if we abandon the pretense of providing meaningful guidance through detailed sentencing instructions? Would the reestablishment of relatively unstructured penalty phase deliberations similar to, but also importantly different from, those characteristic of pre-Furman …


A Peculiar Privilege In Historical Perspective: The Right To Remain Silent, Albert W. Alschuler Aug 1996

A Peculiar Privilege In Historical Perspective: The Right To Remain Silent, Albert W. Alschuler

Michigan Law Review

Supreme Court decisions have vacillated between two incompatible readings of the Fifth Amendment guarantee that no person "shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself." The Court sometimes sees this language as affording defendants and suspects a right to remain silent. This interpretation - a view that countless repetitions of the Miranda warnings have impressed upon the public - asserts that government officials have no legitimate claim to testimonial evidence tending to incriminate the person who possesses it. Although officials need not encourage a suspect to remain silent, they must remain at least neutral toward …


Recent Books, Michigan Law Review Aug 1996

Recent Books, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A list of Books received by Michigan Law Review.


Juror Delinquency In Criminal Trials In America, 1796-1996, Nancy J. King Aug 1996

Juror Delinquency In Criminal Trials In America, 1796-1996, Nancy J. King

Michigan Law Review

This article examines two aspects of the jury system that have attracted far less attention from scholars than from the popular press: avoidance of jury duty by some citizens, and misconduct while serving by others. Contemporary reports of juror shortages and jury dodging portray a system in crisis. Coverage of recent high-profile cases suggests that misconduct by jurors who do serve is common. In the trial of Damian Williams and Henry Watson for the beating of Reginald Denny, a juror was kicked off for failing to deliberate; Exxon, Charles Keating, and the man accused of murdering Michael Jordan's father all …


Computers, Urinals, And The Fourth Amendment: Confessions Of A Patron Saint, Wayne R. Lafave Aug 1996

Computers, Urinals, And The Fourth Amendment: Confessions Of A Patron Saint, Wayne R. Lafave

Michigan Law Review

At least the title indicates that the article is somehow concerned with "the Fourth Amendment," though for anyone who knows me or is at all familiar with my work, that piece of information hardly would come as a revelation. The fact of the matter is that I almost always write about the Fourth Amendment; I am in an academic rut so deep as to deserve recognition in the Guinness Book World of Records. Search and seizure has been my cheval de bataille during my entire time as a law professor and even when I was a mere law student. …


Tribute To Jerry Israel, Jeffrey S. Lehman Aug 1996

Tribute To Jerry Israel, Jeffrey S. Lehman

Michigan Law Review

A Tribute to Jerry Israel


Counter-Revolution In Constitutional Criminal Procedure? Two Audiences, Two Answers, Carol S. Steiker Aug 1996

Counter-Revolution In Constitutional Criminal Procedure? Two Audiences, Two Answers, Carol S. Steiker

Michigan Law Review

For the purposes of my argument, I adapt Professor Meir Dan-Cohen's distinction (which he in turn borrowed from Jeremy Bentham) between "conduct" rules and "decision" rules. Bentham and Dan-Cohen make this distinction in the context of substantive criminal law; for their purposes, "conduct" rules are addressed to the general public in order to guide its behavior (for example, "Let no person steal") and "decision" rules are addressed to public officials in order to guide their decisionmaking about the consequences of violating conduct rules (for example, "Let the judge cause whoever is convicted of stealing to be hanged"). But as any …


A Tribute To Jerry Israel: A Friend With A Messy Office, Debra Ann Livingston Aug 1996

A Tribute To Jerry Israel: A Friend With A Messy Office, Debra Ann Livingston

Michigan Law Review

A Tribute to Jerry Israel


Drive-Through Deliveries: In Support Of Federal Legislation To Mandate Insurer Coverage Of Medically Sound Minimum Lengths Of Postpanum Stays For Mothers And Newborns, Freeman L. Farrow Jun 1996

Drive-Through Deliveries: In Support Of Federal Legislation To Mandate Insurer Coverage Of Medically Sound Minimum Lengths Of Postpanum Stays For Mothers And Newborns, Freeman L. Farrow

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

President Clinton signed the Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act of 1996 into law on September 26, 1996. The Act requires insurers that provide maternity benefits to cover medically sound minimum lengths of inpatient, postpartum stays according to the joint guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. This Note discusses the historical context in which the necessity for passage of protective legislation arose, the interplay between state and federal statutes that created the need for federal legislation to provide desired protections for postpartum patients and examines the provisions of the Act. This …