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Articles 1 - 29 of 29

Full-Text Articles in Law

Resale Issues In Telecommunications Regulation: An Economic Perspective, Alexander C. Larson Jun 1996

Resale Issues In Telecommunications Regulation: An Economic Perspective, Alexander C. Larson

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

The purpose of this Article is to evaluate proposed resale policies from an economic perspective. Specifically, this Article evaluates whether mandated resale can be expected to lead to the benefits ascribed to it by its proponents. In addition, this Article identifies issues which must be addressed before an economically sound local service resale policy may be put into place.


Drive-Through Deliveries: In Support Of Federal Legislation To Mandate Insurer Coverage Of Medically Sound Minimum Lengths Of Postpanum Stays For Mothers And Newborns, Freeman L. Farrow Jun 1996

Drive-Through Deliveries: In Support Of Federal Legislation To Mandate Insurer Coverage Of Medically Sound Minimum Lengths Of Postpanum Stays For Mothers And Newborns, Freeman L. Farrow

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

President Clinton signed the Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act of 1996 into law on September 26, 1996. The Act requires insurers that provide maternity benefits to cover medically sound minimum lengths of inpatient, postpartum stays according to the joint guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. This Note discusses the historical context in which the necessity for passage of protective legislation arose, the interplay between state and federal statutes that created the need for federal legislation to provide desired protections for postpartum patients and examines the provisions of the Act. This ...


A Mere Youthful Indiscretion? Reexamining The Policy Of Expunging Juvenile Delinquency Records, T. Markus Funk Jun 1996

A Mere Youthful Indiscretion? Reexamining The Policy Of Expunging Juvenile Delinquency Records, T. Markus Funk

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Recent studies by the U.S. Department of Justice have found that, while adult violent crime rates continue to drop, today's juvenile offenders are the fastest growing segment among violent criminals. The unprecedented increase in juvenile criminality is expected to result in a dramatic increase in the overall rate of violent crime as these juveniles approach majority. Funk argues that most states have not adapted to the troubling reality that the juvenile offenders of today are not the hubcap-stealing youths of days gone by, and that chronic adult criminality is predicated on violent and repeated acts of juvenile delinquency ...


Adverse Possession Against The States: The Hornbooks Have It Wrong, Paula R. Latovick Jun 1996

Adverse Possession Against The States: The Hornbooks Have It Wrong, Paula R. Latovick

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The hornbook rule is that adverse possession statutes do not run against land owned by state governments. Yet, in practice, the land of many states is subject to loss by adverse possession. Few states have statutes that simply and explicitly protect all state land from adverse possession. This Article describes the variety of ways in which states protect or fail to protect their land from adverse possession. It concludes with the recommendation that, given increasing development pressures and limited state enforcement budgets, state legislatures should protect completely all state land from adverse possession.


The First Amendment Status Of Commercial Speech: Why The Fcc Regulations Implementing The Telephone Consumer Protection Act Of 1991 Are Unconstitutional, Deborah L. Hamilton Jun 1996

The First Amendment Status Of Commercial Speech: Why The Fcc Regulations Implementing The Telephone Consumer Protection Act Of 1991 Are Unconstitutional, Deborah L. Hamilton

Michigan Law Review

This Note considers the constitutionality of the FCC's regulations implementing the no-recorded-message provision of the 1991 TCPA and concludes that they violate the First Amendment because they impermissibly distinguish between commercial and noncommercial speech. Part I explains the structure of the FCC's recorded-message regulations and demonstrates that the regulations explicitly distinguish commercial recorded messages from other recorded messages. Part II examines First Amendment protection for commercial speech in light of three 1993 Supreme Court decisions that restructured commercial speech doctrine by holding that the government can single out commercial speech for regulation only in response to a distinct ...


When Discretion Leads To Distortion: Recognizing Pre-Arrest Sentence-Manipulation Claims Under The Federal Sentencing Guidelines, Jeffrey L. Fisher Jun 1996

When Discretion Leads To Distortion: Recognizing Pre-Arrest Sentence-Manipulation Claims Under The Federal Sentencing Guidelines, Jeffrey L. Fisher

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues that sentence manipulation should be a legally viable partial defense - a defense that does not warrant complete exoneration, but does warrant a reduced sentence when the government's investigative techniques place a quantity of drugs before the court that overrepresents the defendant's culpability, or individual blameworthiness. Part I describes the policies and objectives that underlie the Guidelines, but then demonstrates how the rigid application of quantity-based sentencing provisions can lead to sentence manipulation that thwarts these goals, particularly the goal of sentencing according to culpability. Part II describes how courts have responded to sentence manipulation claims ...


Statutory Interpretation And The Idea Of Progress, Daniel A. Farber May 1996

Statutory Interpretation And The Idea Of Progress, Daniel A. Farber

Michigan Law Review

A Review of William N. Eskridge, Dynamic Statutory Interpretation


Reading The Legal Process, Anthony J. Sebok May 1996

Reading The Legal Process, Anthony J. Sebok

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Henry M. Hart, Jr. and Albert M. Sacks, The Legal Process: Basic Problems in eh Making and Application of Law


The Proposed Model Surrogate Parenthood Act: A Legislative Response To The Challenges Of Reproductive Technology, Murray L. Manus Apr 1996

The Proposed Model Surrogate Parenthood Act: A Legislative Response To The Challenges Of Reproductive Technology, Murray L. Manus

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In this Article, Manus proposes a Model Surrogate Parenthood Act. He examines the medical and scientific history of surrogacy and reviews the jurisprudence in the area, specifically the constitutional relationship between procreation rights and surrogacy. The author asserts that surrogate motherhood cannot be, and indeed, should not be, eradicated through legislation criminalizing it. The proposed Model Act, presented here in its entirety, attempts to reduce the problems inherent in the concept of surrogate parenthood by putting the process under strict court supervision and by zealously protecting the rights of the surrogate mother and the child to be conceived.


Are Credit-Card Late Fees "Interest"? Delineating The Preemptive Reach Of Section 85 Of The National Bank Act Of 1864 And Section 521 Of The Depositary Institutions Deregulation And Monetary Control Act Of 1980, Kevin G. Toh Mar 1996

Are Credit-Card Late Fees "Interest"? Delineating The Preemptive Reach Of Section 85 Of The National Bank Act Of 1864 And Section 521 Of The Depositary Institutions Deregulation And Monetary Control Act Of 1980, Kevin G. Toh

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues that neither section 85 of the NBA nor section 521 of the DIDA preempts state consumer-credit-protection laws regulating late fees on credit-card transactions. Part I discusses the three approaches that the Supreme Court has devised and used over the years to determine when a federal law preempts state law: express preemption, implied preemption, and conflict preemption. Part II applies express preemption analysis and asserts that the ordinary meaning of DIDA section 521's express preemption language does not evince Congress's intent to preempt state prohibitions of late fees. Part III applies implied preemption analysis and argues ...


The Copyright Act Of 1976 And Prejudgment Interest, Jon M. Powers Mar 1996

The Copyright Act Of 1976 And Prejudgment Interest, Jon M. Powers

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues that prejudgment interest should be presumptively available on damages-plus-profits awards under section 504(b) but should not be available for statutory damages under section 504(c). Part I argues that Supreme Court precedent suggests that the explicit reference to interest found in the Patent Act does not prevent courts from awarding prejudgment interest under the 1976 Copyright Act. Part II asserts that the 1976 Copyright Act's silence regarding prejudgment interest does not represent a congressional choice to exclude this remedy and that, in the face of this silence, the underlying purposes of section 504 should determine ...


Rhetoric And Reality In Copyright Law, Stewart E. Sterk Mar 1996

Rhetoric And Reality In Copyright Law, Stewart E. Sterk

Michigan Law Review

My first objective in this article is to explore the gulf between copyright rhetoric and copyright reality. After examining copyright rhetoric, the article demonstrates how neither the need to generate creative activity nor the desire to reward deserving authors provides a plausible justification for current copyright doctrine.

Why, then, does copyright doctrine continue to expand? The concluding section suggests some answers. Interest-group politics provides an obvious answer and one well-substantiated by the history of copyright legislation. But the story does not end with interest-group politics. Instead, I suggest that the nation's elite, including its lawmakers, has a stake in ...


Clarifying Conditions For Nonmonetary Eligibility In The Unemployment Insurance System, Amy B. Chasanov Jan 1996

Clarifying Conditions For Nonmonetary Eligibility In The Unemployment Insurance System, Amy B. Chasanov

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article explores the nonmonetary eligibility requirements that unemployed individuals must meet in order to receive Unemployment Insurance (UI) benefits. These eligibility criteria, which are decided by the states, vary significantly. Because states often have relatively vague statutes regarding their specific nonmonetary eligibility criteria, state rules, regulations, and case law interpret these statutes and better define the criteria. The author discusses the results of a recent survey of UI nonmonetary eligibility criteria which provides information on the status of criteria across the nation than has been available previously. The author concludes that policy reform in this area should be focused ...


The Law And Politics Of The Enforcement Of Federal Standards For The Administration Of Unemployment Insurance Hearings, John C. Gray Jr., Jane Greengold Stevens Jan 1996

The Law And Politics Of The Enforcement Of Federal Standards For The Administration Of Unemployment Insurance Hearings, John C. Gray Jr., Jane Greengold Stevens

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Unemployment insurance claimants are entitled to have state unemployment programs administered in accordance with federal standards, which include the provision of prompt and fair hearings for claimants if their applications for benefits are denied. Violations of these rights are widespread, but the United States Department of Labor's Unemployment Insurance Service has never brought a formal proceeding to enforce the federal standards of administration. This Article explains why enforcement of the federal standards is needed and why it has not been provided and suggests methods by which advocates for claimants can seek to enforce federal standards in the face of ...


Stepping Into The Projects: Lawmaking, Storytelling, And Practicing The Politics Of Identification, Lisa A. Crooms Jan 1996

Stepping Into The Projects: Lawmaking, Storytelling, And Practicing The Politics Of Identification, Lisa A. Crooms

Michigan Journal of Race and Law

In her article, "The Black Community," Its Lawbreakers, and a Politics of Identification, Professor Regina Austin proposes a paradigm to move the Black community beyond a "manifestation of a nostalgic longing for a time when blacks were clearly distinguishable from whites and concern about the welfare of the poor was more natural than our hairdos.” Austin's politics of identification provides the conceptual framework through which the Black community can reconstitute itself in accordance with its own principles, which may or may not be those embraced by the mainstream. This article considers Professor Regina Austin’s politics of identification as ...


Is Title Vi A Magic Bullet? Environmental Racism In The Context Of Political-Economic Processes And Imperatives, Steven A. Light, Kathryn R.L. Rand Jan 1996

Is Title Vi A Magic Bullet? Environmental Racism In The Context Of Political-Economic Processes And Imperatives, Steven A. Light, Kathryn R.L. Rand

Michigan Journal of Race and Law

This Article examines avenues of redress and pollution prevention for impoverished people of color that flow from Title VI litigation strategies within the larger context of the environmental justice movement. Environmental justice issues can serve as tools with which to question status quo distributive policymaking processes and outcomes. Specifically, this Article concerns itself with practical routes toward increasing distributive justice and democratic efficacy.


Unemployment Compensation: Continuity, Change, And The Prospects For Reform, Jerry L. Mashaw Jan 1996

Unemployment Compensation: Continuity, Change, And The Prospects For Reform, Jerry L. Mashaw

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The Symposium proceedings for which this Introduction provides an overview had a decidedly reformative impulse and focus. Authors and discussants came together not just to ruminate about the future, but to grapple with concrete problems that are both a legacy of the past and the product of relatively recent changes. Reformers found much to criticize and to suggest, whether their focus was on stable structures or newly emerging issues. The purpose of this Introduction is to synthesize the views expressed and to reflect on them from the perspective of a student of benefits administration, but one not expert in the ...


Introduction: Unemployment Compensation Eligibility, Cheryl A. Leanza Jan 1996

Introduction: Unemployment Compensation Eligibility, Cheryl A. Leanza

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Introduction will review the Symposium sessions which dealt with eligibility issues. Many of the statements made by the panel participants and audience members highlighted the contemporary problems of a system established over sixty years ago. Thus, this Introduction seeks to record the main points made during these sessions in an effort to contribute to the debate regarding reform of the unemployment compensation system.


A Case For Pregnancy-Based Unemployment Insurance, Mark R. Brown Jan 1996

A Case For Pregnancy-Based Unemployment Insurance, Mark R. Brown

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Professor Brown argues that unemployment insurance laws should be amended to provide coverage to otherwise eligible, pregnant claimants. Under current law, women who quit because of pregnancy are either disqualified from receiving unemployment benefits altogether or qualify only after childbirth. Those who are fired, meanwhile, often either cannot prove the motivation for their discharge or discover that they are disqualified because of their unavailability for work. Professor Brown uses a case study to illustrate the problems posed by pregnancy and unemployment insurance. He proposes model legislation that extends coverage to all pregnant claimants who temporarily separate from their employment.


Unemployment Compensation In A Time Of Increasing Work-Family Conflicts, Martin H. Malin Jan 1996

Unemployment Compensation In A Time Of Increasing Work-Family Conflicts, Martin H. Malin

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The demographics of the workplace have changed substantially since the nation's unemployment insurance system was enacted in the 1930s. The number of dual-earner and single-parent families has increased dramatically. Yet, the basic requirements for eligibility for unemployment compensation have not varied much since their initial enactment. In this Article, Professor Malin explores the availability of benefits to individuals who lose their jobs because of conflicts between work and family responsibilities and to unemployed individuals whose family responsibilities restrict the types of jobs that they are able to take. He finds that the states have differed greatly concerning the degree ...


Procedural Reform In The Unemployment Insurance System, Marla D. Clark, Jesse S. Reyes Jan 1996

Procedural Reform In The Unemployment Insurance System, Marla D. Clark, Jesse S. Reyes

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In the 1990s, we have witnessed a political movement toward smaller governament and reduced federal funding for social benefits programs. At the same time, evidence suggests that the unemployment insurance (UI) system as it works today still may not benefit all of its intended recipients. The need for improved UI services and the scarcity of resources available to meet this need create a tension between political pressures and constitutional considerations of fairness and due process. While constitutional considerations always override political pressures, the real issue is where to strike the appropriate balance between fundamental fairness and economic reality.


Introduction: The Federal-State Partnership Of Unemployment Compensation, Richard W. Fanning Jr. Jan 1996

Introduction: The Federal-State Partnership Of Unemployment Compensation, Richard W. Fanning Jr.

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Federal and state governments jointly administer the unemployment compensation system. Many participants at the Symposium addressed this aspect of unemployment compensation, and it is the topic of the four Articles that follow. This Introduction discusses three broad areas in order to provide a framework for issues concerning federal-state relations in unemployment compensation. This Introduction also will highlight some of the points made by Symposium participants in response to the ideas expressed in the following Articles. Part I addresses how the federal-state partnership operates and defines areas of responsibility for both the states and the federal government. Part I also discusses ...


Interstate Claims: Their History And Their Challenges, Mark D. Esterle Jan 1996

Interstate Claims: Their History And Their Challenges, Mark D. Esterle

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article provides an overview of the cases and statutes relating to interstate claims for unemployment compensation. The author suggests that the current federal statutes and regulations are inadequate on the grounds that they are ambiguous, lead to inconsistent results in different states, and may fail to ensure due process in claims determinations. The author highlights these problems with regard to interstate fact finders, attorney representation, witness subpoenas, and access to judicial review. Finally, he points to regulations that cover interstate unemployment compensation claims by federal employees and military servicemembers as models for new regulations of uniform application.


Federal Law Requirements For The Federal-State Unemployment Compensation System: Interpretation And Application, Gerard Hildebrand Jan 1996

Federal Law Requirements For The Federal-State Unemployment Compensation System: Interpretation And Application, Gerard Hildebrand

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The benefits provided to states by federal unemployment compensation law are conditioned on meeting several requirements. This Article examines some of these requirements, how they came about, how the United States Department of Labor and the federal courts have interpreted them, and how conflicts between the states and the federal government have been resolved. The Article concludes that certain types of requirements work best within this federal-state system.


Unemployment Compensation For Employees Of Educational Institutions: How State Courts Have Created Variations On Federally Mandated Statutory Language, Maribeth Wilt-Seibert Jan 1996

Unemployment Compensation For Employees Of Educational Institutions: How State Courts Have Created Variations On Federally Mandated Statutory Language, Maribeth Wilt-Seibert

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Over the past sixty years, Congress has enacted a system of unemployment insurance for workers who have become unemployed through no fault of their own. While the Social Security Act of 1935 created much of the statutory framework for this system of insurance, Congress did not include employees of educational institutions within its system of unemployment insurance until 1970, when it amended the Federal Unemployment Tax Act of 1954 (FUTA). Since Congress enacted those amendments, each of the fifty states has passed legislation that substantially conforms to the FUTA amendments. Yet, despite the uniformity of state statutory language, state appellate ...


Securitization Of State Ownership: Chinese Securities Law, Minkang Gu, Robert C. Art Jan 1996

Securitization Of State Ownership: Chinese Securities Law, Minkang Gu, Robert C. Art

Michigan Journal of International Law

Part I of this article establishes the scope of analysis and defines the Chinese use of the term "security," which is more limited than under American law. Parts II and III briefly examine the history of Chinese securities laws and the understanding of securities by the Chinese people. Part IV focuses on the government's motivations in establishing the securities markets. Part V discusses the distinctively Chinese approach of classifying shares according to the characteristics and nationality of permitted shareholders. Part VI addresses the future development of Chinese securities markets. The conclusion reflects on the significance of western forms of ...


What If? The Legal Consequences Of Marriage And The Legal Needs Of Lesbian And Gay Male Couples, David L. Chambers Jan 1996

What If? The Legal Consequences Of Marriage And The Legal Needs Of Lesbian And Gay Male Couples, David L. Chambers

Articles

Laws that treat married persons in a different manner than they treat single persons permeate nearly every field of social regulation in this country - taxation, torts, evidence, social welfare, inheritance, adoption, and on and on. In this article I inquire into the patterns these laws form and the central benefits and obligations that marriage entails, a task few scholars have undertaken in recent years. I have done so because same-sex couples, a large group not previously eligible to marry under the laws of any American jurisdiction, may be on the brink of securing the opportunity to do so in Hawaii ...


The Uniform Probate Code Extends Antilapse-Type Protection To Poorly Drafted Trusts, Lawrence W. Waggoner Jan 1996

The Uniform Probate Code Extends Antilapse-Type Protection To Poorly Drafted Trusts, Lawrence W. Waggoner

Articles

The Uniform Law Commission' promulgated a revised version of Article II of the Uniform Probate Code (UPC or Code) in 1990, and approved a set of technical amendments in 1993. As Director of Research and Chief Reporter for the Joint Editorial Board for the Uniform Probate Code (Board)2 and reporter for the UPC Article II drafting committee, I was privileged to serve as the principal drafter of these provisions. UPC Article II deals with the substantive rules governing donative transfers - intestacy; spouse's elective share; execution, revocation, and revival of wills; rules of construction for wills and other donative ...


Rights Of Subrogation In Letters Of Credit Transactions, James J. White Jan 1996

Rights Of Subrogation In Letters Of Credit Transactions, James J. White

Articles

The past twenty years have seen more than a dozen cases, in which parties to letter of credit transactions have sought subrogation to the rights of the person they have paid or to the rights of the persons on behalf of whom, they have acted.' The most obvious case arises when the issuer of a standby letter of credit pays a beneficiary on a debt that is owed to the beneficiary by a bankrupt applicant. Having failed to take 'collateral from the applicant, the issuer seeks to be subrogated to the security interest of the beneficiary. Failing subrogation, the issuer ...