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University of Michigan Law School

Entertainment, Arts, and Sports Law

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Discrimination

Publication Year

Articles 1 - 4 of 4

Full-Text Articles in Law

Reflections On Augusta: Judicial, Legislative And Economic Approaches To Private Race And Gender Consciousness, Scott R. Rosner Oct 2003

Reflections On Augusta: Judicial, Legislative And Economic Approaches To Private Race And Gender Consciousness, Scott R. Rosner

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In light of the recent controversy surrounding Augusta National Golf Club's exclusionary membership policy, this Article highlights the myriad incentives and disincentives that Augusta and similar clubs have for reforming such policies. The author acknowledges the economic importance of club membership in many business communities and addresses the extent to which club members' claims of rights of privacy and free association are valid. The Article also considers the potential of judicial action in promoting the adoption of more inclusive membership policy; the state action doctrine and the First Amendment right to freedom of association are discussed as frameworks under ...


The Struggle For Sex Equality In Sport And The Theory Behind Title Ix, Deborah Brake Dec 2000

The Struggle For Sex Equality In Sport And The Theory Behind Title Ix, Deborah Brake

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Title IX's three-part test for measuring discrimination in the provision of athletic opportunities to male and female students has generated heated controversy in recent years. In this Article, Professor Brake discusses the theoretical underpinnings behind the three-part test and offers a comprehensive justification of this theory as applied to the context of sport. She begins with an analysis of the test's relationship to other areas of sex discrimination law, concluding that, unlike most contexts, Title IX rejects formal equality as its guiding theory, adopting instead an approach that focuses on the institutional structures that subordinate girls and women ...


Gender And Intercollegiate Athletics: Data And Myths, Julia Lamber Dec 2000

Gender And Intercollegiate Athletics: Data And Myths, Julia Lamber

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article explores what nondiscrimination means in the context of intercollegiate athletics. After reviewing the Department of Education's controversial Title IX Policy Interpretation, it critically examines the analytical framework used in Title IX athletic cases and concludes that commonly made analogies to litigation under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act are inapt. A major part of the Article is an empirical study, looking first at gender equity plans written by institutions of higher education for the National Collegiate Athletic Association and then at data collected from more than 325 institutions pursuant to the Equity in Athletics Disclosure ...


Pornography Is A Civil Rights Issue For Women, Andrea Dworkin Jan 1988

Pornography Is A Civil Rights Issue For Women, Andrea Dworkin

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

My name is Andrea Dworkin. I am a citizen of the United States, and in this country where I live, every year millions and millions of pictures are being made of women with our legs spread. We are called beaver, we are called pussy, our genitals are tied up, they are pasted, makeup is put on them to make them pop out of a page at a male viewer. Millions and millions of pictures are made of us in postures of submission and sexual access so that our vaginas are exposed for penetration, our anuses are exposed for penetration, our ...